Khaled Hourani; Crowd #1, 2019 01 work, MIDDLE EASTERN ART, With Footnotes – 41

Khaled Hourani 1
Khaled Hourani
Crowd #1, 2019
Acrylic on canvas
45 3/10 × 40 1/5 in, 115 × 102 cm
Private collection

Khaled Hourani, Born in Hebron, Palestine, in 1965. Khaled Hourani lives and works in Ramallah. He was Artistic Director (2007-2010) and Director (2010-2013) of the International Academy of Art Palestine, of which he is also one of the co-founders. He previously worked as the General Director of the Fine Arts Department of the Palestinian Ministry of Culture (2004-2006). Hourani has participated in many local and international exhibitions, most recently in a retrospective at Darat Al Funun in Amman , Jordan (2017).

In 2014, his first retrospective exhibition took place at the CCA in Glasgow and Gallery One in Ramallah. He exhibited works at the Times Museum in Guangzhou, China and in the 2nd CAFA Biennale of the CAFA Museum in Beijing. He also participated in dOCUMENTA (13) in Kassel, and KW Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin. Moreover, Hourani was also one of the artists of the Sharjah Biennial in 2011. Hourani was the initiator of the 2011 Picasso in Palestine project. He has curated and organized several exhibitions, is an art critic and an active member and founder of a number of cultural and art institutions. Recently, he was the recipient of the Leonore Annenberg Prize, Creative Time for Art and Social Change in New York City.

Hourani has been working for over a year on a book project, which is itself based on a novel about a painting titled Jamal Al Mahamel by Palestinian artist Suleiman Mansour. This artwork was sold to  the former Libyan president Muammar al Gaddafi in the 1970s. Through this project, Hourani seeks to figure out what happened to the painting and the circumstances of its disappearance after the 2011 political upheavals in Libya. He also raises the question of the perception of art both in Palestine and Libya. More on Khaled Hourani

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Warren B. Davis; A Young Nymph 01 Work, The Art Of The Nude, with footnotes # 49

Warren B. Davis
Warren B. Davis (1865-1928 Brooklyn, NY)
A Young Nymph
Oil on canvas laid to board
8″ H x 10″ W
Private collection

A nymph in Greek and Latin mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform. Different from other goddesses, nymphs are generally regarded as divine spirits who animate nature, and are usually depicted as beautiful, young nubile maidens who love to dance and sing; their amorous freedom sets them apart from the restricted and chaste wives and daughters of the Greek polis. They are beloved by many and dwell in mountainous regions and forests by lakes and streams. Although they would never die of old age nor illness, and could give birth to fully immortal children if mated to a god, they themselves were not necessarily immortal, and could be beholden to death in various forms. More on nymphs

Warren B. Davis (1865–1928) was an American painter and illustrator known for his dry-point etchings and tempera paintings of idealized young women. Davis studied at the Art Students League in New York and is often compared to similar artists of his time, N.C. Wyeth and Maxfield Parrish.

His commercial work include illustrations for Vanity Fair, Life Magazine, and The Ladies World.

Now his work can be seen at The Richter Gallery in Bellows Falls, Vermont and at the Cleveland Museum of Art. More on Warren B. Davis

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Charles Louis Müller, ODALISQUE 01 Painting, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, with Footnotes. #65

Charles Louis Müller
Charles Louis Müller, 1815 – 1892, FRENCH
ODALISQUE
Oil on canvas
130.5 by 89cm., 51 by 35in.
Private collection

An odalisque (Turkish: Odalık) was a chambermaid or a female attendant in a Turkish seraglio, particularly the court ladies in the household of the Ottoman sultan.

An odalık was not a concubine of the harem, but a maid, although it was possible that she could become one. An odalık was ranked at the bottom of the social stratification of a harem, serving not the man of the household, but rather, his concubines and wives as personal chambermaids. Odalık were usually slaves given as gifts to the sultan by wealthy Turkish men. Generally, an odalık was never seen by the sultan but instead remained under the direct supervision of his mother, the Valide Sultan.

If an odalık was of extraordinary beauty or had exceptional talents in dancing or singing, she would be trained as a possible concubine. If selected, an odalık trained as a court lady would serve the sultan sexually and only after such sexual contact would she change in status, becoming thenceforth one of the consorts of the sultan.

