09 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #14

Youssef Nabil, B. 1972, EGYPTIAN


Hand-coloured gelatin silver print

38 by 25cm.; 15 by 9 7/8 in.

Private collection

Jananne Al-Ani was born in Kirkuk, Iraq in 1966. She studied Fine Art at the Byam Shaw School of Art and graduated with an MA in Photography from the Royal College of Art in 1997. She is currently Senior Research Fellow at the University of the Arts London, and lives and works in London.

Working with photography, film and video, Al-Ani has an ongoing interest in the documentary tradition, through intimate recollections and more official accounts. Her work also engages with the landscape of the Middle East, its archaeology and its visual representation.

Summarising her work , Al-Ani said: “I have a longstanding interest in the representation of the body. The earliest works I exhibited were concerned with the way women’s bodies have been represented throughout the history of western painting. In advance of the development of photography and film, the shifting ideals of feminine beauty were clearly mapped out in the work of artists. However, the media coverage of the 1991 Gulf War, which focused on aerial and satellite images of a depopulated, barren landscape, had a major impact on my work. What followed was a reassessment on my part of the work of Orientalist painters and the way in which fantasies about the body and the landscape of the Middle East were constructed in their works. I began to see the body itself as a contested territory and during the 90s produced a series of works that attempted to counter the European obsession with uncovering and exposing the bodies of veiled women. More recently, with the Aesthetics of Disappearance project, I’ve attempted to re-occupy that space so, while the presence of the body is implied rather than explicit, the traces of human activity in the landscape are clear to see. More om Jananne Al-Ani

Youssef Nabil (born 6 November 1972) is an Egyptian artist and photographer. Fascinated by cinema in his youth, Egyptian photographer Youssef Nabil captures the contemporary paradoxes of the Middle East through the lens of fantasy. In 2003, Nabil was awarded The Seydou Keita Prize for Portraiture from the Rencontres Africaines de la Photographie, Bamako, Mali and in 2005 he was honored by the International Photography Awards, Los Angeles, CA. His first film, You Never Left, was first exhibited in 2010. His work has been the subject of recent solo shows at Maison Europeenne de la Photographie, Paris, France (2012); Nathalie Obadia Gallery, Paris, France (2011); Yossi Milo Gallery, New York, NY (2010); Savannah College of Art and Design, Atlanta, GA (2010); GALERIST, Istanbul, Turkey (2009); Villa Medici, Rome, Italy (2009); The Third Line Gallery, Dubai, UAE (2009); and Volker Diehl Gallery, Berlin, Germany (2009). More on Youssef Nabil

Kees van Dongen, (1877 – 1968)

La Marquise de Casati , Circa 1950

Lithograph printed in colours on wove paper

23 3/8 x 11 3/4 in.

Private collection

Luisa, Marchesa Casati Stampa di Soncino (23 January 1881 – 1 June 1957), also known as Luisa Casati, was an Italian heiress, muse, and patroness of the arts in early 20th-century Europe known for her eccentricities. As the concept of quaintrelle was re-developed, Marchesa Casati fitted the utmost example by saying: “I want to be a living work of art”.

Luisa was born in Milan, youngest of two daughters of Alberto Amman and his wife Lucia. Her father was of Austrian descent, while her mother was Italian and Austrian. Alberto Amman father was made a count by King Umberto I. Countess Amman died when Luisa was thirteen, and Count Amman died two years later, making his daughters, Luisa and her older sister, Francesca (1880–1919, married Giulio Padulli), reportedly the wealthiest women in Italy. More on Marquise de Casati

Cornelis Theodorus Maria ‘Kees’ van Dongen (26 January 1877 – 28 May 1968) was a Dutch-French painter and one of the Fauves at the controversial 1905 Salon d’Automne exhibition. He gained a reputation for his sensuous, at times garish, portraits.

Kees van Dongen was born in Delfshaven, a borough of Rotterdam. He was the second of four children in a middle-class family. In 1892, at age 16, Kees van Dongen started his studies at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Rotterdam During this period (1892–97), van Dongen frequented the Red Quarter seaport area, where he drew scenes of sailors and prostitutes. He met Augusta Preitinger at the Academy, a fellow painter.

In 1897, van Dongen lived in Paris for several months, where there was a large emigre community. Van Dongen began to exhibit in Paris, and participated in the controversial 1905 Salon d’Automne exhibition[4] along with Henri Matisse, André Derain, Albert Marquet, Maurice de Vlaminck, Charles Camoin, and Jean Puy.

