11 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART – Interpretation of the Bible! by The Old Masters, With Footnotes – # 46

Florentine school circa 1700, circle of P. Dandini

Saint Cecilia

Oil on canvas

25 1/4 X 20 7/8 IN. 64 X 53 CM

Private Collection

St. Cecilia is one of the most famous of the Roman martyrs, even if the familiar stories about her are apparently not founded.  The existence of the martyrs, however, is a historical fact. The relation between St. Cecilia and Valerianus, Tiburtius, and Maximus, mentioned in the Acts of the Martyrs, has perhaps some historical foundation.

It was long supposed that she was a noble lady of Rome who suffered martyrdom in about 230, under the Emperor Alexander Severus. According to the story, despite her vow of virginity, she was forced by her parents to marry a pagan nobleman named Valerian. During the wedding, Cecilia sat apart singing to God in her heart, and for that she was later declared the saint of musicians. When the time came for her marriage to be consummated, Cecilia told Valerian that watching over her was an angel of the Lord, who would punish him if he sexually violated her but would love him if he respected her virginity. When Valerian asked to see the angel, Cecilia replied that he could if he would go to the third milestone on the Via Appia and be baptized by Pope Urban I. After following Cecilia’s advice, he saw the angel standing beside her and crowning her with a chaplet of roses and lilies.

The legend about Cecilia’s death says that after being struck three times on the neck with a sword, she lived for three days, and asked the pope to convert her home into a church.

Cecilia was buried at the Catacombs of St. Callistus, and then transferred to the Church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. In 1599, her body was found still incorrupt, seeming to be asleep. More St. Cecilia 

Florentine painting or the Florentine School refers to artists in, from, or influenced by the naturalistic style developed in Florence in the 14th century, largely through the efforts of Giotto di Bondone, and in the 15th century the leading school of Western painting. Some of the best known artists of the Florentine school, including other arts, are Filippo Brunelleschi, Donatello, Michelangelo, Fra Angelico, Botticelli, Lippi, Masolino, and Masaccio. More Florentine School

Jean Béraud, 1849 St. Petersburg – 1935 Paris


Oil on canvas

87 x 66 cm. 

Private Collection

Jean Béraud (January 12, 1849 – October 4, 1935) was a French painter, noted for his paintings of Parisian life during the Belle Époque. He was renowned in Paris society due to his numerous paintings depicting the life of Paris, and the nightlife of Paris society. He also painted religious subjects in a contemporary setting. Pictures of the Champs Elysees, cafeés, Montmartre and the banks of the Seine are precisely detailed illustrations of everyday Parisian era of the “Belle Époque”. More Jean Béraud,


Late 17th century Roman school

Saint Anthony of Padua: the fish preacher

Oil on canvas

49 X 69 1/2 IN.  124,5 X 176,5 CM

Private Collection

Saint Anthony of Padua (Portuguese: Santo António), born Fernando Martins de Bulhões (1195 – 13 June 1231), also known as Anthony of Lisbon, was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order. He was born and raised by a wealthy family in Lisbon, Portugal, and died in Padua, Italy. Noted by his contemporaries for his forceful preaching, expert knowledge of scripture, and undying love and devotion to the poor and the sick, he was the second-most-quickly canonized saint after Peter of Verona. He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church on 16 January 1946. He is also the patron saint of lost things. More on Saint Anthony of Padua


Roman School, 17th Century. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome, making it the centre of High Renaissance; in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin, Claude Lorrain, Piranesi, Pannini and Mengs.

In the 17th century Italian art was diffused mainly from Rome, the indisputable centre of the Baroque.

Roman Mannerism, spread abroad by the prolific work of Federico and Taddeo Zuccari, was continued by Roncalli, called Pomarancio and especially by Giuseppe Cesari, called Cavaliere d’Arpino, whose reputation was immense. The reaction against Mannerism engendered two different movements, which were sometimes linked together: one was realist with Caravaggio, the other eclectic and decorative with the Carracci.

Caravaggio brought about the greatest pictorial revolution of the century. His imposing compositions, deliberately simplified, are remarkable for their rigorous sense of reality and for the contrasting light falling from one side that accentuates the volumes. He changed from small paintings of genre and still-life, clear in light and cool in colour, to harsh realism, strongly modelled volumes and dramatic light and shade. His work, like his life, caused much scandal and excited international admiration.

Among the Italian disciples of Caravaggio Carlo Saraceni was the only direct Venetian follower. Bartolomeo Manfredi imitated Caravaggio’s genre paintings; Orazio Gentileschi and his daughter Artemisia Gentileschi showed a marked realism. Caravaggio’s biographer and enemy, Giovanni Baglione underwent his influence. More Roman School, 17th Century


 Bolognese school, circle of N. Bertuzzi

Moses after crossing the Red Sea,  circa 1700

Oil on canvas

7 1/2 X 11 IN.  19 X 28 CM

Private Collection

The Crossing of the Red Sea, or Sea of Reeds, is part of the biblical narrative of the escape of the Israelites, led by Moses, from the pursuing Egyptians in the Book of Exodus. This story is also mentioned in the Quran in Surah.

According to the Exodus account, Moses held out his staff and the Red Sea was parted by God. The Israelites walked on the exposed ground and crossed the sea, followed by the Egyptian army. Moses again moved his staff once the Israelites had crossed and the sea closed again, drowning the whole Egyptian army.

The narrative contains at least three and possibly four layers. In the first layer (the oldest), God blows the sea back with a strong east wind, allowing the Israelites to cross on dry land; in the second, Moses stretches out his hand and the waters part in two walls; in the third, God clogs the chariot wheels of the Egyptians and they flee (in this version the Egyptians do not even enter the water); and in the fourth, the Song of the Sea, God casts the Egyptians into tehomat, the mythical abyss. More on The Crossing of the Red Sea

The Bolognese School or the School of Bologna of painting flourished in Bologna, the capital of Emilia Romagna, between the 16th and 17th centuries in Italy, and rivalled Florence and Rome as the center of painting. Certain artistic conventions, which over time became traditionalist, had been developed in Rome during the first decades of the 16th century. As time passed, some artists sought new approaches to their work that no longer reflected only the Roman manner. The Carracci studio sought innovation or invention, seeking new ways to break away from traditional modes of painting while continuing to look for inspiration from their literary contemporaries. This style was seen as both systematic and imitative, borrowing particular motifs from the past Roman schools of art and innovating a modernistic approach. More on The Bolognese School 

 Attr. to D. Teniers II, (1610-1690)

Simeon welcoming the Child Jesus

Oil on copper

8 11/16 X 6 11/16 IN.  22 X 17 CM

Private Collection

Simeon (Simeon the God-receiver) is the “just and devout” man of Jerusalem who met Mary, Joseph, and Jesus as they entered the Temple to fulfill the requirements of the Law of Moses on the 40th day from Jesus’ birth at the presentation of Jesus at the Temple.

According to the Biblical account, Simeon had been visited by the Holy Spirit and told that he would not die until he had seen the Lord’s Christ. On taking Jesus into his arms he uttered a prayer, which is still used liturgically as the Latin Nunc dimittis in many Christian churches, and gave a prophecy alluding to the crucifixion. More Simeon

David Teniers the Younger (15 December 1610 – 25 April 1690) was a Flemish artist born in Antwerp, the son of David Teniers the Elder. His son David Teniers III and his grandson David Teniers IV were also painters.

Through his father, he was indirectly influenced by Elsheimer and by Rubens. The influence of Adriaen Brouwer can be traced to the outset of his career. There is no evidence, however, that either Rubens or Brouwer interfered in any way with Teniers’s education. The only trace of personal relations having existed between Teniers and Rubens is the fact that the ward of the latter, Anne Breughel, the daughter of Jan (Velvet) Breughel, married Teniers in 1637. More Teniers


Spanish school, circa 1660

The Visitation

Oil on canvas

20 7/8 X 15 15/16 IN. 53 X 40,5 CM

Private Collection

The Visitation. Mary visits her relative Elizabeth; they are both pregnant. Mary is pregnant with Jesus and Elizabeth is pregnant with John the Baptist. Elizabeth was in the sixth month before Mary came. Mary stayed three months, and most scholars hold she stayed for the birth of John. The apparition of the angel, mentioned in Matthew, may have taken place then to end the tormenting doubts of Joseph regarding Mary’s maternity.

In Catholicism, it is held that the purpose of this visit was to bring divine grace to both Elizabeth and her unborn child. Even though he was still in his mother’s womb, John became aware of the presence of Christ, and leapt for joy as he was cleansed from original sin and filled with divine grace. Elizabeth also responded and recognised the presence of Jesus, and thus Mary exercised her function as mediatrix between God and man for the first time. More on The Visitation


Spanish School, 16th Century. In the sixteenth century when Spain became a world power with vast possessions and sources of wealth in the New World, as well as possessions dotted about Europe, it might have been expected that a vigorous national school of painting would emerge, transforming the somewhat tentative or imitative character that painting in Spain had shown up to then. It turned out otherwise. For most of the 16th century, painting remained spiritless. Both the Emperor Charles V and his son Philip II of Spain were patrons with a feeling for art, but the great Venetians, especially Titian, claimed most of their interest. Philip also highly approved of the fantasies of Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516) – although the top Spanish clergy suspected heresy in these strange pictures from the Netherlands. More on the Spanish School


 Spanish school circa 1640,

Jesus the carpenter

Oil on canvas

13 3/16 X 19 5/16  33,5 X 49 CM

Private Collection

Jesus the carpenter. A typical Jew in Jesus’ time had only one name, sometimes supplemented with the father’s name or the individual’s hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is commonly referred to as “Jesus of Nazareth”. Jesus’ neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as “the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon”,  “the carpenter’s son”, or “Joseph’s son”. In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as “Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth”. More on Jesus the carpenter

 Spanish school, see above

Florentine school, circa 1700, follower of J. da Empoli


Oil on canvas

43 5/16 X 34 13/16 IN. 110 X 88,5 CM

Private Collection

The Annunciation referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation. Gabriel told Mary to name her son Yehoshua , meaning “YHWH is salvation”.

According to Luke 1:26, the Annunciation occurred “in the sixth month” of Elizabeth’s pregnancy. Many Christians observe this event with the Feast of the Annunciation on 25 March, an approximation of the northern vernal equinox nine full months before Christmas, the ceremonial birthday of Jesus. In England, this came to be known as Lady Day. It marked the new year until 1752. The 2nd-century writer Irenaeus of Lyon regarded the conception of Jesus as 25 March coinciding with the Passion. More The Annunciation

Florentine painting or the Florentine School refers to artists in, from, or influenced by the naturalistic style developed in Florence in the 14th century, largely through the efforts of Giotto di Bondone, and in the 15th century the leading school of Western painting. Some of the best known artists of the Florentine school, including other arts, are Filippo Brunelleschi, Donatello, Michelangelo, Fra Angelico, Botticelli, Lippi, Masolino, and Masaccio. More Florentine School


Hans Makart, 1840 Salzburg – 1884 Vienna


. Oil on canvas

161 x 79 cm. 

Private Collection

The naked Susanna, lying on a rocky fountain, fell asleep during bathing. Innocently dreaming under a tree, she barely reveals her bodily stimuli – only lightly covered with a white cloth. At her feet different birds and a water drinking peacock (symbol of beauty and immortality), in the background by her head the source of the stream. Behind a rocky protrusion, the two lusty old men are lurking.

The picture was painted around 1860/62 and was certainly inspired by the painting by A. v. Dyck in the Old Pinakothek in Munich “Susanna and the two old ones.” More on this painting

SUSANNA AND THE ELDERS. A fair Hebrew wife named Susanna was falsely accused by lecherous voyeurs. As she bathes in her garden, having sent her attendants away, two lustful elders secretly observe the lovely Susanna. When she makes her way back to her house, they accost her, threatening to claim that she was meeting a young man in the garden unless she agrees to have sex with them.

