Khaled Hourani; Crowd #1, 2019 01 work, MIDDLE EASTERN ART, With Footnotes – 41

Khaled Hourani 1
Khaled Hourani
Crowd #1, 2019
Acrylic on canvas
45 3/10 × 40 1/5 in, 115 × 102 cm
Private collection

Khaled Hourani, Born in Hebron, Palestine, in 1965. Khaled Hourani lives and works in Ramallah. He was Artistic Director (2007-2010) and Director (2010-2013) of the International Academy of Art Palestine, of which he is also one of the co-founders. He previously worked as the General Director of the Fine Arts Department of the Palestinian Ministry of Culture (2004-2006). Hourani has participated in many local and international exhibitions, most recently in a retrospective at Darat Al Funun in Amman , Jordan (2017).

In 2014, his first retrospective exhibition took place at the CCA in Glasgow and Gallery One in Ramallah. He exhibited works at the Times Museum in Guangzhou, China and in the 2nd CAFA Biennale of the CAFA Museum in Beijing. He also participated in dOCUMENTA (13) in Kassel, and KW Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin. Moreover, Hourani was also one of the artists of the Sharjah Biennial in 2011. Hourani was the initiator of the 2011 Picasso in Palestine project. He has curated and organized several exhibitions, is an art critic and an active member and founder of a number of cultural and art institutions. Recently, he was the recipient of the Leonore Annenberg Prize, Creative Time for Art and Social Change in New York City.

Hourani has been working for over a year on a book project, which is itself based on a novel about a painting titled Jamal Al Mahamel by Palestinian artist Suleiman Mansour. This artwork was sold to  the former Libyan president Muammar al Gaddafi in the 1970s. Through this project, Hourani seeks to figure out what happened to the painting and the circumstances of its disappearance after the 2011 political upheavals in Libya. He also raises the question of the perception of art both in Palestine and Libya. More on Khaled Hourani

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Luis de Morales; Christ as the Man of Sorrows 01 Works, RELIGIOUS ART – Interpretation of the bible, With Footnotes – 175

Attributed to Luis de Morales (Badajoz circa 1509-1586)
Attributed to Luis de Morales (Badajoz circa 1509-1586)
Christ as the Man of Sorrows
Oil on panel
35.9 x 30.1cm (14 1/8 x 11 7/8in)
Private collection

Man of Sorrows is paramount among the prefigurations of the Messiah identified by Christians in the passages of Isaiah 53 in the Hebrew Bible. It is also an iconic devotional image that shows Christ, usually naked above the waist, with the wounds of his Passion prominently displayed on his hands and side, often crowned with the Crown of Thorns and sometimes attended by angels. It developed in Europe from the 13th century, and was especially popular in Northern Europe.

The image continued to spread and develop iconographical complexity until well after the Renaissance, but the Man of Sorrows in its many artistic forms is the most precise visual expression of the piety of the later Middle Ages, which took its character from mystical contemplation rather than from theological speculation”. Together with the Pietà, it was the most popular of the andachtsbilder-type images of the period – devotional images detached from the narrative of Christ’s Passion, intended for meditation. More on the Man of Sorrows

Luis de Morales (1512 – 9 May 1586) was a Spanish painter born in Badajoz, Extremadura. Known as “El Divino”, most of his work was of religious subjects, including many representations of the Madonna and Child and the Passion.

Influenced, especially in his early work, by Raphael Sanzio and the Lombard school (fr) school of Leonardo, he was called by his contemporaries “The Divine Morales”, because of his skill and the shocking realism of his paintings, and because of the spirituality transmitted by all his work.

His work has been divided by critics into two periods, an early stage under the influence of Florentine artists such as Michelangelo and a more intense, more anatomically correct later period similar to German and Flemish Renaissance painters. More on Luis de Morales

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Warren B. Davis; A Young Nymph 01 Work, The Art Of The Nude, with footnotes # 49

Warren B. Davis
Warren B. Davis (1865-1928 Brooklyn, NY)
A Young Nymph
Oil on canvas laid to board
8″ H x 10″ W
Private collection

A nymph in Greek and Latin mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform. Different from other goddesses, nymphs are generally regarded as divine spirits who animate nature, and are usually depicted as beautiful, young nubile maidens who love to dance and sing; their amorous freedom sets them apart from the restricted and chaste wives and daughters of the Greek polis. They are beloved by many and dwell in mountainous regions and forests by lakes and streams. Although they would never die of old age nor illness, and could give birth to fully immortal children if mated to a god, they themselves were not necessarily immortal, and could be beholden to death in various forms. More on nymphs

Warren B. Davis (1865–1928) was an American painter and illustrator known for his dry-point etchings and tempera paintings of idealized young women. Davis studied at the Art Students League in New York and is often compared to similar artists of his time, N.C. Wyeth and Maxfield Parrish.