Van Dongen’s candid, colourful portrait style was immensely fashionable by the end of World War I, and thereafter it remained his main focus. The figure of a glamorous woman with large eyes and red lips became his archetype. More on Kees van Dongen


Sandro Botticelli,  (1445–1510) 

Portrait of a Lady, known as Smeralda Brandini, c. 1470 and 1475

Tempera on panel

Height: 65.7 cm (25.9 in). Width: 41 cm (16.1 in).

Victoria and Albert Museum

The Portrait of Smeralda Brandini is a tempera on panel painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli of about 1475, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

The identification of the sitter is based on the old, but probably not original, inscription on the windowsill at the bottom of the picture Smeralda di M.Bandinelli Moglie di VI, the wife of Viviano Brandini, mother of the prominent Florentine goldsmith Michelangelo de Viviano de Brandini of Gaiuole, and grandmother of the sculptor Baccio Bandinelli (the son of Michelangelo). From archive documents it is known that in 1469 Smeralda was 30. More on Smeralda Brandini

Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, known as Sandro Botticelli (1445 –1510), was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the Florentine School.  Botticelli’s posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then, his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting.

Botticelli was born in Florence. He was initially trained as a goldsmith. There are very few details of Botticelli’s life, but it is known that he became an apprentice when he was about fourteen years old. By 1462 he was apprenticed to Fra Filippo Lippi; many of his early works have been attributed to the elder master, and attributions continue to be uncertain. Influenced also by the monumentality of Masaccio’s painting, it was from Lippi that Botticelli learned a more intimate and detailed manner.

By 1470, Botticelli had his own workshop. His work was characterized by a conception of the figure as if seen in low relief, drawn with clear contours, and minimizing strong contrasts of light and shadow which would indicate fully modelled forms.

In the mid-1480s, Botticelli worked on a major fresco cycle for Lorenzo the Magnificent’s villa near Volterra; in addition he painted many frescoes in Florentine churches. In 1491 he served on a committee to decide upon a façade for the Cathedral of Florence.

Botticelli never wed, and expressed a strong disliking to the idea of marriage, a prospect he claimed gave him nightmares. More on Sandro Botticelli


Anthony van Dyck, (1599–1641)

Princess Henrietta Maria of France, Queen consort of England, circa 1636 and circa 1638

Oil on canvas

San Diego Museum

Henrietta Maria of France (25 November[1609 – 10 September 1669) was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II.

Her Roman Catholicism made her unpopular in England, and also prohibited her from being crowned in an Anglican service. She never had a coronation. She began to immerse herself in national affairs as civil war loomed on the horizon, and was compelled to seek refuge in France in 1644, following the birth of her youngest daughter, Henrietta, during the height of the First English Civil War. The execution of King Charles in 1649 left her impoverished. She settled in Paris, and then returned to England after the Restoration of her eldest son, Charles, to the throne. In 1665, she moved back to Paris, where she died four years later.

The North American Province of Maryland was named in her honour, and the name was carried over into the current U.S. state of Maryland. More on Henrietta Maria

Sir Anthony van Dyck, ( 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching. The Van Dyke beard is named after him. More Sir Anthony van Dyck

Guercino, (1591–1666)

The Persian Sibyl, c. (1647 – 1648)

Oil on canvas

Height: 1,170 mm (46.06 in). Width: 960 mm (37.8 in).

Capitoline Museums, Piazza del Campidoglio, Capitoline Hill, Rome, Italy.

The Persian Sibyl – also known as the Babylonian, Hebrew or Egyptian Sibyl – was the prophetic priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle.

The word “Sibyl” , meaning “prophetess, there were many Sibyls in the ancient world, but the Persian Sibyl allegedly foretold the exploits of Alexander of Macedon. She has had at least three names: Sambethe, Helrea and Sabbe.

Sambethe was said to be of the family of Noah. A painting of Sibilla Persica by Guercino hangs in the Capitoline Museum in Rome. The medieval Byzantine encyclopedia, the Suda, credits the Hebrew Sibyl as author of the Sibylline oracles, a collection of texts of the 2nd to 4th century which were collected in the 6th century. More on The Persian Sibyl


The Persian Sybil

Oil on canvas

112 x 74cm

Private collection

Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (February 8, 1591 – December 22, 1666), best known as Guercino, was an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from the region of Emilia, and active in Rome and Bologna. The vigorous naturalism of his early manner is in contrast to the classical equilibrium of his later works. His many drawings are noted for their luminosity and lively style.

Mainly self-taught, at the age of 16, he worked as apprentice in the shop of Benedetto Gennari, a painter of the Bolognese School. By 1615, he moved to Bologna, where his work was praised by Ludovico Carracci. Guercino painted two large canvases, Elijah Fed by Ravens and Samson Seized by Philistines, for Cardinal Serra, a Papal Legate to Ferrara. These paintings have a stark naturalist Caravaggesque style, although it is unlikely that Guercino saw any of the Roman Caravaggios first-hand.