She refuses to be blackmailed and is arrested and about to be put to death for promiscuity when a young man named Daniel interrupts the proceedings, shouting that the elders should be questioned to prevent the death of an innocent. After being separated, the two men are questioned about details of what they saw, but disagree about the tree under which Susanna supposedly met her lover. In the Greek text, the names of the trees cited by the elders form puns with the sentence given by Daniel. The first says they were under a mastic, and Daniel says that an angel stands ready to cuthim in two. The second says they were under an evergreen oak tree, and Daniel says that an angel stands ready to saw him in two. The great difference in size between a mastic and an oak makes the elders’ lie plain to all the observers. The false accusers are put to death, and virtue triumphs. More about Susanna


Hans Makart (Austrian, 1840 – 1884), was a Austrian academic history painter, designer, and decorator. Studied under Josef Schiffmann and Karl Theodor von Piloty.

Son of a chamberlain at Mirabell castle. After a short study at the Academy in Vienna he was educated by Karl Theodor von Piloty in Munich (1860-1865) and travelled to London, Paris and Rome to study. He returned to Vienna after the prince Von Hohenlohe provided him with an old foundry to use as a studio. It gradually turned it into an impressive place full of sculptures, flowers, musical instruments, requisites and jewellery that he used to create classical settings for his portraits, mainly of women. Eventually his studio looked like a salon and became a social meeting point in Vienna. Makart became famous for his richly coloured history paintings and enjoyed his finest hour in 1879 with his painting of the procession in honour of the silver anniversary of the marriage of emperor Francis Joseph and his wife Elisabeth. In the same year he became a Professor at the Academy. Makart also designed furniture and interiors. More Hans Makart 


Roman School, 17th century


Oil on canvas, unlined

28.8 x 20.5 cm.; 11 3/8  x 8 in

Private Collection

THE REST ON THE FLIGHT TO EGYPT. The scene is based not on any incident in the Bible itself, but on a body of tales or legends that had grown up in the early Middle Ages around the Bible story of the Holy Family fleeing into Egypt for refuge on being warned that Herod the Great was seeking to kill the Christ Child. According to the legend, Joseph and Mary paused on the flight in a grove of trees; the Holy Child ordered the trees to bend down so that Joseph could take fruit from them, and then ordered a spring of water to gush forth from the roots so that his parents could quench their thirst. This basic story acquired many extra details during the centuries. More on THE REST ON THE FLIGHT TO EGYPT

Roman school, see above

Follower of Paolo Caliari, called Paolo Veronese


oil on canvas

24.5 x 59.3 cm.; 9 5/8  x 23 3/8  in.

Private Collection


Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese (1528 – 19 April 1588) was an Italian Renaissance painter based in Venice, most famous for large history paintings of both religious and mythological subjects, such as The Wedding at Cana and The Feast in the House of Levi. With Titian, who was at least a generation older, and Tintoretto, ten years older, he was one of the “great trio that dominated Venetian painting of the cinquecento” or 16th-century late Renaissance. Veronese is known as a supreme colorist, and after an early period with Mannerist influence turned to a more naturalist style influenced by Titian.

His most famous works are elaborate narrative cycles, executed in a dramatic and colorful style, full of majestic architectural settings and glittering pageantry. His large paintings of biblical feasts, crowded with figures, painted for the refectories of monasteries in Venice and Verona are especially famous, and he was also the leading Venetian painter of ceilings. Most of these works remain in situ, or at least in Venice, and his representation in most museums is mainly composed of smaller works such as portraits that do not always show him at his best or most typical.

He has always been appreciated for “the chromatic brilliance of his palette, the splendor and sensibility of his brushwork, the aristocratic elegance of his figures, and the magnificence of his spectacle”, but his work has been felt “not to permit expression of the profound, the human, or the sublime”, and of the “great trio” he has often been the least appreciated by modern criticism. Nonetheless, “many of the greatest artists … may be counted among his admirers, including Rubens, Watteau, Tiepolo, Delacroix and Renoir”. More on Paolo Caliari

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10 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #10

Pablo Picasso, 1881 – 1973

Madame Canals, Benedetta Bianco. Paris, 1905

Oil and charcoal on canvas. 

90 x 70 cm

Museu Picasso, Barcelona

Once he had settled down definitively in Paris in 1904, Picasso got back in touch with several of his old friends from Barcelona. Without doubt, it was the ties to Ricard Canals which were strengthened the more in these new circumstances, and the portrait of Benedetta Bianco, the sentimental partner of Canals, testifies to that. At the Bateau Lavoir the two couples – Picasso and Fernande, and Canals and Benedetta – established a very close friendship: according to Fernande, Picasso would spend the days in the studio of Canals and Benedetta would make use of her culinary skills to feed everyone when the economic resources were scarce. More on Madame Canals

Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, also known as Pablo Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973), was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. One of his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907).

Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. His work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1904–1906), the African-influenced Period (1907–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), also referred to as the Crystal period.

Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art. More on Pablo Picasso


Ricardo Canals y Llambi

A Balcony At The Bullfight, 1904

Oil on canvas

157.00 x 256.30 cm

Private collection

Painted in 1904 while Canals was living and working in a studio at the Bateau Lavoir in Montmartre, this animated painting shows a wonderfully elegant array of ladies dressed up for the great social occasion of the bullfight, in manola dress with their black and white mantillas. As part of a typical artistic device, used by Renoir, Manet, and Goya before them, the spectators become the spectacle, The bull ring offered a wonderful opportunity for the audience – especially the ladies – to show off their finery, and became almost as much an occasion for observing one another as it was to follow the performance. More on Balcony At The Bullfight

The two central ladies leaning on the balustrade were Fernande Olivier and Benedetta (‘Bianco’) Coletti. Fernande was muse and model to the Catalan painter Joaquín Sunyer, but she famously left him for Picasso when the latter arrived at the Bateau Lavoir in 1904. The Italian-born Benedetta became Canal’s lover and later his wife. At the beginning of her relationship with Picasso, Fernande was living with Canals and Bianco, and the pose of the central figures in the present work is clearly borrowed directly from a 1904 photograph of the two in Canals’ studio. More on this painting

Ricard Canals i Llambí (13 December 1876, Barcelona – 7 February 1931, Barcelona) was a Catalan Impressionist painter, illustrator and engraver; initially associated with the short-lived “Saffron Group”.

He began his studies in 1893 at the Escola de la Llotja, but stayed only a short time before leaving to travel with friends. He ended up in Paris with Nonell, where he held a successful showing at “Le Barc de Boutteville”, a gallery devoted to young artists. This enabled him to obtain Paul Durand-Ruel as an agent and exhibit throughout Europe and the United States.

Although many of his Parisian paintings were in Spanish costumbrista style, to appeal to his French clients, during this time he came under the influence of Renoir and Degas. He also continued a friendship with Picasso, whom he had met in Barcelona. In 1905, Picasso painted a portrait of the model, Benedetta Bianco (above), who would later become Canals’ wife. The year before, Canals had painted “A Box at the Bullfight”, which portrayed Bianco and Picasso’s future partner, Fernande Olivier (this painting).

He returned to Barcelona in 1907. Three years later, he was named Chairman of the painting section of the newly founded association, “Les Arts i els Artistes”. He remained a member until his death. The organization disbanded in 1936. During this time, he made long stays in Madrid, Seville and Granada, painting a wide variety of subjects, although he is especially remembered for his portraits. More on Canals

Venetian School, 18th/19th century


Oil on panel

6-1/2”h, 5”w

Private collection

Venetian school (art). From the later part of the 15th century, Venice had a distinctive, thriving and influential art scene. Beginning with the work of Giorgione (c. 1477–1510), and the workshop of Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430–1516), major artists of the Venetian school included Titian (1489–1576), Tintoretto (1518–1594), Veronese (1528–1588) and the Bassano (1510–1592). Considered to bring a primacy of color over line, this tradition was seen to contrast with the Mannerism then prevalent in the rest of Italy, and the Venetian style is viewed as having had a great influence on the subsequent development of painting. More on Venetian school

Ignacio Zuloaga, 1870 – 1945, SPANISH

LA OTERITO (Eulalia Franco), c. 1936

Oil on canvas

176 by 120.5cm., 69¼ by 47½in.

Private collection

Zuloaga’s depiction of the dancer Eulalia Franco – familiarly called La Bella Oterito – sitting in her dressing room is one of the most sexually suggestive portraits that he ever painted.

But for wearing a bullfighter’s short cropped chaquetilla, a bouquet of flowers in her hair, and a pair of red satin high-healed shoes on her feet, Eulalia sits proudly naked at her dressing table as she turns to look teasingly at the viewer. Her supremely elegant and confident pose – the product of a colourful career on stage – belies any notion of her own sense of déshabillé. The velvet curtain pulled back to the left of the composition simultaneously alludes to the artist’s debt to the Spanish Baroque, indicates Eulalia’s profession, and – peep-show-like in intent – allows the viewer the opportunity to glory in her titillating state of undress.

Eulalia Franco’s diminutive appellation ‘La Oterito’ is derived from comparisons made of her to another leading dancer of the day Carolina ‘la belle’ Otero (1868-1965), who made her stage reputation in Paris in the role of an Andalusian gypsy and as a star at Les Folies Bergère. Eulalia likewise specialised in performing Spanish dances and songs, and in her free interpretation and exuberant delivery she not only made the most of her curvaceous form, but was widely viewed as technically more accomplished than her namesake. Although she attracted considerable attention within Spain, her reputation was made in performances abroad, where she garnered a huge following as the star attraction in shows across Europe, the USA and South America. More on Eulalia Franco

Ignacio Zuloaga, in full Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta (born July 26, 1870, Eibar, near Bilbao, Spain—died Oct. 31, 1945, Madrid) Spanish genre and portrait painter noted for his theatrical paintings of figures from Spanish culture and folklore.

The son of a successful metalworker, Zuloaga was a largely self-taught artist who learned to paint by copying Old Masters in the Prado Museum in Madrid. Beginning about 1890, he split his time between Paris and Spain. In Paris he became acquainted with the artists Paul Gauguin, Edgar Degas, and Auguste Rodin. Despite his contact with these prominent French artists, however, his main influences were the Spanish masters El Greco, Diego Velázquez, and Francisco de Goya.

Inspired by a visit to the Andalusia region of Spain in 1892, Zuloaga began to focus on subject matter from Spanish culture and folklore, such as bullfighters, peasants, and dancers. He used earthen colours almost exclusively and often placed his figures against dramatic landscapes. Zuloaga began to achieve international success with the painting Daniel Zuloaga and His Daughters, which was exhibited in 1899 and purchased by the French government for the Luxembourg Museum in Paris. About 1907 he became a popular society portraitist, an aspect of his career that brought him considerable wealth.

After spending much of his career working in Paris, Zuloaga settled permanently in Spain in 1924. His paintings were exhibited in a highly successful one-man show in New York City in 1925. He was awarded the grand prize for painting at the Venice Biennale in 1938. More on Ignacio Zuloaga


British School, 19th century

Portrait of a lady

Oil on canvas

30-1/4”h, 25-1/4”w.

Private collection

In the 18th century, English painting finally developed a distinct style and tradition again. Sir James Thornhill’s paintings were executed in the Baroque style of the European Continent and William Hogarth reflected the new English middle-class temperament — English in habits, disposition, and temperament, as well as by birth. His satirical works, full of black humour, point out to contemporary society the deformities, weaknesses and vices of London life.

Portraits were, as elsewhere in Europe, most easy and most profitable way for an artist to make a living, and the English tradition continued to draw of the relaxed elegance of the portrait style developed in England by Van Dyck. By the end of the century, the English swagger portrait was much admired abroad, and had largely ceased to look for inspiration abroad.

The early 19th century also saw the emergence of the Norwich school of painters. Influenced by Dutch landscape painting and the landscape of Norfolk. It was short-lived due to sparse patronage and internal faction prominent members.

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood movement, established in the 1840s, dominated English art in the second half of the 19th century. Its members concentrated on religious, literary, and genre works executed in a colorful and minutely detailed almost photographic style. More on British School, 18th & 19th century

Auguste Toulmouche, (French 1829-1890)

“Le Billet”   1883 

Oil on Canvas Size

66 x 45 cm

Museum of Fine Arts, Nantes, France

Auguste Toulmouche (September 21, 1829 – October 16, 1890) was a French painter who painted in the academic realism style.  He studied design with a local sculptor and painting with a local portraitist.  In 1846, he moved to Paris.  There he entered the studio of Swiss artist Charles Gleyre and, by 1848, was ready to make his Salon debut.  He was only nineteen years old. He won a third class medal in 1852 and a second class medal in 1861.  In 1870, he was awarded the Legion of Honour.