In contrast to European depictions of nude harem women, they more often wore androgynous robes resembling those worn by the male pages of the palace. The conditions of the Ottoman harem “resembled a monastery for young girls more than the bordello of European imagination. More on an odalisque

Charles Louis Müller [also known as Müller de Paris] (Paris 22 December 1815 – 10 January 1892 Paris) was a French painter. He was a fecund producer of historic pictures and portraits.

A pupil of two renowned masters of neoclassical and pre – romantic painting , Antoine-Jean Gros and Léon Cogniet , he was a versatile talent, a painter of history , a genre painter , a portraitist and a decorator. Presented at the Salon in 1834, he exposes until his death and is awarded several times.

It also enjoyed strong institutional recognition. He is appointed inspector of works of art at the Manufacture des Gobelins . Elected member of the Academy of Fine Arts in 1864, Charles Müller sat as a member of the admission committees for the 1878 World Fair in Paris. Decorated with the Legion of Honor in 1849, he was elevated to the rank of officer of the same order in 1859. More on Charles Louis Müller

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Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer, LADY OF MARRAKECH 01 Painting, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, with Footnotes. #64

Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer
Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer, 1865 – 1953, FRENCH
LADY OF MARRAKECH
Pastel on paper
50 by 62cm., 19½ by 24½in
Private collection

Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer (September 30, 1865 – September 24, 1953) was a French Symbolist/Art Nouveau artist whose works include paintings, drawings, ceramics, furniture and interior design.

He was born Lucien Lévy in French Algeria. In 1879 he began studying drawing and sculpture in Paris. He first exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1882. In 1887 Lévy began making his living near Cannes in southern France, overseeing the decoration of ceramics. From 1886 to 1895 he worked as a ceramic decorator and then as artistic director of the studio of Clément Massier. Around 1892 he signed his first pieces of ceramics, which were influenced by Islamic Art. In 1895 he left for Paris to begin a career in painting; around this time he visited Italy and was further influenced by art of the Renaissance.

In 1896 he exhibited his first pastels and paintings. He earned high praise for the academic attention to detail with which he captured figures lost in a Pre-Raphaelite haze of melancholy, contrasted with bright Impressionist colouration.

After 1901 Lévy-Dhurmer moved away from expressly Symbolist content, incorporating more landscapes into his work because of his travels in Europe and North Africa. He continued to draw inspiration from music and attempted to capture works of great composers such as Beethoven in painted form.
He died in Le Vésinet in 1953. More on Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer

 

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Georges Clairin, FANTASIA 01 Painting by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 71

Georges Clairin
Georges Clairin, 1843-1919, FRENCH
FANTASIA, c. 1894
Oil on canvas
98 by 146cm., 38½ by 57

Fantasia is a traditional exhibition of horsemanship in the Maghreb, performed during cultural festivals and to close Maghrebi wedding celebrations. “Fantasia” is an imported name, the actual traditional term used is lab el baroud.

The performance consists of a group of horse riders, all wearing traditional clothes, who charge along a straight path at the same speed so as to form a line, and then at the end of the charge (about two hundred meters) fire into the sky using old muskets or muzzle-loading rifles The difficulty of the performance is in synchronizing the movement of the horses during acceleration of the charge, and especially in firing the guns simultaneously so that one single shot is heard. The horse is referred to as a fantasia horse and are of Arabian, Andalusian or Barb stock. More on Fantasia

Georges Jules Victor Clairin (11 September 1843, Paris – Pouldu, Clohars-Carnoët 2 September 1919) was a French Oriental painter and illustrator. He was influenced by oriental painting and Moorish architecture, and visited North Africa many times, in particular Morocco and Egypt. In Paris he led the life of a socialite, and befriended the glamorous actress Sarah Bernhardt, his friend for 50 years, and is today best known for his ‘in costume’ and informal intimate portratits of her.

Clairin was apprenticed in the workshops of Isidore Pils and François-Édouard Picot. In 1861 he entered the École des beaux-arts de Paris, and in 1866 first displayed his work. He travelled to Spain with Henri Regnault and to Italy with François Flameng and Jean-Léon Gérôme. He met the Catalan painter Marià Fortuny in Morocco and they visited Tétouan together. In 1895, he travelled to Egypt with the composer Camille Saint-Saëns.