Guercino’s early works are often tumultuous. He often claimed that his early style was influenced by a canvas of Ludovico Carracci that he saw in the Capuchin church in Cento. Some of his later works are closer to the style of his contemporary Guido Reni, and are painted with more lightness and clearness. More on Guercino


Michael Dahl, (1659–1743)

Portrait of Martha Langham

Oil on canvas

74 x 62cm

Private collection

Martha Langham4th daughter of Sir John Langham, as a young girl three-quarter length wearing a blue dress with a bowl of cherries and a canary, in a feigned oval. Martha died unmarried. 

Sir John Langham, 1st Baronet (20 April 1584 – 16 May 1671) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1654 and 1660.

He was the eldest son of Edward Langham of Guilsborough, Northamptonshire, who he succeeded in 1607. He was apprenticed to Sir Richard Napier, a Turkey merchant, for whom he worked in the Near East.

On his return he became a Turkey merchant himself,  and made a considerable fortune in the City of London. He built up an estate in Northamptonshire which included the purchase of the Cottesbrooke estate in 1635, (from which this painting comes). He was an alderman and sheriff of London in 1642. He was committed to the Tower of London twice, with the Lord Mayor and other aldermen of London for refusing to publish an act for the abolition of royalty. Langham died at the age of 87.  More on Sir John Langham

An acrimonious dispute within the Langhams,  one of England’s oldest families, will lead to the splitting up of their unique £1 million collection of portraits and heirlooms dating back more than five centuries. Generations of family portraits will go under the hammer after Sir John Langham, 44, failed to reconcile his differences with his mother, the dowager Lady Marion Langham, 64, who lives with her French boyfriend in a bungalow on the family estate. More on the dispute

Michael Dahl  (1659–1743), see below

Michael Dahl, (1659–1743)

A portrait of Elizabeth Langham

Oil on canvas

126 x 104cm

Private collection

A portrait of Elizabeth Langham, as a young woman, standing three quarter length on a terrace, a spaniel seated beside her, flowers in an ornamental urn at her shoulder, a wooded landscape beyond. It is thought that the landscape element represents the new landscaping at CottesbrookeMore on Cottesbrooke

Michael Dahl (Stockholm 1659-1743 London) studied in Sweden under Ehrenstrahl and began travelling in 1682, coming first to London where he may have studied under Kneller, then via Paris on to Rome in 1684. In 1687 he left Rome and came via Frankfurt to London where he settled for good in 1689. He soon became the best patronised portrait painter in England after Kneller. He was employed by Prince George of Denmark and did many portraits of the court of Queen Anne.  A great patron was the Duke of Somerset for whom he painted the famous ‘Petworth Beauties’.  After 1714 he lost court patronage but painted a large number of the nobility, the Law and the Church.  His style is very close to that of Kneller and his work is often misattributed to his rival but his interpretation of character tends to be softer and less formal. More on Michael Dahl

Michael Dahl,  (1659–1743)

Portrait of a Lady, c.1700-10

Oil on canvas Oil

Height: 1,260 mm (49.61 in). Width: 1,016 mm (40 in).

Dulwich Picture Gallery, South London

Michael Dahl  (1659–1743), see above

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15 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #13

Feuerbach, Anselm Friedrich, (b. 1829, Speyer, d.1880, Venezia)

Miriam, c. 1862

Oil on canvas

102 x 81 cm

Nationalgalerie, Berlin

Feuerbach’s imposing Italian model, Anna Risi, the wife of a Roman shoemaker, is found in many of his paintings. Her severe beauty suggests both a dominatrix and a nanny. In Miriam, she poses as Moses’ sister, striking a tambourine to celebrate the safe crossing of the Red Sea.

Anselm Feuerbach, (born September 12, 1829, Speyer, Bavaria [now in Germany]—died January 4, 1880, Venice, Italy) one of the leading German painters of the mid-19th century working in a Romantic style of Classicism.

Feuerbach was the son of a classical archaeologist and the nephew of the philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach. After studying art at the Düsseldorf Academy and in Munich, he went twice to Paris, where he worked in the studio of Thomas Couture and was influenced by Gustave Courbet and Eugène Delacroix.

Feuerbach lived in Italy from 1855 to 1873, and much of his best work was produced during this period. He was influenced by antique Greek and Roman art and Italian High Renaissance painting, and he developed an interest in idealized figure compositions of a lyrical, elegiac nature.