Toulmouche is best known for his depictions of richly clad women set against the backdrop of luxurious interiors.  His paintings have been called “elegant trifles” and the ladies who feature in them have been referred to as “Toulmouche’s delicious dolls.”  One critic even compared the interiors of a Toulmouche painting to daintily decorated jewel boxes.  

In 1862, Toulmouche married a cousin of Claude Monet.  This alliance led to his being asked to mentor the young Monet.

Auguste Toulmouche died in Paris on October 16, 1890.  Those paintings of his that are not now in private collections can be found hanging in some of the finest museums in the world. More Auguste Toulmouche


Julius LeBlanc Stewart, 1855 – 1919

Portrait of Marie Renard 

Oil on panel 

9 1/2 by 6 inches (24.1 by 15.2 cm)

Private collection

Marie Renard (8 January 1864 – 19 October 1939) was an Austrian operatic mezzo-soprano, later soprano. Born Marie Pölzl, she first studied voice in her native city of Graz and later in Berlin. She debuted in 1882 in Graz as Azucena in Verdi’s Il trovatore, filling in for another singer, and was engaged there until 1884. The following season (1884–1885) she sang at the German Theatre in Prague. After making guest appearances in the title roles at the Berlin Hofoper in 1885, she became a member of that company from 1885 to 1888 and sang there in the premiere of Heinrich Hofmann’s Donna Diana on 15 November 1886.

In 1888 she was engaged by the Vienna Hofoper. She reached the peak of her career and popularity with that company. She was prized above all for her portrayals of roles in French operas (sung in German), in particular as Carmen. One of her most memorable performances was as Charlotte in the world premiere of Massenet’s Werther.

After her retirement she married Count Rudolf Kinsky. She died in her native city of Graz. More on Marie Renard

Julius LeBlanc Stewart (September 6, 1855, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania — January 5, 1919, Paris, France), was an American artist who spent his career in Paris. A contemporary of fellow expatriate painter John Singer Sargent.

His father, the sugar millionaire William Hood Stewart, moved the family from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Paris in 1865, and became a distinguished art collector. Julius studied under Eduardo Zamacois andJean-Léon Gérôme at the École des Beaux-Arts, and later was a pupil of Raymondo de Madrazo.

Stewart’s family wealth enabled him to live a lush expatriate life and paint what he pleased, often large-scaled group portraits. He exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon from 1878 into the early 20th century, and helped organize the “Americans in Paris” section of the 1894 Salon. The Baptism, which reportedly depicts a gathering of the Vanderbilt family, was shown at the 1893 Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition, and received acclaim at the 1895 Berlin International Exposition (below).

Julius LeBlanc Stewart  (1855–1919)

The Baptism, c. 1892

Oil on canvas

201.3 × 297.5 cm (79.3 × 117.1 in)

Los Angeles County Museum of Art

He painted a series of sailing pictures. The most accomplished of these, Venice, showed a sailing party on deck and included a portrait of the actress Lillie Langtry. Another, Yachting on the Mediterranean, set a record price for the artist, selling in 2005 for US$2.3 million.[2]

Late in life, he turned to religious subjects, but Stewart is best remembered for his Belle Époque society portraits and sensuous nudes. More on Julius LeBlanc Stewart

Natalia Baykalova, April 7, 1985 Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Hakama №1

Oil on canvas

36.2 H x 49.2 W x 1.2 in

Private collection

Hakama are a type of traditional Japanese clothing. Trousers were used by the Chinese imperial court in the Sui and Tang dynasties, and this style was adopted by the Japanese in the form of hakama beginning in the sixth century. Hakama are tied at the waist and fall approximately to the ankles. They are worn over a kimono (hakamashita). More on Hakama

Natalia Baykalova, April 7, 1985 Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Hakama №2

Oil on canvas

50 x 70 x 2 cm

Private collection

Natalia Baykalova was born on April, 7th, 1985 in Krasnoyarsk, Russia. Her mother Tatiana noticed her artistic talent and encouraged her to persue her ambition. At the age of 10 years Natalia started to attending classes in an art studio, then progressed to he most higher art school of Surikova. At the age of 15 Natalia joined the Art College of Surikova, well known for their classical traditions. 

Natalia begins her career working as a designer, illustrator, and then as an Art Director in City Format Magazine. At the magazine she has begun to work as a photographer. This new work helped Natalia to define further visions and directions for her paintings. During those same years she created her own style of painting. Painting has become her first priority. All her life experiences and education are mixed together to deliver a very talented and experienced paintings to the world. “In paintings I reflect my knowledge, emotions, myself and the world”. More on Natalia Baykalova

Acknowledgement: Sotheby’s, and others

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08 Russian Icons from the Bible, with footnotes, #12

18th C. Russian Icon

Christ Emmanuel

Egg tempera and gold leaf on wood

10.25″ W x 12.25″ H (26 cm x 31.1 cm)

Private collection

The text beneath may refer to a passage of Isaiah that Christ read in the synagogue of Nazareth, “The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me to preach good tidings to the afflicted”.

The prophet Isaiah coined the term Emmanuel which means God is with us, and this icon captures that sense of immediate presence. According to Alfredo Tradigo, “We see not a child before us, but the mysterious, unknowable face of God, who is eternally young and old at once, as emphasized by the Church Fathers. The figure’s young age stands not for the Child but, rather, for the incorruptible, timeless youth of the sacrificial Lamb, daily renewed on the altar in the bloodless sacrifice of the Eucharist. Tradigo continues to explain that the placement of an Emmanuel icon at the Cathedral of the Dormition in Moscow, in a Deesis over the northern doors of the iconostasis that lead to the prosthesis (the special room where these holy gifts are prepared) attests to this interpretation. The smooth-faced Christ Emmanuel is traditionally inserted in an angelic Deesis between Gabriel and Michael the holy archangels who protect the Divine Liturgy). In some cases a grand ensemble of angels forms an assembly around Emmanuel. More on this Icon

18th C. Russian Icon

St. John the Evangelist

Egg tempera and gold leaf on wood

12.75″ W x 16″ H (32.4 cm x 40.6 cm)

Private collection

Images of the evangelists derived from miniatures of illuminated Gospel books and Gospel lectionaries showing them at work in their scriptoria (a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes). These portrayals were oftentimes painted on the outside of the royal doors. John’s symbol is the eagle, chosen for the sublime manner in which he described the godliness of the Word.

Also known as John the Theologian for his ability to channel divine wisdom, Saint John wrote the fourth Gospel (the Book of Revelation), while living in a cave on the isle of Patmos, exiled by Emperor Trajan. There he dictated a dramatic vision of the Apocalypse to the deacon Prochorus, his disciple and steadfast companion. John also wrote the Gospel of Love, in addition to three of the Catholic Epistles. In the words of Patriarch Athenagoras, John is the source of our loftiest spirituality. Like him, those who are silent know the mysterious confusion that can assail the heart; invoking the presence of John, their hearts catch fire. More on this Icon

19th C. Russian Icon

Chosen Saints

Egg tempera and gold leaf on wood

14.25″ W x 17.75″ H (36.2 cm x 45.1 cm)

Private collection

An icon presenting an ensemble of blessed saints, including Catherine , Natalya, Ann the Prophetess, Ljubov (Love, more commonly interpreted as Charity), John, and Alexander standing in two rows. The seventh saint is most likely John the Evangelist. Each saint is identified with a gold on blue banner, all beneath Saint Anne in the celestial realm aloft billowing clouds donning red and blue robes. More on this Icon

Saint Catherine of Alexandria is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius. According to her hagiography, she was both a princess and a noted scholar, who became a Christian around the age of fourteen, and converted hundreds of people to Christianity. More on Saint Catherine of Alexandria

Saint Natalia‘s hagiography is closely tied to the life of her husband, Saint Adrian. Adrian was struck by divine grace and told the Roman officials to write his own name with the rest of the martyrs. When his wife Natalia heard that he had been imprisoned with the martyrs, she ran with joy to the gaol and lauded his resolve while embracing his chains. She imploring the other martyrs to pray to God.

When Adrian appeared before the emperor and confessed Christ, he was tutored, and killed, with the other martyrs. Their hands and feet were then cut off.  Natalie managed to steal one of her husband’s severed hands from the pile. The fire that was supposed to burn the relics was miraculously put out by a sudden shower of rain, and a Christian named Eusebius was able to retrieve the relics and transport them for burial to Argyroupolis, a town near Byzantium. Some time later, Natalia visited the tomb where she gave up her soul to God and was herself subsequently buried. More on Saint Natalia

Anna the Prophetess is a woman mentioned in the Gospel of Luke. According to that Gospel, she was an elderly Jewish woman who prophesied about Jesus at the Temple of Jerusalem. She appears in Luke, during the presentation of Jesus at the Temple. More on Anna the Prophetess

Saint Ljubov, Saints Faith, Hope and Charity are a group of Christian martyred saints.  In the reign of Roman Emperor Hadrian (2nd century AD), a matron Sophia (Wisdom), with her three youthful daughters, Pistis, Elpis, and Agape (Greek for Faith, Hope and Charity), became martyrs.

The guards took Sophia’s daughters one by one, from the oldest to the youngest and beat and tortured them to death in an attempt to force her to renounce her faith in Christ. She proved her unconditional faith in Christ by proving to people that she and her daughters were willing to go through hard times for their faith. Afterwards, Sophia buried her daughters’ bodies and remained by their graves for three days until she died herself. More on Saint Ljubov and Saint Sofia

Saint John the Apostle, also called Saint John the Evangelist or Saint John the Divine (flourished 1st century ce), in Christian tradition, the author of three letters, the Fourth Gospel, and the Revelation to John in the New Testament. He played a leading role in the early church at Jerusalem. More on Saint John

Saint Anne (also known as Ann or Anna) of David’s house and line, was the mother of the Virgin Mary and grandmother of Jesus Christ, according to apocryphal Christian and Islamic tradition. More on Saint Anne

19th C. Russian Icon

St. Alexander Svirsky

Egg tempera and gold leaf on wood

3.25″ W x 4.25″ H (8.3 cm x 10.8 cm)

Private collection

St. Alexander Svirsky spent much of time of his life as a monk, including some period of total isolation from society.

In 1506, Serapion, Archbishop of Novgorod, appointed him Hegumen of the Trinity monastery, which later became known as Alexander-Svirsky Monastery, at the place of the saint’s eremitic life between Roschinsky and Holy lakes. A rendition of the the appearance of the Holy Trinity ot St. Alexander Svirsky. 

The Trinity appeared to St. Alexander in 1508, twenty-three years after he came to this secluded location. One night when he was praying in his cabin, a radiant light shone brightly, and the three haloed angels in billowing white robes approached him. Taken aback by this event, the monk fell down with fright. Once he came to again, he prostrated himself on the ground out of respect. The angels took him by the hand, said, “Have trust, blessed one, and fear not”, and asked him to build a church and a monastery. More on St. Alexander Svirsky

Eastern Europe, Russia, ca. 1760 to 1780 CE

Virgin of the Burning Bush

Egg tempera and gold leaf on wood

14.125″ L x 12.125″ W (35.9 cm x 30.8 cm)

Private collection


The subject of Our Lady of the Burning Bush is based on the Old Testament prophecy of the incarnation of Christ. Such theologians as St Gregory of Nyssa and Theodoret of Cyrrhus regarded Moses’s vision of the burning bush as a symbol and prototype of the Virgin Mary and the Immaculate Conception.