He is best known for his portraits of Sarah Bernhardt, with whom he had a long friendship and whom he depicted in costume for a number of her roles. More on Georges Clairin

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SANYU; Five Nudes 01 Painting, The Art Of The Nude, with footnotes # 151

SANYU
SANYU (CHANG YU, 1895-1966)
Five Nudes, c. 1950
Oil on masonite
120 x 172 cm. (47 1/4 x 67 3/4 in.)
Private collection

The first time Sanyu encountered the exotic and strange world of nude sketching was in the 1920s at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière. For the average Chinese person at that time, it must have been hard to accept that depictions of naked woman should be anything but a form of glorified pornography, even though in the West there was a long tradition of nude art. Back in China, in the years before Sanyu left for Europe, prominent painter and art educator Liu Haisu had introduced the practice of sketching from nude models to Shanghai, a move that sent major ripples through Chinese society and triggered a heated ten-year dispute over naked models and nudity in art. Sanyu, who was personally acquainted with Liu, must have been aware of those goings-on, and he would remain fascinated with the glamorous subject of nude painting right up to the 1950s. More on this painting

Sanyu was a Chinese-French artist that created prints, drawings, and paintings. His work fused the histories of European still-life and figurative painting with the traditions of Chinese calligraphy. Considered a master of form and color, he was sometimes referred to as “the Chinese Matisse.” Born Chang Yu on October 14, 1901 in Nanchong, China, he was tutored in calligraphy and painting from a young age. In 1921, he travelled to Paris to study at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Académie de la Grande Chaumière. While in Paris, he discovered the work of Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. In 1948, Sanyu travelled to New York where he became a close friend of the photographer Robert Frank. It was Frank who later established the Sanyu Scholarship Fund at Yale University in his honor. Today, a large quantity of his work can be found in the collection of the National Museum of History in Taiwan. The artist died in his studio on August 12, 1966 in Paris, France. More on Sanyu

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Georges Washington, FORDING THE WADI 01 Painting by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 70

Georges Washington
Georges Washington, 1827 – 1910, FRENCH
FORDING THE WADI
Oil on canvas
60 by 81cm., 23½ by 32in.
Private collection

Wadi is the Arabic term traditionally referring to a valley. In some instances, it may refer to a dry riverbed that contains water only when heavy rain occurs.

George Washington, born 15 September 1827 in Marseille and died November 19, 1901 in Douarnenez, was a French Orientalist painter. Like most aspiring artists, the young Georges Washington moved to Paris, where he trained at the Ecole des Beaux Arts under François-Edouard Picot (1786-1868). The artist’s exotic style was also indebted to Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863). Washington’s art conveys a similar feeling to the work of Eugène Fromentin (1820-76) who often painted naturalistic Middle Eastern scenes of rural and nomadic life. Washington’s love of the Middle East and its customs was further enhanced and encouraged by his father-in-law, the military and Orientalist painter Henri-Félix-Emmanuel Philippoteaux (1815-1884), whose daughter Anne-Léonie Philippoteaux married Washington in Paris on 6th August 1859.

Not long after finishing his training at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Washington embarked on the first of a number of trips to Algeria and based on close observation of its inhabitants, their dress and customs in 1857 he made his Paris debut at the Salon des Artistes Français with a view of nomads titled Plaine du Hoiina (Sahara Algérien). From then up until 1901 Washington continued to be a popular exhibitor at the Salon; one of his first works shown there to gain critical acclaim was Nomades dans le Sahara en Hiver. In addition to Paris, Washington also showed his work in Moscow in 1881 and was later posthumously honoured when four of his paintings were included in the Exposition Coloniale de Marseille in 1906.

Following two commissions from a Belgian company, he travelled to Morocco and then subsequently visited Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey, which were to inspire his varied subjects including battle scenes and cavalry skirmishes. His travels also took him to America for the unveiling in Philadelphia of a cyclorama (a monumental 360° panoramic view) of the Battle of Gettysburg by his brother-in-law Paul-Dominique Philippoteaux (1846-1923).

Following the death of his wife he retired to live with his daughter and son-in-law at Douarnenez on the Brittany coast, where he died shortly after on 19th November 1901. More George Washington

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