In 1873 Feuerbach became a professor at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and painted for the academy building Fall of the Titans, generally regarded as his weakest work. Discouraged by the harsh criticism of this work, Feuerbach left Vienna in 1876 and returned to Italy, where he died. More on Anselm Feuerbach


Domenico Ghirlandaio (Domenico Bigordi)

Portrait of Giovanna degli Albizzi Tornabuoni, 1489 – 1490

Mixed media on panel

77 x 49 cm

Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid

This panel is a fine example of fifteenth-century Florentine portraiture. Artists of the time followed classical dictates: body proportions were idealised while faces left devoid of expression were expected to convey character. In this half-length portrait, the sitter appears in strict profile, with her arms bent and her hands clasped together. In the background, a selection of personal belongings appears within a simple architectural frame. The cartellino to the right bears part of an epigram by Martial and the date of his death in Roman numerals. 

The model has been identified as Giovanna Tornabuoni on the basis of a medallion by Niccolò Fiorentino showing her likeness and her name. She is also portrayed full length in the Visitation fresco painted by Ghirlandaio for the Tornabuoni chapel in the church of Santa Maria Novella (Florence). More on this Painting

Domenico Ghirlandaio (2 June 1448 – 11 January 1494) was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence. Ghirlandaio was part of the so-called “third generation” of the Florentine Renaissance, along with Verrocchio, the Pollaiolo brothers and Sandro Botticelli. Ghirlandaio led a large and efficient workshop that included his brothers Davide Ghirlandaio and Benedetto Ghirlandaio, his brother-in-law Bastiano Mainardi from San Gimignano, and later his son Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Many apprentices passed through Ghirlandaio’s workshop, including the famous Michelangelo. Ghirlandaio’s particular talent lay in his ability to posit depictions of contemporary life and portraits of contemporary people within the context of religious narratives, bringing him great popularity and many large commissions. More on Domenico Ghirlandaio

François Gérard,  (1770–1837)

Joséphine en costume de sacre/ Empress Josephine in Coronation Robes, circa 1807-1808

Oil on canvas

Musée national du Château de Fontainebleau‎

Joséphine de Beauharnais (née Tascher de la Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French.

Her marriage to Napoleon I was her second; her first husband Alexandre de Beauharnais was guillotined during the Reign of Terror, and she was imprisoned in the Carmes prison until five days after Alexandre’s execution. Her two children by Alexandre became significant to royal lineage. Through her daughter, Hortense, she was the maternal grandmother of Napoléon III. Through her son, Eugène, she was the great-grandmother of later Swedish and Danish kings and queens. The reigning houses of Belgium, Norway and Luxembourg also descend from her. She did not bear Napoleon any children; as a result, he divorced her in 1810 to marry Marie Louise of Austria.

Joséphine was the recipient of numerous love letters written by Napoleon, many of which still exist. Her Château de Malmaison was noted for its magnificent rose garden, which she supervised closely, owing to her passionate interest in roses, collected from all over the world. More on Joséphine de Beauharnais

François Pascal Simon, Baron Gérard (4 May 1770 – 11 January 1837), was a French painter born in Rome. At the age of twelve Gérard obtained admission into the Pension du Roi in Paris. From the Pension he passed to the studio of the sculptor Augustin Pajou which he left at the end of two years for that of the history painter Nicolas-Guy Brenet, whom he quit almost immediately to place himself under Jacques-Louis David.

In 1794 he obtained  first prize in a competition. Further stimulated by the successes of his rival and friend Girodet in the Salons of 1793 and 1794. Gérard produced in 1795 his famous Bélisaire. In 1796 a portrait of his generous friend obtained undisputed success. In 1799, his portrait of Madame Mère established his position as one of the first portrait-painters of the day.

In 1808 as many as eight, and in 1810 no less than fourteen, portraits by him, were exhibited at the Salon, and these figures afford only an indication of the enormous numbers which he executed yearly; all the leading figures of the Empire and of the Bourbon Restoration, all the most celebrated men and women of Europe, sat for Gérard. Rich and famous, Gérard was stung by remorse for earlier ambitions abandoned. In 1817 he did homage to the returned Louis XVIII. After this date Gérard declined, watching with impotent grief the progress of the Romantic school.

Loaded with honors – baron of the Empire in 1809, member of the Institut on 7 March 1812, officer of the légion d’honneur, first painter to the king – he worked on, sad and discouraged; the revolution of 1830 added to his disquiet; and on 11 January 1837, after three days of fever, he died. More on Baron Gérard

Unknown, 19th century

Marriage of Napoleon with Joséphine de Beauharnais, or

Napoleon, Josefina and Mme Tallien, or

The marriage of Napoleon and Joséphine with one of the witnesses 

John Butler Yeats, 1839-1922


Oil on canvas

91.5 by 71cm., 36 by 28in.