The iconography of the scene was inspired by the Russian Orthodox hymns comparing the Virgin to the burning bush seen by Moses – engulfed in flames, yet not burning (Exodus 2:1–6). Icons of the subject were popular from the sixteenth century onwards and were believed to offer protection from fire. The Russian Orthodox Church celebrates the festival of the icon on 4/17 September, which is also the day of Moses. More on Our Lady of the Burning Bush

19th C. Oval Russian Icon

Theotokos of Unburnt Bush

Egg tempera and gold leaf on wood

6.625″ W x 9.5″ H (16.8 cm x 24.1 cm)

Private collection

This icon depicts the burning bush symbolically with two overlapping diamonds – the blue diamond/rhombus representing the bush, the red diamond/rhombus representing the fiery flames that do not burn it. Within the red points are the symbols of the four evangelists: lion, ox, eagle, and man; within the blue points are angels of the Apocalypse. The corners feature visions of Moses, Isaiah, Ezekial, and Jacob – prophesies concerning the Mother of God: the burning bush of Moses, the seraph who purifies Moses’ lips, the closed door of the Temple in Ezekiel (symbolizing Mary’s virginity), and Jacob’s Ladder. At the center of it all is the Theotokos Mother of God. Old Cyrillic passages are written in the borders and beside various elements to identify holy figures and narrate various episodes. More on this Icon

19th C. Russian Icon

St. Seraphim of Sarov

Egg tempera and gold leaf on wood

4.375″ W x 5.375″ H (11.1 cm x 13.7 cm)

Private collection

St. Seraphim of Sarov blesses himself before his icon of the Mother of God hanging in the tree above. At his feet are a hat, bread sack, gloves, and axe. The strongly modeled visage as well as the perspectival background suggest that the painter was very much influenced by Western art. The borders are meticulously incised and painted to simulate enamel. More on this Icon

Saint Seraphim of Sarov (1 August 1754 (or 1759) – 14 January 1833), born Prokhor Moshnin, is one of the most renowned Russian saints in the Eastern Orthodox Church. He is generally considered the greatest of the 19th-century (elders. Seraphim extended the monastic teachings of contemplation, theoria and self-denial to the layperson. He taught that the purpose of the Christian life was to acquire the Holy Spirit. Perhaps his most popular quotation amongst Orthodox believers is “Acquire a peaceful spirit, and thousands around you will be saved.”

Seraphim was glorified (canonized) by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1903. Pope John Paul II referred to him as a saint. More on St. Seraphim of Sarov

Eastern Europe, Russia, 19th century CE. Icon

St. John the Baptist & Head

Egg tempera and gold leaf on wood

17.5″ W x 43.75″ H (44.4 cm x 111.1 cm)

Private collection

A winged St. John the Baptist holding a scroll as well as his severed head on a platter, with God the Father above. The wings occupy a large part of the composition and bestow John the Baptist’s body with an otherworldly, celestial dimension. The artist painstakingly delineated the feathered wings in various neutral earthtones with black and white highlights, creating a rich sense of depth. This attention to detail is also visible on this camel-hair tunic and blue-green himation. The white strokes dramatically highlighting these vestments symbolize the spiritual energy of divine light. On the scroll are the words, “Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world,” and “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.” (John 1:29, Matthew 3:2). A large golden halo encircles his visage cascading past his beard and shoulders. More on this icon

John the Baptist (sometimes called John in the Wilderness; also referred to as the Angel of the Desert) was the subject of at least eight paintings by the Italian Baroque artist Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571–1610).

The story of John the Baptist is told in the Gospels. John was the cousin of Jesus, and his calling was to prepare the way for the coming of the Messiah. He lived in the wilderness of Judea between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea, “his raiment of camel’s hair, and a leather girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey.” He baptised Jesus in the Jordan.

According to the Bible, King Herod’s daughter Salome requested Saint John the Baptist’s beheading. She was prompted by her mother, Herodias, who sought revenge, because the prophet had condemned her incestuous marriage to HerodMore John the Baptist

The Eastern Orthodox Church subscribes to a belief in the intercession of saints. In the Eastern Orthodox tradition every individual is named in honor of a specific saint when baptized, and this saint is regarded as a patron for the person’s entire life. In addition, there are patron saints of activities and occupations, ailments and dangers, as well as locales.

Acknowledgement: Artemis Gallery, and others
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10 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART – Interpretations of the Bible! by The Old Masters, With Footnotes # 51

Matthias Stomer, 1600 – 1652

Capture of Christ, c. 1640

Oil on canvas

208 x 272 cm

Private collection. Courtesy Benappi Fine Art

The arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the canonical gospels. The event ultimately leads, in the Gospel accounts, to Jesus’ crucifixion. Jesus was arrested by the Temple guards of the Sanhedrin in the Garden of Gethsemane, immediately after the kiss of Judas, which is traditionally said to have been an act of betrayal since Judas made a deal with the chief priests to arrest Jesus.

The arrest led immediately to his trial before the Sanhedrin, during which they condemned him to death and handed him to Pilate the following morning. In Christian theology, the events from the Last Supper until the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus are referred to as the Passion. More on Capture of Christ

Matthias Stom or Matthias Stomer (c. 1600 – after 1652) was a Dutch golden age painter considered one of the masters of Utrecht Caravaggism. Stom spent most of his artistic life in Italy, and 200 of his works have been preserved. It is conjectured that Stom was born at Amersfoort or in the Utrecht area, but many details of his life are vague. An early mention of Stom was around 1630, when he lived in the same location as Paulus Bor had lived a few years earlier. He was a pupil of Gerard van Honthorst in Rome after 1615.

He remained in Rome until 1632, after which he traveled to Naples, where he stayed until 1640. He then moved to Palermo, and delivered paintings for churches in Caccamo and Monreale. He sold three paintings to Antonio Ruffo, duke of Messina. It is speculated that he died in Sicily, or alternatively in Northern Italy, where in 1652 he painted an altar piece for the church in Chiuduno. More


Gentile da Fabriano,  (1370–1427)

Madonna, c. 1420-1427

95 × 57 cm (37.4 × 22.4 in)

National Gallery of Art, Washington (D.C.)

In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, painters and sculptors often incorporated inscriptions into their work. Many of these were legible texts in Latin or other European languages, but sometimes painters reached east, borrowing the languages of the Holy Land. Arabic was especially popular, but there was one small problem: Prior to the 16th century, hardly any Europeans actually knew the language. The solution? Fake Arabic. More at Fake Arabic

Gentile da Fabriano (c. 1370 – 1427) was an Italian painter known for his participation in the International Gothic painter style. He worked in various places in central Italy, mostly in Tuscany. By around 1405, Gentile da Fabriano was working in Venice. He painted a panel for the church of Santa Sofia, now lost; Jacopo Bellini worked perhaps in his workshop. Between 1408 and 1409, he painted a fresco (now lost) in the Doge’s Palace depicting the naval battle between the Venetians and Otto III. In Venice he knew Pisanello and perhaps Michelino da Besozzo.

On 6 August 1420 he was in Florence, where he painted his famous altarpiece depicting the Adoration of the Magi (1423), now in the Uffizi and regarded as one of the masterpieces of the International Gothic style. His other works in Florence include the Quaratesi Polyptych (May 1425). In June–August 1425 he was in Siena, where he painted a Madonna with Child, now lost, for the Palazzo dei Notai on Piazza del Campo. Until October he was in Orvieto, where he painted his fresco of the Madonna and Child in the Cathedral. In 1427 he arrived in Rome, commissioned by Pope Martin V the decoration of the nave of the Basilica of St. John in Lateran, which was completed by Pisanello after his death.

Gentile is known to have died before 14 October 1427. He is commonly said to have been buried in the church now called S. Francesca Romana in Florence, but his tomb vanished; there is evidence, however, that he may be buried in the church of Santa Maria in Trastevere, in Rome, the place of his death. More on Gentile da Fabriano

XVI Century Italian. Umbrian Artist

Sant’Antonio Abate, c. 1400 – 1449

Saint Anthony Abbot


Church of St. Francis, Narni  (Umbria, Italy)

Saint Anthony or Antony (251–356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony by various epithets: Anthony the Great, Anthony of Egypt, Anthony the Abbot, Anthony of the Desert, Anthony the Anchorite, and Anthony of Thebes. For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the Father of All Monks. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church.

The biography of Anthony’s life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness, a geographical move that seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature. More Saint Anthony

Italian Renaissance art has historically been discussed as a series of regional ‘schools’ of artists, usually centred on one of the great cities of Italy (such as Florence or Venice). But the story was always more complicated. Central Italy – that is to say, Umbria, Southern Tuscany and the Marche – was rarely as marginal as these histories have suggested. Much of this area fell within the Papal States, and Central Italian artists were consistently more successful in Renaissance Rome than their (more famous) Florentine or Venetian counterparts. More on Umbrian Artists

Jules-Antoine Duvaux, BORDEAUX 1818 – 1884 PARIS


Oil on canvas

92,2 x 73,5 cm ; 36 1/4 by 29 in.

Private collection

Saint Blandina (French: Blandine, died 177 AD) was a Christian martyr during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. She belongs to the band of martyrs of Lyon who, after some of their number had endured frightful tortures, suffered martyrdom in 177 in the reign of Marcus Aurelius.

While the imperial legate was away, the chiliarch, a military commander, and the duumvir, a civil magistrate, threw a number of Christians, who confessed their faith, into prison. When the legate returned, the imprisoned believers were brought to trial. Among these Christians was Blandina, a slave, who had been taken into custody along with her master, also a Christian. But although the legate caused her to be tortured in a horrible manner, so that even the executioners became exhausted “as they did not know what more they could do to her”, still she remained faithful and repeated to every question “I am a Christian, and we commit no wrongdoing.

Blandina was subjected to new tortures with a number of companions in the town’s amphitheater (now known as the Amphitheatre of the Three Gauls) at the time of the public games. She was bound to a stake and wild beasts were set on her. According to legend, they did not, however, touch her. After enduring this for a number of days she was led into the arena to see the sufferings of her companions. Finally, as the last of the martyrs, she was scourged, placed on a red-hot grate, enclosed in a net and thrown before a wild steer who tossed her into the air with his horns, and at last killed with a dagger. More on Blandina

Jules-Antoine Gilles Duvaux , born on the 12 January 1818 In Bordeaux and died on 6 July 1884 In Paris, was a French painter, draftsman and engraver.

A student of Charlet, Jules Antoine Devaux specializes in painting battles, decorum and military costumes. His first exhibition dates from 1848, at the Salon des artistes français, where he presents Charge de cuirassiers in Valmy, which won the gold medal. In 1857, he presented The Assault of Sevastopol (National Museum of the Castles of Versailles and Trianon).

He undertook a trip to Sicily in 1859, returning with watercolors and drawings; Souvenirs de Sicily, which he exhibited at the Salon of 1863. He exhibited regularly until 1884. More on Jules-Antoine Gilles Duvaux


 Aureliano Milani, (1675-1749)

Samson slaying the Philistines, c. 18th century.

Oil on canvas

225×290 cm

Private collection

Samson was an Old Testament judge who is known more as an adventurer of great physical strength as well as a womanizer. Like Hercules, he slayed a lion with his bare hands and then wore the skin to broadcast his super-human capabilities. Taunted by the Philistines, Samson wielded an ass’s jawbone and slew a thousand of them until they lay in heaps on the ground. The medieval church regarded Samson as a prefiguring of Christ; he also often represents Fortitude. More on Samson Slaying the Philistines.

Aureliano Milani (1675–1749) was an Italian painter of the late-Baroque period, active in Bologna and Rome. He was a pupil of Cesare Gennari and Lorenzo Pasinelli in Bologna, although he also adhered to a style derived from the Carracci. He took up his residence in Rome, being ill able to support a family of ten children at Bologna. He painted a Beheaded St. John the Baptist for the church of the Bergamaschi in Rome. In Rome, he abounded with commissions, and was promoted with Domenico Maria Muratori and Donato Creti. Aureliano also taught during many years at Bologna, and among other pupils of his were Giuseppe Marchesi (called il Sansone) and Antonio Gionima. More on Aureliano Milani

Charles-Zacharie Landelle, LAVAL 1812 – 1908 CHENNEVIÈRES-SUR-MARNE


Oil on canvas

55,5 x 38 cm ; 24 by 18 in.

Private collection

Ruth was a Moabite woman had come to Israel as the widow of an Israelite man. She had returned with her mother-in-law, Naomi, who had also lost her husband. They lived together in a humble situation, and Ruth would go to the fields each day to glean food in the fields during the harvest.

Boaz was a landowner where Ruth came to find grain. He knew of her situation and told his workers to leave plenty of grain for her to find. Boaz also offered her food with the other workers and encouraged her to work in the safety of his fields throughout the harvest.

Naomi noted that Boaz was a close relative who, according to Jewish law, had the right to marry Ruth after the death of her husband. Naomi encouraged Ruth to go to Boaz in the evening and present herself willing to accept a marriage proposal from him. When she did, he was pleased, yet noted that there was one relative who was closer in line to marry Ruth.