His commercial work include illustrations for Vanity Fair, Life Magazine, and The Ladies World.

Now his work can be seen at The Richter Gallery in Bellows Falls, Vermont and at the Cleveland Museum of Art. More on Warren B. Davis

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Charles Louis Müller, ODALISQUE 01 Painting, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, with Footnotes. #65

Charles Louis Müller
Charles Louis Müller, 1815 – 1892, FRENCH
ODALISQUE
Oil on canvas
130.5 by 89cm., 51 by 35in.
Private collection

An odalisque (Turkish: Odalık) was a chambermaid or a female attendant in a Turkish seraglio, particularly the court ladies in the household of the Ottoman sultan.

An odalık was not a concubine of the harem, but a maid, although it was possible that she could become one. An odalık was ranked at the bottom of the social stratification of a harem, serving not the man of the household, but rather, his concubines and wives as personal chambermaids. Odalık were usually slaves given as gifts to the sultan by wealthy Turkish men. Generally, an odalık was never seen by the sultan but instead remained under the direct supervision of his mother, the Valide Sultan.

If an odalık was of extraordinary beauty or had exceptional talents in dancing or singing, she would be trained as a possible concubine. If selected, an odalık trained as a court lady would serve the sultan sexually and only after such sexual contact would she change in status, becoming thenceforth one of the consorts of the sultan.

In contrast to European depictions of nude harem women, they more often wore androgynous robes resembling those worn by the male pages of the palace. The conditions of the Ottoman harem “resembled a monastery for young girls more than the bordello of European imagination. More on an odalisque

Charles Louis Müller [also known as Müller de Paris] (Paris 22 December 1815 – 10 January 1892 Paris) was a French painter. He was a fecund producer of historic pictures and portraits.

A pupil of two renowned masters of neoclassical and pre – romantic painting , Antoine-Jean Gros and Léon Cogniet , he was a versatile talent, a painter of history , a genre painter , a portraitist and a decorator. Presented at the Salon in 1834, he exposes until his death and is awarded several times.

It also enjoyed strong institutional recognition. He is appointed inspector of works of art at the Manufacture des Gobelins . Elected member of the Academy of Fine Arts in 1864, Charles Müller sat as a member of the admission committees for the 1878 World Fair in Paris. Decorated with the Legion of Honor in 1849, he was elevated to the rank of officer of the same order in 1859. More on Charles Louis Müller

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Elle Hanley, Breaking Eden 01 Work, CONTEMPORARY Interpretation of the Bible! With Footnotes – 37

breaking eden
Elle Hanley, United States
Breaking Eden
Photography
24 W x 16 H x 0.1 in
Private collection

Eve is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible. According to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, she was the first woman. In Islamic tradition, Eve is known as Adam’s wife and the first woman although she is not specifically named in the Quran.

According to the second chapter of Genesis, Eve was created by God by taking her from the rib of Adam, to be Adam’s companion. She succumbs to the serpent’s temptation to eat the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. She shares the fruit with Adam, and as a result the first humans are expelled from the Garden of Eden. Christian churches differ on how they view both Adam and Eve’s disobedience to God, and to the consequences that those actions had on the rest of humanity. Christian and Jewish teachings sometimes hold Adam and Eve to a different level of responsibility for the fall, although Islamic teaching holds both equally responsible. More on Eve

Elle Hanley is a self taught American Fine Art photographer currently living and working in Seattle. Her work is alluring and unexpected, focusing mainly on capturing beauty and emotion in a still shot of time. She began photography seven years ago as an artistic outlet and it grew into a full fledged devotion. Elle enjoys the challenges in creating something classic and timeless from a thoroughly modern process and the contradiction between the two is a strong theme throughout her work. Currently she is mixing the realms of art and fashion, working to expand her current open series, as well as creating self portraits. always working on several projects and bringing new and intriguing characters to life to photograph. More on Elle Hanley

