Italian master of the 17th century; THE ROYAL OF THE SABINERS 01 Painting, Olympian deities, by the Old Masters, with footnotes #36

Italian master of the 17th century
Italian master of the 17th century
THE ROYAL OF THE SABINERS
Oil on canvas. Relined.
117 x 187 cm.
Private collection

In the center of the large-format picture, in the open air, two Romans in armor with spring-loaded helmet, holding in their hands a young woman who defends herself with arms raised against their abduction. On the left side of the picture the wide sea with a big sailboat. A young man with a helmet and a paddle in his hands seems to be waiting for the abductee to take her away with his boat. On the right side underneath a round temple eager battles fight, in which also a horse is to be seen. More on this painting


The Sabines were an Italic people that lived in the central Apennine Mountains of ancient Italy, also inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome.
The Sabines divided into two populations just after the founding of Rome, which is described by Roman legend. The division, however it came about, is not legendary. The population closer to Rome transplanted itself to the new city and united with the preexisting citizenry, beginning a new heritage that descended from the Sabines but was also Latinized. The second population remained a mountain tribal state, coming finally to war against Rome for its independence along with all the other Italic tribes. After losing, it became assimilated into the Roman Republic. More on The Sabines
In art history, “Old Master” refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. The term “old master drawing” is used in the same way.
In theory, “Old Master” applies only to artists who were fully trained, were Masters of their local artists’ guild, and worked independently, but in practice, paintings produced by pupils or workshops are often included in the scope of the term. Therefore, beyond a certain level of competence, date rather than quality is the criterion for using the term. More on the Old Master

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Luis de Morales; Christ as the Man of Sorrows 01 Works, RELIGIOUS ART – Interpretation of the bible, With Footnotes – 175

Attributed to Luis de Morales (Badajoz circa 1509-1586)
Attributed to Luis de Morales (Badajoz circa 1509-1586)
Christ as the Man of Sorrows
Oil on panel
35.9 x 30.1cm (14 1/8 x 11 7/8in)
Private collection

Man of Sorrows is paramount among the prefigurations of the Messiah identified by Christians in the passages of Isaiah 53 in the Hebrew Bible. It is also an iconic devotional image that shows Christ, usually naked above the waist, with the wounds of his Passion prominently displayed on his hands and side, often crowned with the Crown of Thorns and sometimes attended by angels. It developed in Europe from the 13th century, and was especially popular in Northern Europe.

The image continued to spread and develop iconographical complexity until well after the Renaissance, but the Man of Sorrows in its many artistic forms is the most precise visual expression of the piety of the later Middle Ages, which took its character from mystical contemplation rather than from theological speculation”. Together with the Pietà, it was the most popular of the andachtsbilder-type images of the period – devotional images detached from the narrative of Christ’s Passion, intended for meditation. More on the Man of Sorrows

Luis de Morales (1512 – 9 May 1586) was a Spanish painter born in Badajoz, Extremadura. Known as “El Divino”, most of his work was of religious subjects, including many representations of the Madonna and Child and the Passion.

Influenced, especially in his early work, by Raphael Sanzio and the Lombard school (fr) school of Leonardo, he was called by his contemporaries “The Divine Morales”, because of his skill and the shocking realism of his paintings, and because of the spirituality transmitted by all his work.

His work has been divided by critics into two periods, an early stage under the influence of Florentine artists such as Michelangelo and a more intense, more anatomically correct later period similar to German and Flemish Renaissance painters. More on Luis de Morales

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Elle Hanley, Breaking Eden 01 Work, CONTEMPORARY Interpretation of the Bible! With Footnotes – 37

breaking eden
Elle Hanley, United States
Breaking Eden
Photography
24 W x 16 H x 0.1 in
Private collection

Eve is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible. According to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, she was the first woman. In Islamic tradition, Eve is known as Adam’s wife and the first woman although she is not specifically named in the Quran.