The next day, Boaz met with this relative and presented the situation. The relative turned down the offer as he felt it would cause harm to his own family situation. Boaz then made a commitment in front of the town’s leaders that he would take Ruth as his wife. More about Ruth 

Zacharie Charles Landelle, born on 2 June 1821 In Laval, the October 13 , 1908 In Chennevières-sur-Marne, is a French painter and portraitist. Born to a modest family. In 1857 he married Alice Letronne, daughter of the general of the guard Jean-Antoine Letronne who saved the National Archives in 1848 . Two sons, Georges and Paul, were born of this union, all of whom died during the lifetime of their father.

He followed his father  to Paris 1827. He only return to his hometown only at the end of his life.

He developed a talent and a very solid craft at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris where he was admitted in 1837 as a pupil of Paul Delaroche and Ary Scheffer . At the beginning of his career, he painted several portraits to support himself. Influenced by Italian paintings after traveling in the South of France and Italy, he made copies of some of the paintings by the great masters of the Renaissance at the Louvre.

His portraits and large religious paintings were instantly successful, and allowed him to gain the recognition of the high society of the nineteenth century. Napoleon III admired him very much, bought from him the two canvases of the Beatitudes ( 1852 ) to offer them to the city of Laval. He received numerous state commissions.

From his travels in North Africa and the Middle East in the 1860s , he created works that were often very successful. His first voyage to Morocco dates from 1866. In 1866 he painted Femme Fellah, which earned him the nickname of a painter of the fellahs , a work purchased by the Emperor for his personal collection, but destroyed in the fire at the Château de Saint-Cloud in 1870. A replica, executed By Charles Landelle, is preserved in the museum of the Old Castle of Laval.

In 1875 , he is in Egypt, and travels the Nile with the explorer Mariette . He travelled each year to the East, or Algeria and returned with paintings. At the end of his life, Charles Landelle encouraged the creation in Laval of a museum of painting which he inaugurated in 1895, at the height of his glory, alongside the President of the Republic : it is the current Science Museum. More on Zacharie Charles Landelle

Johannes Vermeer,  (1632–1675)

Saint Praxedis, c. 1655

Oil on canvas

40 × 32 cm (15.7 × 12.6 in)

Private collection

Saint Praxedis is an oil painting attributed to Johannes Vermeer. This attribution has often been questioned. However, in 2014 the auction house Christie’s announced the results of new investigations which in their opinion demonstrate conclusively that it is a Vermeer. The painting is a copy of a work by Felice Ficherelli (below), and depicts the early Roman martyr, Saint Praxedis or Praxedes. It may be Vermeer’s earliest surviving work, dating from 1655. 

The painting shows the saint squeezing a martyr’s blood from a sponge into an ornate vessel. The most obvious difference between the two is that there is no crucifix in the Ferrara work. More on this painting

Saint Praxedes is a traditional Christian saint of the 2nd century. She is sometimes called Praxedis or Praxed. Little is known about Praxedes, and not all accounts agree. According to Jacobus de Voragine’s The Golden Legend, Praxedes was the sister of Saint Pudentiana; their brothers were Saint Donatus and Saint Timothy. 

When the Emperor Marcus Antoninus was hunting down Christians, she sought them out to relieve them with money, care, comfort and every charitable aid. Some she hid in her house, others she encouraged to keep firm in the faith, and of yet others she buried the bodies; and she allowed those who were in prison or toiling in slavery to lack nothing. At last, being unable any longer to bear the cruelties inflicted on Christians, she prayed to God that, if it were expedient for her to die, she might be released from beholding such sufferings. And so on July 21 she was called to the reward of her goodness in Heaven. More on Saint Praxedes

Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer (1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. Vermeer was a moderately successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime. He evidently was not wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death, perhaps because he produced relatively few paintings.

Vermeer worked slowly and with great care, and frequently used very expensive pigments. He is particularly renowned for his masterly treatment and use of light in his work.

He was recognized during his lifetime in Delft and The Hague, but his modest celebrity gave way to obscurity after his death. In the 19th century, Vermeer was rediscovered by Gustav Friedrich Waagen and Théophile Thoré-Bürger, who published an essay attributing 66 pictures to him, although only 34 paintings are universally attributed to him today. Since that time, Vermeer’s reputation has grown, and he is now acknowledged as one of the greatest painters of the Dutch Golden Age. More Vermeer

Felice Ficherelli, 1605 – 1645

Santa Prassede, c. 1640–1645

Oil on canvas

104 x 80.5 cm.

Collection Fergnani, Ferrarra

Felice Ficherelli (30 August 1605 – 5 March 1660) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, born in San Gimignano and active mainly in Tuscany. Among Ficherelli’s early patrons was Conte Bardi, who persuaded Ficherelli to move to Florence and to study with the painter Jacopo da Empoli. Empoli’s influence is evident in the sumptuous fabrics seen in many of Ficherelli’s works. Ficherelli was nicknamed “Felice Riposo” for his retiring nature.

There is a controversial copy of Ficherelli’s Saint Praxedis, which appears to be signed by Johannes Vermeer and dated 1655. More on Felice Ficherelli

Antonio Leonelli, from Crevalcore,

Holy Family with san Giovanni Battista, ca 1490-1500

Tempera on canvas

67 x 57 cm.

Renaissance Palace Moscow

Antonio Leonelli (Antonio da Crevalcore) (Italian, Crevalcore, born by 1443–died by 1525, Bologna. The influence of Cossa’s Bolognese painting on Crevalcore is clear, but the connection between Cossa’s Ferrarese works or Ercole de’ Roberti’s later Ferrarese paintings and Crevalcore is less evident.

He is first mentioned as a painter in Bologna in 1461. He is then documented at intervals until 1525. His earliest documented painting, from 1480, is a ruinous fresco above the portico of the church San Giacomo Maggiore. His only other signed and dated painting, of 1493, was destroyed in Berlin during World War II. His fascination with perspectival devices and his love of trompe-l’oeil details found its expression in the still-lifes for which he became famous. More on Antonio Leonelli from Crevalcore

Dante Gabriel Rossetti, (1828–1882)

The Annunciation, circa 1849

Oil on canvas

Height: 724 mm (28.5 in). Width: 419 mm (16.5 in).

Tate Britain

Ecce Ancilla Domini (Latin: “Behold the handmaiden of the Lord”), or The Annunciation, is an oil painting by the English artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti, first painted in 1850 and now in Tate Britain in London. The Latin title is a quotation from the Vulgate text of the first chapter of the Gospel of Saint Luke, describing the Annunciation, where Mary accepts the message brought to her by the Angel Gabriel that she would give birth to a child (Jesus) by God. More on Ecce Ancilla Domini

Dante Gabriel Rossetti, (1828–1882)

The Annunciation, circa 1849


Dante Gabriel Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882) was an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 with William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais. Rossetti was later to be the main inspiration for a second generation of artists and writers influenced by the movement. His work also influenced the European Symbolists and was a major precursor of the Aesthetic movement.

Rossetti’s personal life was closely linked to his work, especially his relationships with his models and muses Elizabeth Siddal, Fanny Cornforth and Jane Morris. More on Dante Gabriel Rossetti

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15 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings – With Footnotes, #35

Leslie Arthur Wilcox, British, 1904-1982 

The USS ‘United States’ Engaging the HMS ‘Macedonian’ , c. 1977

Oil on canvas 

24 x 36 inches

Private collection

The battle between these two frigates was fought near Madeira on October 25, 1812, the ‘United States’ being commanded by Steven Decater. After a long, bloody battle, the ‘United States’ captured the ‘Macedonian’ and escorted her to Newport, the first British warship ever brought into an American harbor. The British frigate was later recommissoned by the US Navy as the USS ‘Macedonian’ and remained in service until 1836. More on this painting

Leslie Arthur Wilcox, RI, RSMA (13 March 1904 – 11 January 1982) was an eminent British artist known mainly as a marine artist working in oils. He was also a watercolourist, illustrator, poster artist, marine model-maker and author. He was for some years Honorary Secretary of the Royal Society of Marine Artists and a member of the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours. His works are in many collections around the world, including the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, and the Royal Collection. He wrote and illustrated two books on maritime history: Mr Pepys’ Navy (1966 G. Bell & Sons Ltd., London) and Anson’s Voyage (1969 G. Bell & Sons, Ltd., London). More on Leslie Arthur Wilcox

Montague Dawson RMSA, FRSA (1890–1973) 

The Torrens in California Waters

oil on canvas

28 × 42 in

Private collection

Torrens (1875 – 1910) was a clipper ship designed to carry passengers and cargo between London and Port Adelaide, South Australia. She was the fastest ship to sail on that route

It is likely that the vessel was named in honour of Colonel Robert Torrens, a principal exponent of the economic benefits of nineteenth-century colonial trade. 

The Torrens was aimed at the upper end of the market – accommodation was first and second class passengers only. Apart from the crew, she carried “a surgeon, a stewardess and a good cow”

She lost her foremast and main topmast in 1891, and while being refitting in Pernambuco a fire broke out on board. On the evening of 11 January 1899 she struck an iceberg some 40 km south west of the Crozet Islands and limped into Adelaide dismasted, with her bow stoved in. In 1906 the Torrens was sold for £1,500 (she cost £27,257 to build) to an Italian shipping line, but after running her ashore, she was sent to the shipbreakers. They were however so taken by her aesthetic appearance that they refused to break her up, and repaired her instead. But it was not long before she again ran aground. She was finally broken up at Genoa in 1910. More on the Torrens 

Montague Dawson RMSA, FRSA (1890–1973) was a British painter who was renowned as a maritime artist. His most famous paintings depict sailing ships, usually clippers or warships of the 18th and 19th centuries. Montague was the son of a keen yachtsman and the grandson of the marine painter Henry Dawson (18111878), born in Chiswick, London. Much of his childhood was spent on Southampton Water where he was able to indulge his interest in the study of ships. For a brief period around 1910 Dawson worked for a commercial art studio in Bedford Row, London, but with the outbreak of the First World War he joined the Royal Navy. Whilst serving with the Navy in Falmouth he met Charles Napier Hemy (18411917), who considerably influenced his work. In 1924 Dawson was the official artist for an Expedition to the South Seas by the steam yacht St.George. During the expedition he provided illustrated reports to the Graphic magazine.

After the War, Dawson established himself as a professional marine artist, concentrating on historical subjects and portraits of deep-water sailing ships. During the Second World War, he was employed as a war artist. Dawson exhibited regularly at the Royal Society of Marine Artists, of which he became a member, from 1946 to 1964, and occasionally at the Royal Academy between 1917 and 1936. By the 1930s he was considered one of the greatest living marine artists, whose patrons included two American Presidents, Dwight D Eisenhower and Lyndon B Johnson, as well as the British Royal Family. Also in the 1930s, he moved to Milford-Upon-Sea in Hampshire, living there for many years. Dawson is noted for the strict accuracy in the nautical detail of his paintings which often sell for six figures.

The work of Montague Dawson is represented in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich and the Royal Naval Museum, Portsmouth. More on Montague Dawson


James E. Buttersworth, 1817 to 1894.

The Clipper Ship “Flying Cloud” off the Needles, Isle of Wight, 1859-1860.

Oil on canvas

The Needles is a row of three distinctive stacks of chalk that rise about 30m out of the sea off the western extremity of the Isle of Wight, United Kingdom, close to Alum Bay, and part of Totland, the westernmost Civil Parish of the Isle of Wight. The Needles Lighthouse stands at the outer, western end of the formation. Built in 1859, it has been automated since 1994.

The formation takes its name from a fourth needle-shaped pillar called Lot’s Wife, that collapsed in a storm in 1764. The remaining rocks are not at all needle-like, but the name has stuck. More on The Needles


The Flying Cloud of 1851 was the most famous of the extreme clippers built by Donald McKay in East Boston, Massachusetts. The Flying Cloud was purchased at launching by Grinnell, Minturn & Co., of New York, for $90,000, which represented a huge profit for Train & Co. Within six weeks she sailed from New York and made San Francisco ’round Cape Horn in 89 days, 21 hours under the command of Captain Josiah Perkins Creesy. In the early days of the California Gold Rush, it took more than 200 days for a ship to travel from New York to San Francisco.. On the 31st of July, during the trip, she made 374 miles in 24 hours. In 1853 she beat her own record by 13 hours, a world beating record that stood for 136 years, until 1989 when the breakthrough-designed sailboat Thursday’s Child completed the passage in 80 days, 20 hours.