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Francesco Zaganelli, St. Lucy 01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART – Interpretation of the bible, With Footnotes – 174

St. Lucy, by Francesco Zaganelli
Francesco Zaganelli, (c. 1475–1532)
St. Lucy
Tempera and gold on wood
12 3/8 x 7 3/4 in. (31.4 x 19.7 cm)
Metropolitan Museum of Art

Saint Lucy, Italian Santa Lucia (died 304, Syracuse, Sicily), virgin and martyr who was one of the earliest Christian saints to achieve popularity, having a widespread following before the 5th century. She is the patron saint of the city of Syracuse (Sicily). Because of various traditions associating her name with light, she came to be thought of as the patron of sight.

Lucy came from a wealthy Sicilian family. Spurning marriage and worldly goods, however, she vowed to remain a virgin in the tradition of St. Agatha. An angry suitor reported her to the local Roman authorities, who sentenced her to be removed to a brothel and forced into prostitution. This order was thwarted, according to legend, by divine intervention; Lucy became immovable and could not be carried away. She was next condemned to death by fire, but she proved impervious to the flames. Finally, her neck was pierced by a sword and she died.

Lucy was a victim of the wave of persecution of Christians that occurred late in the reign of the Roman emperor Diocletian. References to her are found in early Roman sacramentaries and, at Syracuse, in an inscription dating from 400 ce. As evidence of her early fame, two churches are known to have been dedicated to her in Britain before the 8th century, at a time when the land was largely pagan. More Saint Lucy

The emblem of eyes on a cup or plate apparently reflects popular devotion to her as protector of sight. Lucia (from the Latin word “lux” which means “light”). In paintings St. Lucy is frequently shown holding her eyes on a golden plate. She also holds the palm branch, symbol of victory over evil. More The emblem of eyes

Francesco da Cotignola (c. 1475-1532), also called Zaganelli, was an Italian painter of the Renaissance period, active mainly in Parma and Ravenna. He was a pupil of the painter Niccolo Rondinelli. He painted for Basilica of Sant’Apollinare in Classe near Ravenna, Faenza, and Parma. His brother, Bernardino, was also a painter, but nowhere as successful as what Francesco was able to do. He was likely also family of Girolamo Marchesi da Cotignola.

In his native Cotignola he shared his workshop with his brother Bernardino Zaganelli (1499-1519). Their first known joint work is the Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints John the Baptist and Floriano and Three Angels (1499). Their last is the Holy Family (1509). After the abandonment of his brother, who left the workshop in 1509, Francesco, who until then had worked mainly in tempera, took up new directions by taking an interest in woodcut.

He died in Ravenna in 1532 , leaving the construction of a pictorial cycle unfinished in the Basilica of Sant’Apollinare in Classe . He was buried in the basilica, as he had requested. More on Francesco da Cotignola

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Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer, LADY OF MARRAKECH 01 Painting, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, with Footnotes. #64

Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer
Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer, 1865 – 1953, FRENCH
LADY OF MARRAKECH
Pastel on paper
50 by 62cm., 19½ by 24½in
Private collection

Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer (September 30, 1865 – September 24, 1953) was a French Symbolist/Art Nouveau artist whose works include paintings, drawings, ceramics, furniture and interior design.

He was born Lucien Lévy in French Algeria. In 1879 he began studying drawing and sculpture in Paris. He first exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1882. In 1887 Lévy began making his living near Cannes in southern France, overseeing the decoration of ceramics. From 1886 to 1895 he worked as a ceramic decorator and then as artistic director of the studio of Clément Massier. Around 1892 he signed his first pieces of ceramics, which were influenced by Islamic Art. In 1895 he left for Paris to begin a career in painting; around this time he visited Italy and was further influenced by art of the Renaissance.

In 1896 he exhibited his first pastels and paintings. He earned high praise for the academic attention to detail with which he captured figures lost in a Pre-Raphaelite haze of melancholy, contrasted with bright Impressionist colouration.

After 1901 Lévy-Dhurmer moved away from expressly Symbolist content, incorporating more landscapes into his work because of his travels in Europe and North Africa. He continued to draw inspiration from music and attempted to capture works of great composers such as Beethoven in painted form.
He died in Le Vésinet in 1953. More on Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer

 

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