According to the second chapter of Genesis, Eve was created by God by taking her from the rib of Adam, to be Adam’s companion. She succumbs to the serpent’s temptation to eat the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. She shares the fruit with Adam, and as a result the first humans are expelled from the Garden of Eden. Christian churches differ on how they view both Adam and Eve’s disobedience to God, and to the consequences that those actions had on the rest of humanity. Christian and Jewish teachings sometimes hold Adam and Eve to a different level of responsibility for the fall, although Islamic teaching holds both equally responsible. More on Eve

Elle Hanley is a self taught American Fine Art photographer currently living and working in Seattle. Her work is alluring and unexpected, focusing mainly on capturing beauty and emotion in a still shot of time. She began photography seven years ago as an artistic outlet and it grew into a full fledged devotion. Elle enjoys the challenges in creating something classic and timeless from a thoroughly modern process and the contradiction between the two is a strong theme throughout her work. Currently she is mixing the realms of art and fashion, working to expand her current open series, as well as creating self portraits. always working on several projects and bringing new and intriguing characters to life to photograph. More on Elle Hanley

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Francesco Zaganelli, St. Lucy 01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART – Interpretation of the bible, With Footnotes – 174

St. Lucy, by Francesco Zaganelli
Francesco Zaganelli, (c. 1475–1532)
St. Lucy
Tempera and gold on wood
12 3/8 x 7 3/4 in. (31.4 x 19.7 cm)
Metropolitan Museum of Art

Saint Lucy, Italian Santa Lucia (died 304, Syracuse, Sicily), virgin and martyr who was one of the earliest Christian saints to achieve popularity, having a widespread following before the 5th century. She is the patron saint of the city of Syracuse (Sicily). Because of various traditions associating her name with light, she came to be thought of as the patron of sight.

Lucy came from a wealthy Sicilian family. Spurning marriage and worldly goods, however, she vowed to remain a virgin in the tradition of St. Agatha. An angry suitor reported her to the local Roman authorities, who sentenced her to be removed to a brothel and forced into prostitution. This order was thwarted, according to legend, by divine intervention; Lucy became immovable and could not be carried away. She was next condemned to death by fire, but she proved impervious to the flames. Finally, her neck was pierced by a sword and she died.

Lucy was a victim of the wave of persecution of Christians that occurred late in the reign of the Roman emperor Diocletian. References to her are found in early Roman sacramentaries and, at Syracuse, in an inscription dating from 400 ce. As evidence of her early fame, two churches are known to have been dedicated to her in Britain before the 8th century, at a time when the land was largely pagan. More Saint Lucy

The emblem of eyes on a cup or plate apparently reflects popular devotion to her as protector of sight. Lucia (from the Latin word “lux” which means “light”). In paintings St. Lucy is frequently shown holding her eyes on a golden plate. She also holds the palm branch, symbol of victory over evil. More The emblem of eyes

Francesco da Cotignola (c. 1475-1532), also called Zaganelli, was an Italian painter of the Renaissance period, active mainly in Parma and Ravenna. He was a pupil of the painter Niccolo Rondinelli. He painted for Basilica of Sant’Apollinare in Classe near Ravenna, Faenza, and Parma. His brother, Bernardino, was also a painter, but nowhere as successful as what Francesco was able to do. He was likely also family of Girolamo Marchesi da Cotignola.

In his native Cotignola he shared his workshop with his brother Bernardino Zaganelli (1499-1519). Their first known joint work is the Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints John the Baptist and Floriano and Three Angels (1499). Their last is the Holy Family (1509). After the abandonment of his brother, who left the workshop in 1509, Francesco, who until then had worked mainly in tempera, took up new directions by taking an interest in woodcut.

He died in Ravenna in 1532 , leaving the construction of a pictorial cycle unfinished in the Basilica of Sant’Apollinare in Classe . He was buried in the basilica, as he had requested. More on Francesco da Cotignola

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Georges Washington, FORDING THE WADI 01 Painting by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 70

Georges Washington
Georges Washington, 1827 – 1910, FRENCH
FORDING THE WADI
Oil on canvas
60 by 81cm., 23½ by 32in.
Private collection

Wadi is the Arabic term traditionally referring to a valley. In some instances, it may refer to a dry riverbed that contains water only when heavy rain occurs.