James Edward Buttersworth (British/American, 1817-1894)

The American clipper ship Flying Cloud, c. 1854

Oil on canvas

20 x 30 in

Private collection

The American clipper ship Flying Cloud, Scudding in a Gale of Wind off Cape Horn

on her record-breaking voyage to San Francisco around Cape Horn in 89 days, April 20th 1854.

Apparently, Flying Cloud and her record breaking passage between New York and San Francisco was one of James E. Buttersworth’s favorite clipper ship subjects. In addition to this one, and the one sold at these sale rooms last year [Bonhams, Important Maritime Paintings & Decorative Arts, January 2013, Sale 20482, Lot 113] (below), the one listed in the Grassby book, Ship, Sea & Sky, and another one listed in the Schaefer (further down) book makes four paintings, all the same size and period, circa 1854. More on this painting

Cape Horn, named after the city of Hoorn in the Netherlands, is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island. Although not the most southerly point of South America, Cape Horn marks the northern boundary of the Drake Passage and marks where the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans meet.

For decades, Cape Horn was a major milestone on the clipper route, by which sailing ships carried trade around the world. The waters around Cape Horn are particularly hazardous, owing to strong winds, large waves, strong currents and icebergs; these dangers have made it notorious as a sailors’ graveyard.

The need for ships to round Cape Horn was greatly reduced by the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914. More on Cape Horn

James Edward Buttersworth (British/American, 1817-1894)

The clippership Flying Cloud coming out of a hurricane, circa 1855

Oil on canvas

20 x 30 in. (50.8 x 76.2 cm.)

Private collection

The Flying Cloud’s achievement was remarkable under any terms. But, was all the more unusual because her navigator was a woman, Eleanor Creesy. She was one of the first navigators to exploit the insights of Matthew Fontaine Maury, most notably the course recommended in his Sailing Directions. With her husband, ship captain Josiah Perkins Creesy More on Flying Cloud

James Edward Buttersworth (British/American, 1817-1894)

The Clipper “Flying Cloud” off Cape Horn, circa 1855

Oil on board 

Height: 50.8 cm (20 in.), Width: 76.2 cm (30 in.) 

Private collection

Cape Horn, see above

James E. Buttersworth, 1817 to 1894, see below

Raymond A. Massey 

Flying Cloud Entering Hong Kong 1851

Print, Edition: 250

26 1/2″ x 21″

Private collection

Victoria Harbour is a natural landform harbour situated between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon in Hong Kong. The harbour’s deep, sheltered waters and strategic location on the South China Sea were instrumental in Hong Kong’s establishment as a British colony and its subsequent development as a trading centre. More on Victoria Harbour

Born in Newscastle-on-Tyne, England, Raymond A. Massey is a self-taught artist who came to the United States when he was 10 and made his home in Buffalo, New York since the age of 14. A member of the Nautical Research Guild, he was elected an artist member of the American Society of Marine Artists, which was established in 1978 to encourage the preservation and appreciation of maritime history through art. 

Massey’s works have appeared in numerous art shows and galleries from coast-to-coast in the United Stares, and Canada. 

He is also published a number of books, and once wrote about historic Buffalo for the Buffalo Courier Express and illustrated historic Buffalo features in that newspaper. More on Raymond A. Massey 


Johan-Barthold Jongkind, 1819-1891. Paris.

Dutch landscape with a caulking barge, c. 1857.


Johan Barthold Jongkind (3 June 1819 – 9 February 1891) was a Dutch painter and printmaker. He painted marine landscapes in a free manner and is regarded as a forerunner of Impressionism. Jongkind was born in the Netherlands. Trained at the art academy in The Hague, in 1846 he moved to Montparnasse in Paris, France where he studied under Eugène Isabey and François-Édouard Picot. Two years later, the Paris Salon accepted his work for its exhibition, and he received acclaim from critic Charles Baudelaire and later on from Émile Zola. He was to experience little success, however, and he suffered bouts of depression complicated by alcoholism.

Jongkind returned to live in Rotterdam in 1855, and remained there until 1860. Back in Paris, in 1861 he rented a studio on the rue de Chevreuse in Montparnasse where some of his paintings began to show glimpses of the Impressionist style to come. In 1862 he met in Normandy, in the famous ferme Saint-Siméon in Honfleur, with some of his artist friends, such as Alfred Sisley, Eugène Boudin, and the young Claude Monet, to all of whom Jongkind served as a mentor. Monet later referred to him as “…a quiet man with such a talent that is beyond words” and credited the “definitive education” of his own eye to Jongkind. In 1863 Jongkind exhibited at the first Salon des Refusés. He was invited to participate in the first exhibition of the Impressionist group in 1874, but he declined. He died in 1891 in Saint-Égrève. More


Thomas Buttersworth, Jr. (1807-1842), British

Yachting off Torquay

Oil on canvas

12 x 16 in

Private collection

Torquay  is a seaside town in Devon, England, part of the unitary authority area of Torbay. The town’s economy was initially based upon fishing and agriculture, but in the early 19th century it began to develop into a fashionable seaside resort, initially frequented by members of the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars while the Royal Navy anchored in the bay. Later, as the town’s fame spread, it was popular with Victorian society. Renowned for its healthful climate, the town earned the nickname the English Riviera.

The writer Agatha Christie was born in the town and lived there during her early years and there is an “Agatha Christie Mile”, a tour with plaques dedicated to her life and work. More on Torquay

Thomas Buttersworth, Jr. (1807-1842), was named after his father, the well known marine painter Thomas Buttersworth Senior (1766-1841), who was to have a considerable influence on his son’s painting career.

There exist few details about Thomas Junior’s private life. What is known is that in the late 1830’s he was living with his wife Gertude in Lambeth, and in early 1838 his daughter, also Gertrude, was born.

The family had moved to Greenwich by 1841, and this is where their son, also named Thomas, was born in March of that year. Thomas Buttersworth Junior died in Greenwich on November 25, 1842 at the very early age of thirty five. More on Thomas Buttersworth, Jr. 


C. HJALMAR (CAPPY) AMUNDSEN (American, Long Island, 1911-2010)

Dock scene

Oil on canvas

20”h, 26”w

Private collection


J.J. Enwright (pseudonym for Hjalmar “Cappy” Amundsen) was born Caspar Hjalmar Emerson III in  New York City in 1911, and in 1946 legally changed his name to Hjalmar Amundsen in honor of his great-uncle, explorer Roald Amundsen, who located the magnetic center of the South Pole the year his great-nephew was born. 

He was in his early twenties when he first began painting.  Amundsen loved the sea, and had a lifelong interest in sailing and fishing.  While growing up, Hjalmar and his father would drive to the East End of Long Island, and he’d go out in a fishing boat.  Later he bought a small boat and went out sailing and fishing as often as he could.  

As an adult, the young artist moved back to New York and spent time painting in and around Gloucester and Provincetown, Massachusetts.  In his early career, he is believed to have created up to 275 paintings a year over a period of six years under the name of Enwright, and it is now believed that J.J. Enwright and Hjalmar Amundsen is one and the same artist. 

In 1946 he moved to Sag Harbor, Long Island, New York. He opened a studio and lived in the same building, becoming a well-liked figure in the community.  He painted waterfront images, sailing ships, fishing boats, and the New England coastline. 

Cappy lived a bohemian lifestyle, making a living with his painting, but by the 1980s  times had become tough, and it was through the initiative of friends and the community that his house was restored.  He died in Brookhaven Memorial Hospital on January 18, 2001. More on  “Cappy” Amundsen

19th Century British school

Upper reaches of the River Thames, c. 1913

Oil on canvas

14ins x 18ins

Private collection

19th Century British school – Oil painting – Upper reaches of the River Thames with a lighter to foreground and barges and masted vessels.

The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London. At 215 miles (346 km), it is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its long tidal reach up to Teddington Lock. It rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, and flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary. The Thames drains the whole of Greater London. More on The River Thames 

English school, dominant school of painting in England throughout the second half of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th. Its establishment marked the rise of a national tradition that began with the emergence of native artists whose works were no longer provincial but rivaled continental art in quality and ended by exercising considerable influence on the course of European painting. More on English school

TOMMASO DE SIMONE (Italian, c.1805-1888)

American ship in harbor, c. 1875

For ”Lewis L. Squire”, 


18-1/2”h, 26-1/4”w. (Fine Art)

Private collection

Tomaso De Simone (c.1805-1888) was a Neapolitan port painter; and is considered to be one of the most important ship portraitists who practiced in the Italian seaport cities. The father of noted sea painter Antonio de Simone, Tomaso specialized in oils, the majority depicting warships and merchant vessels.

The architectural properties of Tomaso de Simone’s paintings are exceptional. His hull shapes have fullness and flexibility, his rigging shows a wealth of detail. His portrait of the American continental navy frigate constellation was proven so accurate that it was used as a guide for restoration of the ship, still afloat today in Baltimore. 

Although not as prolific as his son, the works of Tomaso de Simone are arguably more important. In recent years, their value has increased dramatically as they become more rare and sought after by important museums and private collectors world wide. More on Tomaso De Simone

Louis Papaluca (Italian, 1890-1934)

M.Y. Happy Days, N.Y.Y.C. In Memory of First Voyage 1928


16ins x 27.5ins

Private collection

“M.Y. Happy Days, N.Y.Y.C. In Memory of First Voyage 1928″” – is a study of The New York Yacht Clubs steam yacht Happy Days in the Bay of Naples with Vesuvius to background.

Louis Papaluca (Italian, 1890-1934)

Beryl R.Y.S.


23 x 15 in.

Private collection

CHARLES ROSNER (American, Long Island, 1894-1975)

Clipper Ship Golden Eagle

Oil on canvas

24”h, 30”w.

Private collection

The U.S. Golden Eagle was an extreme clipper, built at Medford, Massachusetts, and launched on November 9, 1852. She weighed 1121 tons, had a length of 192 feet, a beam of 36 feet, a 22-foot depth of hold, a gilded eagle on the wing figurehead. 

She made a total of eight voyages from the East Coast around the Horn to San Francisco, the first out of Boston, the others out of New York. On the homeward leg of the last of these voyages, she sailed from San Francisco for Howland`s Island, where she loaded a cargo of guano, and from which she sailed about November 20, 1862, bound for Cork, for orders. On February 21, 1863 she was attacked and burned by the Confederate commerce raider CSS Alabama. Her owners, E. M. Robinson, of New Bedford, and John A. McGaw, of New York, claimed, and were allowed, insurance in the amount of $56,000 for the vessel, $30,000 for freight, and $27,522 for cargo. More on the Golden Eagle

Charles Rosner (German-American, 1894-1975) developed a fascination for sailing vessels while a child on holiday in various German seaports. He also served aboard them, accumulating five Cape Horn passages during his ocean career. After WW I he emigrated to Canada and thence to America, where his affinity for the sea propelled him into a commitment as a full-time marine painter of historic sailing vessels and other sea-faring subjects. More on Charles Rosner

Joaquin Sorolla (Soroia), 1863 – 1923

Walking along the seashore, c. 1911

Oil on Canvas

Joaquin Sorolei House Museum, Madrid

In the painting Sorolla depicted his wife Clotilde and eldest daughter Maria. “Walking along the seashore”. Soria worked on the canvas in Valencia in 1909. He has just returned to Spain from America, where his personal exhibitions in New York, Buffalo and Boston were held with great success and where he created about 20 portraits, Including the then US President Taft . 

The women are graceful, dressed in elegant white dresses and fashionable shoes. The images are completed by beige hats, decorated with flowers, and a white umbrella, which is held by the older woman (Clotilde). More on this painting

Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (27 February 1863 – 10 August 1923) was a Spanish painter. Sorolla excelled in the painting of portraits, landscapes, and monumental works of social and historical themes. His most typical works are characterized by a dexterous representation of the people and landscape under the sunlight of his native land. More on Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida

Fabienne Delacroix

Bord de l’eau à Dieppe

Acrylic on Board


Private collection

Dieppe is a coastal community in the Arrondissement of Dieppe in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France. 