Private collection

The present portrait was John Butler Yeats’s first big commission, received in 1872 from an unknown benefactor. Shortly after completing the painting, Mrs Herbert absconded with a lover never to return to the house. Family tradition has it that the lover who whisked Mrs Herbert away was the footman. More on The present portrait

Mary Herbert who, together with her husband, the Right Hon Henry Arthur Herbert, had acted as hosts for Queen Victoria on her visit to Killarney in August 1861.  Queen Victoria visited the estate with the Royal family in 1861 and received several of Mary’s paintings as a parting gift.

Mary Balfour Herbert (1817–1893) was a British artist. She grew up in Whittingehame House, East Lothian, Scotland, and travelled widely during her childhood. She took drawing lessons but had no other formal art education.

She met Henry Arthur Herbert while abroad in Rome and married him in September, 1837. His family owned the Muckross Estate near Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland, and they moved there to Torc Cottage after their wedding. She loved the Muckross estate.

She also worked at developing her talents as a watercolour artist, and she displayed considerable skill with practice. She painted many scenes from the Lakes of Killarney and was recognised as the “…most gifted amateur in the kingdom.”(The Times, Friday, August 30, 1861.)

In 1871, Mary moved to Bellagio, Italy, near Lake Como and continued her artwork there. She died in London in 1893 and was buried with her husband in Killegy graveyard. The house has subsequently become a museum, and the estate, the much-loved Killarney National Park. More on Mary Balfour Herbert

John Butler Yeats (16 March 1839 – 3 February 1922) was an Irish artist. He was born in Lawrencetown, townland of Tullylish, County Down. Yeats began his career as a lawyer and devilled briefly with Isaac Butt before he took up painting in 1867 and studied at the Heatherley School of Fine Art. There are few records of his sales, so there is no catalogue of his work in private collections. It is possible that some of his early work may have been destroyed by fire in World War II. He had no trouble getting commissions as his sketches and oils are found in private homes in Ireland, England and America. His later portraits show great sensitivity to the sitter. However, he was a poor businessman and was never financially secure. He moved house frequently and shifted several times between England and Ireland. At the age of 69 he moved to New York, where he was friendly with members of the Ashcan School of painters. He is buried in Chestertown Rural Cemetery in Chestertown, New York, next to his friend, Jeanne Robert Foster. More on John Butler Yeats 


Gabriel Schachinger, (German. 1850-1912)

A Young Beauty with Flowers

Oil on Canvas

30″ by 50″

Private collection

Gabriel Schachinger (* 31 March 1850 in Munich , † 9 May 1912 [1] in Eglfing ) was a German painter .

The son of a gilder studied at the Kunstakademie in Munich and received his artistic training with Hermann Anschütz , Alexander von Wagner and Karl von Piloty . From 1876 to 1878 he held a Bavarian State scholarship in Italy.

Schachinger then settled down in Munich. His most important works include a ceiling painting for the Kurhaus Wiesbaden and a curtain for the court theater in Munich . Apart from that, he mainly created portraits , flower still-life and genre pictures. His most famous painting, completed in 1887, shows King Ludwig in the guise of the Grand Master of the Order of St. George and hangs in the Museum of Herrenchiemsee Castle. More on Gabriel Schachinger


Shepard Fairey

We The People (Set Of 3), 2017

Lithographs On Paper

Each 24″ x 36″

Private collection

Shepard Fairey designed this series of posters to protest President-elect Donald Trump, who will be inaugurated as President of the United States later today.

Taking its name from the first line of the US constitution, the series We the People features portraits of Native Americans, African Americans, Muslims, and Latinas depicted in Fairey’s trademark style. 

“We thought [they were the] groups that had been maybe criticized by Trump and maybe were going to be most, if not necessarily vulnerable in a literal sense, most feeling that their needs would be neglected in a Trump administration,” Fairey told CNN. More on this art


Frank Shepard Fairey (born February 15, 1970) is an American contemporary street artist, graphic designer, activist and illustrator.He first became known for his “Andre the Giant Has a Posse” sticker campaign while attending the Rhode Island School of Design.

He became widely known during the 2008 U.S. presidential election for his Barack Obama “Hope” poster. The Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston has described him as one the best known and most influential street artists. More on Frank Shepard Fairey


Tamara Łempicka, (1898-1980)

The Orange Turban II, ca. 1945

Oil on canvas

30.5 x 26 cm

MuMa Le Havre

Painted in vivid colours, The Orange Turban II is the idealized portrait of a young woman with an intense, inquisitive gaze and elegant posture. It is undoubtedly the subject Lempicka replicated the most. There are eight known versions of this composition, the last of which was done in 1979, more than thirty years after the one at above.