George Washington, born 15 September 1827 in Marseille and died November 19, 1901 in Douarnenez, was a French Orientalist painter. Like most aspiring artists, the young Georges Washington moved to Paris, where he trained at the Ecole des Beaux Arts under François-Edouard Picot (1786-1868). The artist’s exotic style was also indebted to Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863). Washington’s art conveys a similar feeling to the work of Eugène Fromentin (1820-76) who often painted naturalistic Middle Eastern scenes of rural and nomadic life. Washington’s love of the Middle East and its customs was further enhanced and encouraged by his father-in-law, the military and Orientalist painter Henri-Félix-Emmanuel Philippoteaux (1815-1884), whose daughter Anne-Léonie Philippoteaux married Washington in Paris on 6th August 1859.

Not long after finishing his training at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Washington embarked on the first of a number of trips to Algeria and based on close observation of its inhabitants, their dress and customs in 1857 he made his Paris debut at the Salon des Artistes Français with a view of nomads titled Plaine du Hoiina (Sahara Algérien). From then up until 1901 Washington continued to be a popular exhibitor at the Salon; one of his first works shown there to gain critical acclaim was Nomades dans le Sahara en Hiver. In addition to Paris, Washington also showed his work in Moscow in 1881 and was later posthumously honoured when four of his paintings were included in the Exposition Coloniale de Marseille in 1906.

Following two commissions from a Belgian company, he travelled to Morocco and then subsequently visited Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey, which were to inspire his varied subjects including battle scenes and cavalry skirmishes. His travels also took him to America for the unveiling in Philadelphia of a cyclorama (a monumental 360° panoramic view) of the Battle of Gettysburg by his brother-in-law Paul-Dominique Philippoteaux (1846-1923).

Following the death of his wife he retired to live with his daughter and son-in-law at Douarnenez on the Brittany coast, where he died shortly after on 19th November 1901. More George Washington

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Raphael von Ambros, TOBACCO SELLER, CAIRO 01 Painting by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 68

Raphael von Ambros
Raphael von Ambros, 1845-1895, AUSTRIAN
THE TOBACCO SELLER, CAIRO, c. 1891
Oil on panel
75 by 62cm., 29½ by 24¼in.
Private collection

Von Ambros depicts a busy tobacco stall outside a coffee shop in the streets of Cairo. On the left, two young men roll cigarettes which have been neatly hung by the merchant on his stall. On the right, a customer samples a cigarette, pondering a purchase. Above the stall on a shelf stand five glass narghile, or hookah vessels. Water pipes were an alternative method of tobacco consumption introduced to the Middle east and Europe from India. More on this painting

Born in Prague, Raphael von Ambros was a pupil of Hans Makart (1840-1884) at the famous Vienna Academy, where he would have studied alongside an extraordinary generation of Orientalist painters such as Jean Discart (French, 1856-1944), Ludwig Deutsch (1855-1935) and Rudolf Ernst (1854-1932). Like his contemporaries, Ambros found the perfect audience for his Cairo street scenes at the Paris Salon, where he exhibited from 1887. More on Raphael von Ambros

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Léon Belly, GAZELLE HUNT IN EGYPT 01 Painting by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 67

Léon Belly
Léon Belly, 1827-1877, FRENCH
GAZELLE HUNT IN EGYPT, c. 1857
Oil on canvas
74 by 145cm., 29 by 57in.
Private collection

Belly travelled to Egypt three times, in 1850, 1856, and 1857. The Gazelle Hunt was most likely worked up from sketches Belly made in 1856 during his excursion into the Sinai desert with fellow painters Narcisse Berchère and Jean-Léon Gérôme. More on this painting

Léon Auguste Adolphe Belly (1827–1877) was a French landscape painter. He was born at St. Omer, in 1827. He studied under Troyon, and in 1849 visited Barbizon where he came under the influence of Théodore Rousseau.

In 1850–1 he travelled to Greece, Syria, and the Black Sea. In 1853 he made his debut at the Paris Salon, exhibiting four landscapes of Nablus and Beirut, and of the shores of the Dead Sea, which attracted critical acclaim. In 1855–6 he visited Egypt, travelling up the Nile in the company of another painter, Edouard Imer. A second trip to Egypt in 1856 was largely spent making studies for his painting Pilgrims going to Mecca, now in the Musée d’Orsay.

As well as his paintings of Middle Eastern subjects he painted portraits and landscapes of Normandy and the Sologne throughout his career, and in 1867 bought land at Montauban. He died in Paris in 1877. More on Léon Auguste Adolphe Belly

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