A port on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Arques river. Dieppe also has a popular pebbled beach, a 15th-century castle and the churches of Saint-Jacques and Saint-Remi. More on Dieppe


Fabienne Delacroix is the youngest child of the master naïf painter Michel Delacroix. She began to paint at the age of ten, working along side her father in his studio. Her talent was evident almost immediately. At twelve years old, her paintings were exhibited in a gallery in Carmel, California where the work completely sold out. In 2004, Fabienne began exhibiting on her own, and while her work can be linked stylistically to her father’s, she is very much an artist in her own right. She has a mastery of light and color that is similar to that of French Impressionists. Until recently, Fabienne was known mainly for her seascapes and pastoral landscapes. Fabienne continues to paint the French countryside, seaside and sometimes even Boston with her signature flair. She currently lives and works in Paris, France. More on Fabienne Delacroix

Naïve art is recognized, and often imitated, for its childlike simplicity and frankness.[4] Paintings of this kind typically have a flat rendering style with a rudimentary expression of perspective. More on Naïve art

Fabienne Delacroix

la jetée de Trouville

Acrylic on Board


Private collection

Trouville-sur-Mer, commonly referred to as Trouville, is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.

Trouville-sur-Mer borders Deauville. This village of fishermen is a popular tourist attraction in Normandy.

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10 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings – With Footnotes, #34

Montague Dawson, 1890 – 1973

Ships That Pass

oil on canvas

28.25 x 42 in

Private collection

Montague Dawson RMSA, FRSA (1890–1973) was a British painter who was renowned as a maritime artist. His most famous paintings depict sailing ships, usually clippers or warships of the 18th and 19th centuries. Montague was the son of a keen yachtsman and the grandson of the marine painter Henry Dawson (18111878), born in Chiswick, London. Much of his childhood was spent on Southampton Water where he was able to indulge his interest in the study of ships. For a brief period around 1910 Dawson worked for a commercial art studio in Bedford Row, London, but with the outbreak of the First World War he joined the Royal Navy. Whilst serving with the Navy in Falmouth he met Charles Napier Hemy (18411917), who considerably influenced his work. In 1924 Dawson was the official artist for an Expedition to the South Seas by the steam yacht St.George. During the expedition he provided illustrated reports to the Graphic magazine.

After the War, Dawson established himself as a professional marine artist, concentrating on historical subjects and portraits of deep-water sailing ships. During the Second World War, he was employed as a war artist. Dawson exhibited regularly at the Royal Society of Marine Artists, of which he became a member, from 1946 to 1964, and occasionally at the Royal Academy between 1917 and 1936. By the 1930s he was considered one of the greatest living marine artists, whose patrons included two American Presidents, Dwight D Eisenhower and Lyndon B Johnson, as well as the British Royal Family. Also in the 1930s, he moved to Milford-Upon-Sea in Hampshire, living there for many years. Dawson is noted for the strict accuracy in the nautical detail of his paintings which often sell for six figures.

The work of Montague Dawson is represented in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich and the Royal Naval Museum, Portsmouth. More on Montague Dawson

Edward William Cooke, 1811 – 1880


Oil on canvas

54 x 79cm

Private collection

Edward William Cooke, R.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. (27 March 1811 – 4 January 1880) was an English landscape and marine painter, and gardener. Cooke was born in Pentonville, London. He was raised in the company of artists. He was a precocious draughtsman and a skilled engraver from an early age, displayed an equal preference for marine subjects and published his “Shipping and Craft”  a series of accomplished engravings  when he was 18, in 1829. Cooke began painting in oils in 1833, and first exhibited at the Royal Academy and British Institution in 1835, by which time his style was essentially formed.

He went on to travel and paint with great industry at home and abroad, indulging his love of the 17th-century Dutch marine artists with a visit to the Netherlands in 1837. He returned regularly over the next 23 years, studying the effects of the coastal landscape and light, as well as the works of the country’s Old Masters, resulting in highly successful paintings. He went on to travel in Scandinavia, Spain, North Africa and, above all, to Venice. In 1858, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician. . More Edward William Cooke

Willem van de Velde the Younger, LEIDEN 1633 – 1707 LONDON


Oil on canvas

126.5 x 178 cm.; 49 3/4  x 70 in.

Private collection

 King Charles II’s Royal Yacht Mary, the subject of this picture, occupies the centre of the composition, about to fire a salute. The Master can be seen ringing a bell to give the order, and the gunner (wearing a fisherman’s hat) can be seen with his lighted spill held aloft. The yacht is moored by its starboard anchor, while a sailor holds the stock of the port anchor, which is unshipped, perhaps as he prepares to stow it. The foresail is up and the mainsail is gathered, ready to be released, and it looks as if the Mary is making ready to depart. Her salute is presumably in answer to one fired by the unidentified Dutch ship beyond and to the left. Further Dutch ships are to be seen in the distance to the centre, including one flying the flag of the Fore Squadron, and another the flag and pennant of an Admiral of the Main. Nearer, to the right, is the Amsterdam ship Hollandia, her stern towards the viewer, smoke visible above her deck suggesting that she to her stern towards the viewer, smoke visible above her deck suggesting that she too has just fired a salute. Beyond the Hollandia is an unidentified ship with a haloed saint on her tafferel.

Van de Velde depicted the Mary in several other paintings, though never so prominently as here. More on this painting

Willem van de Velde the Younger (bapt. 18 December 1633; died 6 April 1707) was a Dutch marine painter. A son of Willem van de Velde the Elder, also a painter of sea-pieces, he was instructed by his father, and afterwards by Simon de Vlieger, a marine painter of repute at the time, and had achieved great celebrity by his art before he came to London. By 1673 he had moved to England, where he was engaged by Charles II, at a salary of £100, to aid his father in “taking and making draughts of sea-fights”, his part of the work being to reproduce in color the drawings of the elder Van de Velde. He was also patronized by the Duke of York and by various members of the nobility. More on Willem van de Velde the Younger

Willem van de Velde the Younger, LEIDEN 1633 – 1707 LONDON



Willem van de Velde the Younger (bapt. 18 December 1633; died 6 April 1707) was a Dutch marine painter. A son of Willem van de Velde the Elder, also a painter of sea-pieces, he was instructed by his father, and afterwards by Simon de Vlieger, a marine painter of repute at the time, and had achieved great celebrity by his art before he came to London. By 1673 he had moved to England, where he was engaged by Charles II, at a salary of £100, to aid his father in “taking and making draughts of sea-fights”, his part of the work being to reproduce in color the drawings of the elder Van de Velde. He was also patronized by the Duke of York and by various members of the nobility. More on Willem van de Velde the Younger

Edward William Cooke, 1811 – 1880



Edward William Cooke, see above

HAYLEY LEVER, 1876 – 1958

Returning Fisherman, The Jetties, Manasquan, NJ, c. 1938

Oil on canvas 

30 by 36 inches (76.2 by 91.4 cm)

Private collection

The Manasquan Inlet is an inlet that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Manasquan River, in the state of New Jersey. Passage to Bay Head Harbor and the Barnegat Bay is possible via the Point Pleasant Canal.

The Manasquan inlet historically had always been shallow, which made it difficult for large boats to navigate. When the Point Pleasant Canal was dug in 1926, the Manasquan river’s water rapidly flowed through the man-made opening disrupting the natural flow of the river, this caused the inlet to completely close with sand for several years. In 1930 work begun to reopen the inlet. The Army Corps of Engineers put up temporary piers and began building jetties. The jetties were constructed with rock excavation from the Second Avenue Subway in Manhattan. The inlet was officially reopened on August 29, 1931. More on The Manasquan Inlet


Richard Hayley Lever (28 September 1875 – 6 December 1958) was an Australian-American painter, etcher, lecturer and art teacher. He excelled in painting classes at Prince Alfred College under James Ashton and on leaving school continued to study under Ashton at his Norwood art school. He was a charter member of the Adelaide Easel Club in 1892.

Lever left to England in 1899 to further his career in painting. He moved to St. Ives, a fishing port and artistic colony on the Cornish coast. In St. Ives, Lever shared a studio with Frederick Waugh, and studied painting techniques under the Impressionists Olsson and Algernon Talmage. Lever also painted in the French port villages of Douarnenez and Concarneau, Brittany, directly across the English Channel from St. Ives.

Lever arrived in New York City in 1912 and painted views of the Hudson River, Times Square and Central Park. Upon discovering the American east coast, he painted in Gloucester, MA for several summers and at Marblehead, MA. From 1919 to 1931, Lever taught art classes at the Art Students League of New York where he maintained a Gloucester studio and often traveled to paint on Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard. In 1924, Lever was commissioned to paint a portrait of the presidential yacht, Mayflower, which was subsequently presented to President Calvin Coolidge in the Cabinet Room of the White House.

In later life, Lever was inflicted with arthritis in his right hand, which prevented him from further travel and forced him to concentrate on still-life subjects instead. As his arthritis advanced, he taught himself to paint with his left hand. However, following the death of his wife Aida in 1949, Lever was confined to his home, where he continued to paint from 1953 until his death. More on Richard Hayley Lever

Irma Stern (1894 – 1966)

Madeira Scene, 1931


28.5 x 22 cm

Private collection

Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal. Its total population was estimated in 2011 at 267,785. The capital of Madeira is Funchal, located on the main island’s south coast.

Madeira was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator in 1419 and settled after 1420. The archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Portuguese Age of Discovery, which extended from 1415 to 1542. More on Madeira

Irma Stern (1894, Schweizer-Reneke, Transvaal – 23 August 1966, Cape Town, South Africa) was born in Schweizer-Reneke, a small town in the Transvaal. Her father was interned in a concentration camp by the British during the South African War because of his pro-Boer leanings. Irma and her younger brother, Rudi, were thus taken to Cape Town by their mother. After the war, the family returned to Germany and constant travel. This travel would influence Irma’s work.

Irma Stern, (1894 – 1966)

Boats, Madeira, c. 1951

Gouache and charcoal on paper

37 x 27.5 cm

Private collection

In 1913 Stern studied art in Germany at the Weimar Academy. She was associated with the German Expressionist painters of this period. She held her first exhibition in Berlin in 1919. In 1920 Stern returned to Cape Town with her family where she was first derided and dismissed as an artist before becoming an established artist by the 1940s.

In 1926 she married Dr Johannes Prinz, her former tutor, who subsequently became professor of German at the University of Cape Town. They were divorced in 1934.

Irma Stern travelled extensively in Europe and explored Southern Africa, Zanzibar and the Congo region. These trips provided a wide range of subject matter for her paintings and gave her opportunities to acquire and assemble a collection of artifacts. In 1931 she visited Madeira and Dakar, Senegal, in 1937 and 1938. These expeditions resulted in a wealth of artistic creativity and energy as well as the publication of two illustrated journals; Congo published in 1943 and Zanzibar in 1948.

The Irma Stern Museum was established in 1971 and is the house the artist lived in for almost four decades. She moved into The Firs in Rondebosch in 1927 and lived there until her death. Several of the rooms are furnished as she arranged them while upstairs there is a commercial gallery used by contemporary South African artists. More on Irma Stern

Liza Yashyna, Russia


Oil on canvas

35.4 H x 23.6 W x 0.8 in

Private collection

Elizabeth Yashyna was born on 2-nd of August 1987 in Simferopol (Ukraine) in artists’ family. In 2007 graduated from Crimean College of Art of N.S. Samokish. In 2013 graduated from Kiev National Academy of Fine Art and Architecture (Faculty of Sacred and Monumental Art; studio of N.A. Storozhenko). Exhibition activity began in 2003 – held more than 30 personal and group exhibitions. Member of National Union of Artists of Ukraine and National Union of Artists of Russia. Works are presented in private collections in France, Italy, USA, Hungary, Montenegro, Australia, Russia, Ukraine and others. Since 2008 – member of the Creative Union of Professional Artists of Russia. Since 2013 – Member of the Creative Union of Professional Artists of Ukraine. More on Elizabeth Yashyna

FRANK MYERS BOGGS, 1855 – 1926

Fish Market, Copenhagen, c. 1924

Oil on canvas 

22 1/8 by 20 1/8 inches (56.1 by 51.1 cm)

Private collection

Copenhagen, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions, defences and armed forces. More on Copenhagen 

Frank Myers Boggs (* 6. December 1855 in Springfield , Ohio ; † August 8, 1926 in Meudon , Hauts-de-Seine )  was active, and naturalized in France .  He was a painter of urban landscapes, marine. Watercolorist , engraver , draftsman.