Tamara Łempicka (born Maria Górska; 16 May 1898 – 18 March 1980), also known as Tamara de Lempicka, was a Polish painter active in the 1920s and 1930s, who spent her working life in France and the United States. She is best-known for her polished Art-Deco portraits of aristocrats and the wealthy, and for her highly-stylized paintings of nudes.

Born in Warsaw, Lempicka moved to Saint Petersburg where she married a prominent Polish lawyer, then emigrated to Paris with her husband following the Russian Revolution. Her style was a blend of late, refined cubism and the neoclassical style, particularly inspired by the work of Jean-Dominique Ingres. She was an active participant in the artistic and social life of Paris between the Wars. In 1928 she became the mistress of wealthy art collector from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Baron Raoul Kuffner. After the death of his wife in 1933, the Baron married Lempicka in 1934, and thereafter she became known in the press as “The Baroness with a Brush.”

Following the outbreak of World War II in 1939, she and her husband moved to the United States and she painted celebrity portraits, as well as still-lifes and, in the 1960s, some abstract paintings. Her work was out of fashion after World War II, but made a comeback in the late 1960s, with the rediscovery of Art Deco. She moved to Mexico in 1974, where she died in 1980. At her request, her ashes were scattered over the Popocatapetl volcano. More on Tamara Łempicka

Rudolf Johann Weisse, Swiss, 1846-1933 

Portrait of a Woman in a Green Robe 

Oil on canvas 

31 7/8 x 25 3/4 inches 

Private collection

Rudolph Weisse was born in Usti, Bohemia. While he is often confused with the Swiss Orientalist painter, Johann Rudolf Weiss (1846-1933), both men have their own distinct styles. 

According to Bénézit’s Dictionary of French Artists, Weisse specialized in portraits of Parisian beauties and Orientalist street scenes of Cairo. Weisse studied at the Viennese Akademie der Bildenden Künste and exhibited at the Paris Salon from 1889-1927. His paintings were also shown in Vienna, London, Bordeaux, and Toulon. More on Rudolph Weisse

François-Edouard Picot, PARIS 1786 – 1868 PARIS


Oil on canvas

81,5 x 69,5 cm ; 32 by 27 3/8 in.

Private collection

Pauline Viardot (18 July 1821 – 18 May 1910) was a leading nineteenth-century French mezzo-soprano, pedagogue, and composer, of Spanish descent. She achieved initial fame as “Pauline García”; the accent was dropped at some point, but exactly when is not clear. After her marriage, she referred to herself simply as “Mme Viardot”.

Viardot made her concert debut at the age of 15 in Brussels and her operatic debut two years later as Desdemona in Gioachino Rossini’s Otello in London. She was noted for her wide vocal range and could sing both soprano and contralto roles. The climax of her career came in 1859 when she performed the title role in Hector Louis Berlioz’ re-creation of Christoph Gluck’s Orfeo ed Eurydice at the Théâtre Lyrique in Paris. 

She sang for several seasons in the opera in St. Petersburg, Russia, and was one of the first artists to promote Russian music in western Europe. Her thoughtful interpretations earned her a place in Parisian intellectual circles, and Johannes Brahms, Camille Saint-Saëns, Robert Schumann, and Gabriel Fauré all wrote pieces for her. More on Pauline Viardot

François-Édouard Picot (Paris, 10 October 1786 – 15 March 1868, Paris) was a French painter during the July Monarchy, painting mythological, religious and historical subjects.

Born in Paris, Picot won the Prix de Rome painting scholarship in 1813, and gained success at the 1819 Salon with his neoclassical L’Amour et Psyché (Louvre).

He painted The Crowning of the Virgin in the church of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette  and had large commissions for the Galerie des Batailles. He exhibited at the Paris Salon between 1819 and 1839. Elected to the Paris Academy in 1836, Picot was also created an officer of the Legion of Honor in 1832. More on François-Édouard Picot 

Circle of Jean-Baptiste, Greuze, (French, 1775-1805)

“La Cruche Cassée (The Broken Jug/Pitcher)”

Oil pastel on canvas

42.5″h x 33″w

Private collection

Showing such a young lady alone implied that she was awaiting a tryst with a lover, and sadly, the message was that we was not likely to show up. A painting of a broken pitcher was a common symbol of lost virginity and virtue, so this work sent a clear message to its contemporary viewers. More on a Broken Pitcher

Jean-Baptiste Greuze, (French, 1725 – 1805). After training in Lyon, Jean-Baptiste Greuze arrived in Paris in 1750, where he sporadically attended the Académie Royale. His 1755 Salon debut was a triumph, but the acclamation turned his head. He antagonized everyone, including fellow artists, which later proved disastrous. 

While retaining the clear, bright colors and lighter attitude of eighteenth-century painting, Greuze introduced a Dutch-influenced realism into French genre painting and portraiture. Through vivid facial expressions and dramatic gestures, Greuze’s moralizing paintings exemplified the new idea that painting should relate to life. They captured the details of settings and costumes, “spoke to the heart,” educated viewers, and aimed to make them “virtuous.” 

In 1769 Académie members refused Greuze membership as a history painter, accepting him only in the lower category of genre, perhaps partly from ill will. Humiliated, he withdrew from public exhibitions completely. During the 1770s Greuze enjoyed a widespread reputation and engravings after his paintings were widely distributed, but his wife embezzled most of the proceeds. By the 1780s, Neoclassicism curtailed his popularity and his quality declined. After enduring poverty and neglect, he died unnoticed, having outlived his time and his reputationMore on Jean-Baptiste Greuze

Attributed to Jacques Emile Blanche, (French, 1861-1942)

“Femme en Contemplation,” “Woman in Contemplation,”

Pastel on canvas

36.5″h x 39.75″w

Private collection

Jacques-Émile Blanche (French: [blɑ̃ʃ]; 1 January 1861 – 20 September 1942) was a French artist born in Paris. He was brought up in the rich Parisian neighborhood of Passy in a house that had belonged to the Princesse de Lamballe.

Although Blanche received some instruction in painting, he may be regarded as self-taught. He became a very successful portrait painter, with a style derived from 18th-century English painters such as Thomas Gainsborough as well as Édouard Manet and John Singer Sargent. He worked in London, where he spent time from 1870 on, as well as Paris, where he exhibited at the Salon and the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. One of his closest friends was Marcel Proust, who helped edit several of Blanche’s publications. He also knew Henry James and is mentioned in Gertrude Stein’s The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas.

In 1902 Jacques-Émile Blanche took over the direction of the Académie de La Palette, where he would remain director until 1911. He taught at the Académie Vitti in 1903.

He was the author of the unreliable Portraits of a Lifetime: the late Victorian era: the Edwardian pageant: 1870–1914 (London: J.M. Dent, 1937) and More Portraits of a Lifetime, 1918–1938 (London: J.M. Dent, 1939), about which Walter Sickert said “he is liable to twist things he hears or doesn’t into monstrous fibs”. More on Jacques-Émile Blanche




Oil on canvas

32 x 44 cm

Private collection

Margarito Vela was the pseudonym of Margarito Ramirez, a prolific potosinian artist who excelled as a copyist and made many portraits. He was the author of famous works such as the portrait of Francisco I. Madero, which is preserved in the National Museum of History, and that of Manuel José Othón, currently in the Othonian Museum of San Luis Potosí. He also made works for the temple of San José and the Chapel of Guadalupe in SLP. More on 

Margarito Vela 

Stuart Luke Gatherer, (British, born 1972)

Envy – The understudy 

signed with initials ‘SLG’ (lower left),

oil on canvas

38 x 49cm (14 15/16 x 19 5/16in)

Private collection

Stuart Luke Gatherer was brought up in the Eastern Highlands of Scotland, and graduated from Edinburgh College of Art in 1995 with an MA in Fine Art. His paintings entice the viewer to interact with contemporary scenes from the vantage point of an unseen onlooker. This creates a psychological ambiguity that is emphasised by strong forms and colours modelled in dramatic light and shade. More on Stuart Luke Gatherer


Manfong Lee, (Indonesian/Chinese, 1913-1988)

Female Doing Make-Up

Ink washes on paper

16.25″h x 12.75″w

Private collection

Lee Man Fong was born on November 14, 1913 in Guangdong, China. Fong moved to Singapore in 1917 and studied at the Anglo-Chinese School until 1929. In 1932 he migrated to Java and worked for a Dutch printing and publishing company. In 1936 the head of the Dutch East Indies Association in Batavia invited Fong to participate in an exhibition, a great honor since he was the first non-Dutch artist to be given this invitation. 

After 1940 Fong devoted himself full-time to painting. He visited Bali, working briefly there, and held solo shows in Jakarta and Bandung. Fong quickly gained recognition for his paintings of Balinese subjects. He then held a solo show in Jakarta in 1941, after which he was interned by the Japanese.

In 1949 Fong was awarded a Malino scholarhip to study art in the Dutch Netherlands. He was there for three years, and then returned to Indonesia where his talent was acknowledged by President Soekarno, to whom he became an art advisor.

During this period Fong was awarded Indonesian citizenship. In 1967, when Soekarno fell from grace, Man Fong, who was considered close to Sukarno, and alleged to have communist inclinations, and this resulted in the artist’s decision to move to Singapore in 1970. His career continued to thrive, and he was often given lucrative commissions by Chinese businessmen who wanted him to paint animals of the Chinese zodiac.