Mixing tonalist and impressionist elements, Frank Myers Boggs forged a novel artistic style at the juncture of fin-de-siècle American and European traditions. Born in Ohio, Boggs trained at the École des Beaux-Arts under Jean Léon Gerôme and spent the majority of his life in Paris. There, he accomplished the rare feat of gaining prominence in both the French and American art worlds. By the end of his life, Boggs had essentially transformed himself into a French impressionist: he became a French citizen in 1923 and earned the French Legion of Honor three years later. 

Boggs won a prize from the American Art Association in 1884 and silver medals from the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889 and the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893. His paintings are now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum of Art, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, as well as the Réunion des Musées Nationaux of Paris, Luxembourg Museum, and Museum of Nantes in France. More on Frank Myers Boggs

Anders Zorn, 1860 – 1920

Summer Entertainment/ Sommarnoje, c. 1886

Watercolor, paper

76 x 54 cm

Private Collection

Anders Leonard Zorn (18 February 1860 – 22 August 1920) was one of Sweden’s foremost artists. He obtained international success as a painter, sculptor and etcher. From 1875 to 1880 Zorn studied at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts in Stockholm. Members of Stockholm society approached him with commissions. Zorn traveled extensively to London, Paris, the Balkans, Spain, Italy and the United States, becoming an international success as one of the most acclaimed painters of his era. It was primarily his skill as a portrait painter that gained Zorn international acclaim based principally upon his incisive ability to depict the individual character of his model. At 29, he was made a Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur at the Exposition Universelle 1889 Paris World Fair. More Anders Leonard Zorn

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Montague Dawson, (1890–1973)

The British Clipper Ship Thermopylae

Watercolor and gouache on paper

16 1/4 x 26 in.

Private Collection

Thermopylae was an extreme composite clipper ship built in 1868 by Walter Hood & Co of Aberdeen, to the design of Bernard Waymouth of London. In 1872, Thermopylae raced the clipper Cutty Sark from Shanghai back to London. Thermopylae won by seven days after Cutty Sark lost her rudder. From 1882 onward, Thermopylae took part in the Australian wool trade; however, on this route Cutty Sark proved faster.

In 1897 she was sold to Portugal for use as a naval training ship and renamed Pedro Nunes. On 13 October 1907, the Portuguese Navy towed her down the Tagus river using two warships, and before Amelia de Orleans, Queen of Portugal, she was torpedoed with full naval honours off Cascais. More on Thermopylae 

Montague Dawson, (1890–1973)

The British Clipper Ship Thermopylae


Montague Dawson RMSA, FRSA (1890–1973) was a British painter who was renowned as a maritime artist. His most famous paintings depict sailing ships, usually clippers or warships of the 18th and 19th centuries. Montague was the son of a keen yachtsman and the grandson of the marine painter Henry Dawson (18111878), born in Chiswick, London. Much of his childhood was spent on Southampton Water where he was able to indulge his interest in the study of ships. For a brief period around 1910 Dawson worked for a commercial art studio in Bedford Row, London, but with the outbreak of the First World War he joined the Royal Navy. Whilst serving with the Navy in Falmouth he met Charles Napier Hemy (18411917), who considerably influenced his work. In 1924 Dawson was the official artist for an Expedition to the South Seas by the steam yacht St.George. During the expedition he provided illustrated reports to the Graphic magazine.

After the War, Dawson established himself as a professional marine artist, concentrating on historical subjects and portraits of deep-water sailing ships. During the Second World War, he was employed as a war artist. Dawson exhibited regularly at the Royal Society of Marine Artists, of which he became a member, from 1946 to 1964, and occasionally at the Royal Academy between 1917 and 1936. By the 1930s he was considered one of the greatest living marine artists, whose patrons included two American Presidents, Dwight D Eisenhower and Lyndon B Johnson, as well as the British Royal Family. Also in the 1930s, he moved to Milford-Upon-Sea in Hampshire, living there for many years. Dawson is noted for the strict accuracy in the nautical detail of his paintings which often sell for six figures.

The work of Montague Dawson is represented in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich and the Royal Naval Museum, Portsmouth. More on Montague Dawson

Herbert James Draper, 1863-1920


Oil on canvas

 38.5 by 101.5cm., 23 by 40in.

Private Collection

The present picture illustrates an episode from Ovid’s Odyssey as the ship commanded by Odysseus and his men on their return to Ithaca from the Trojan wars, incurs the anger of Poseidon following Odysseus’ slaying of Poseidon’s son, the cyclops Polyphemus. The men struggle against the foaming waters, grappling with the steering oar at the stern and attempting to lower the sails to prevent the ship from capsizing.

The Wrath of the Sea God was the second of a series of classical nautical paintings painted by Draper around the turn of the century. In 1894 he had achieved his first major public success with a painting entitled The Sea Maiden (below), a dramatic scene set on board a fishing-boat as a sea-nymph is hauled aboard in the nets. This picture established Draper’s reputation as a painter of narratives beside the sea, and more specifically on board ships.

Herbert James Draper,  (1863–1920)

The Sea Maiden, c. 1894

Oil on canvas

120 x 217.5 cm. (47.2 x 85.6 in.)

 Formerly in the collection of the Royal Cornwall Museum in Truror,

Herbert James Draper (1863 – 1920) was an English Classicist painter whose career began in the Victorian era and extended through the first two decades of the 20th century. Born in London, the son of a jeweller, he was educated at Bruce Castle School in Tottenham and then went on to study art at the Royal Academy. He undertook several educational trips to Rome and Paris between 1888 and 1892, having won the Royal Academy Gold Medal and Travelling Studentship in 1889. In the 1890s, he worked as an illustrator, eventually settling in London. He died of arteriosclerosis at the age of 56, in his home on Abbey Road. More on Herbert James Draper

Terrick Williams, 1860-1936


Oil on canvas

 35.5 by 61cm., 14 by 24in.

Private Collection

Concarneau (meaning Bay of Cornwall) is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France. It is a walled town on a long island in the center of the harbour. Historically, the town was a centre of shipbuilding and is France’s third most important fishing port. More on Concarneau

John Terrick Williams RA (20 July 1860 – 20 July 1936). Williams was born in Liverpool, England, the son of a businessman. He was educated at Kings College School, London. Determination to become an artist he move to Europe and studied under Charles Verlat in Antwerp and later at the Académie Julian and Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant, William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Tony Robert-Fleury in Paris.

Williams focussed on landscape and marine subjects and painted in oil, pastel and watercolour. He travelled extensively and his impressionistic, luminous paintings sought the transient effects of light and reflections in Venice, St. Tropez, Paris, Brittany and St. Ives.

He was elected a member of the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours in 1904. His work was regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1891. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy (A.R.A.) on 18 November 1924, a Royal Academician (R.A.) on 14 February 1933, and a Senior R.A. on 1 January 1936. In 1933 he was also elected President of the RI. He died on his birthday in 1936 aged 76. After his death a memorial exhibition was held at the Fine Art Society in 1937. More on John Terrick Williams

Thomas Somerscales, 1842-1927


Oil on canvas

70 by 106cm., 27½ by 42in.

Private Collection

Somerscales depicts the ship hove to with her mainyards backed as whalers approach. In the distance, another ship can be seen with her ‘stun’-sails’ – the additional sails seen extended outside the normal sail plan – set. These were almost obsolete by the twentieth century. 

Thomas Jacques Somerscales (born in Kingston upon Hull on 29 October 1842; died 27 June 1927) was an English marine painter. He is also considered a Chilean painter as he began his career there and many of his landscapes evoke the region.

His father was a shipmaster, who sketched, and his uncle was an amateur painter. However he had no formal training as an artist and originally became a teacher in the Royal Navy. He also traveled around the Pacific and while teaching in Valparaíso he started working as a professional painter. By 1893 he was still referred to as a “little known artist” but had gained some praise. More on Thomas Jacques Somerscales

Thomas Bush Hardy, (1842-1897)

No. 1 Greenwich Pier, Stormy Weather

Oil on canvas

 9.5 x 20in.

Private Collection

Greenwich Pier is a pier on the River Thames in the Royal Borough of Greenwich, London. It was was originally built in the 1880s as a coaling jetty for the former Greenwich gasworks before this closed in the late 1980s. More on Greenwich Pier

Thomas Bush Hardy (1842, Sheffield – 1897, Maida Vale, London) was a British marine painter and watercolourist. As a young man he travelled in the Netherlands and Italy. In 1884 Hardy was elected a Member of the Royal Society of British Artists. He exhibited with the Society and also at the Royal Academy.

His paintings feature coastal scenes in England and the Netherlands, the French Channel ports and the Venetian Lagoon.

Hardy had nine children. His son Dudley Hardy was a painter, illustrator and poster designer. His daughter Dorothy received an MBE after working as a nurse in the First World War. He died on 15 December 1897 in Maida Vale, London. More on Thomas Bush Hardy

Henry Scott Tuke, R.A., R.W.S., 1858-1929


Oil on canvas

41 by 30.5cm., 16 by 12in.

Private Collection

Henry Scott Tuke RA RWS (12 June 1858 – 13 March 1929), was an English visual artist; primarily a painter, but also a photographer. His most notable work was in the Impressionist style.

He was born into a Quaker family in Lawrence Street in York. In 1859 the family moved to Falmouth, where where his father, a physician, established a practice. Tuke’s sister and biographer, Maria Tuke Sainsbury (1861–1947).

In 1875, Tuke enrolled in the Slade School of Art under Alphonse Legros and Sir Edward Poynter. Initially his father paid for his tuition but in 1877 Tuke won a scholarship, which allowed him to continue his training at the Slade and in Italy in 1880. From 1881 to 1883 he was in Paris where he met Jules Bastien-Lepage, who encouraged him to paint en plein air. While studying in France, Tuke decided to move to Newlyn Cornwall where many of his Slade and Parisian friends had already formed the Newlyn School of painters. He received several lucrative commissions there, after exhibiting his work at the Royal Academy of Art in London.

In 1885, Tuke returned to Falmouth where many of his major works were produced. Tuke became an established artist and was elected to full membership of the Royal Academy in 1914. Tuke suffered a heart attack in 1928 and died in March, 1929. Today he is remembered mainly for his oil paintings of young men, but in addition to his achievements as a figurative painter, he was an established maritime artist and produced as many portraits of sailing ships as he did human figures. Tuke was a prolific artist—over 1,300 works are listed and more are still being discovered. More Henry Scott Tuke


Thomas Bush Hardy (1842-1897)


Oil on canvas

91×60 cm

Private Collection

Thomas Bush Hardy (1842-1897), see above


Thomas Bush Hardy, (1842-1897)




Richard Strong, (American, Late 20th Century)

Unchartered Voyage

Oil on board

50 x 74 inches (127 x 188.0 cm)

Private Collection

Richard Strong was born in 1947 in Lakeland, Florida. He studied graphic arts and photography at the University of South Florida (1971-1975) receiving a scholarship and grant for postgraduate work in conjunction with Graphicstudio. As part of his training he studied under Frank Rampolla, Bruce Marsh, John Catterall, Oscar Bailey, and Theo Wujcik. He also was fortunate enough to work at Graphicstudio in association with the likes of James Rosenquist, Ed Ruscha and Robert Rauchenberg under Tamarind trained master printer Chuck Ringness. More on Richard Strong

Viviane Guy, b. 1952, France

Un monde de tranquillité/ A world of tranquility

Oil on camvas

31 H x 31 W x 1 in

Viviane Guy. Born in 1952 in Bruxelles, Belgium, self-taught, Viviane Guy likes places filled with beauty. Breathing and seducing spaces. Her painter’s vision has brought her through the world particularly in Canada, French Polynesia, China and the U.S.A. where she reinforced her technique working hand to hand with the American painter Jackson Collins. Viviane Guy defines the Art of painting as the continuity of her childhood and considers that her staging have no other function than to tame the viewer in order for them to decode their senses. “In front of nature, a painter chooses how to look at it. I work following the impressions reality leaves in me, they inspire me while preserving my freedom. The subject can be guessed, but the ambiance is abstraction.” Viviane Guy.  More on Vivian Guy

Acknowledgement: HeritageSotheby’s  , and others

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others

We do not sell art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.