Lee Man Fong, who returned to Indonesia in 1985, died on April 3, 1988 in Jakarta. More on Manfong Lee

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12 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, including Madame Mottewith Footnotes. # 12



Oil on canvas

126.9 x 103 cm.; 50 x 40 1/2  in.

Private Collection

Mary “Moll” Davis (1648 – 1708) was a seventeenth-century entertainer and courtesan, singer, and actress who became one of the many mistresses of King Charles II of England.

Davis was born around 1648 in Westminster and was said to be “a bastard of Collonell Howard, my Lord Barkeshire” – probably meaning Thomas Howard, third Earl of Berkshire, although her parentage has also been attributed to Robert’s older brother Charles, the second Earl.

During the early 1660s she was an actress in the ‘Duke’s Theatre Company’ and boarded with the company’s manager, Sir William Davenant. She became a popular singer, dancer and comedian. She flaunted the wealth she acquired from her association with Charles, and gained a reputation for vulgarity and greed. 

Davis gave up the stage in 1668 and in 1669 had a daughter by Charles, Lady Mary Tudor, who became famous in her own right. Later, Charles dismissed Davis. Charles awarded her an annual pension for life of £1,000, and furnished a house fon Suffolke Street. At the time this street belonged to James Howard, Moll’s natural father. 

In October 1673, Davis bought a new house in St James’s Square, paying £1800. In December 1686, Davis married the French musician and composer James Paisible (c. 1656-1721). The Paisibles joined James’s court in exile at St Germain-en-Laye, but in 1693 returned to England, where Paisible became composer to Prince George of Denmark, the husband of Princess Anne, heir to the throne. More on Mary “Moll” Davis

Henri Gascars, (1634–1701)

Louise de Querouaille (1649–1734), Duchess of Portsmouth, c. 1673

Oil on canvas

96 x 81 cm

Madingley Hall, University of Cambridge

Louise de Querouaille (Kérouaille),Duchess of Portsmouth, (September 1649 – 14 November 1734), an ancestress of Princess Diana, was born into a noble but relatively poor Breton family. The name Kérouaille derived from an heiress whom Louise’s ancestor François de Penhoët had married in 1330.

Louise was placed in the household of Henrietta Anne Stuart, Duchess of Orléans, the favourite youngest sister of Charles II. In 1670 Louise accompanied Henrietta on a visit to Dover to negotiate a treaty with her brother Charles II, by the terms of the treaty, Charles was to convert to Catholicism when the time was ripe in return for a lucrative French pension.

The Duchess of Orleans died suddenly soon after this meeting. Louise was left unprovided for, but Charles II wrote to the French king requesting that Louise should come to England to serve as a maid of honour to his wife Catherine of Braganza.

It was claimed that she had been planted by the French court to lure the king of England. The support she received from France was certainly provided on the understanding that she should serve the interests of her native country. This deal was confirmed by gifts and honours from Louis XIV. However, she became highly unpopular with the English people. Louise yielded to Charles’ advances only after she had established a strong hold in his affections. 

Henri Gascars, (1634–1701)

Louise de Querouaille (1649–1734), Duchess of Portsmouth, c. 1670

Oil on canvas

42 x 32 inches 106.7 x 81.3 cm

Private Collection

Her only child, a son Charles, was born in 1672 and was created Duke of Richmond, Earl of Darnley and Lord of Torbolton, by his father the king in 1675. He was given the surname Lennox, after Charles’ Stuart ancestors, the Dukes of Lennox.

Louise herself was granted the titles of Baroness Petersfield, Countess of Fareham and Duchess of Portsmouth in 19 August 1673. In December 1673 she was appointed Duchess of Aubigny in the Peerage of France at the request of Charles II. Nell Gwynne, Charles’ Cockney mistress, and Louise would prove rivals for many years.

Louise was strong enough to maintain her position during a long illness in 1677 retained her hold on Charles right to the end. In February 1685 she assisted in ensuring the king did not die without a Catholic confession and absolution. Soon after the king’s death, Louise returned to France with her son the Duke of Richmond

During her last years Louise became more religious and resided at Aubigny, deeply in debt. The French king, Louis XIV, and after his death the regent Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, provided a pension, Louise died in Paris on 14 November 1734, at the age of 85. More Louise de Querouaille

Henri Gascars, (1634–1701)

Louise de Querouaille (1649–1734), Duchess of Portsmouth, c. 1675

Oil on canvas

Henri Gascar (1635 – 1 Jan 1701) was a French-born portrait painter who achieved artistic success in England during the reign of Charles II. He painted many leading ladies at court, including several of the King’s mistresses, before returning to Paris. He subsequently relocated to Rome, where he died in 1701.

Gascar was born in Paris, the son a minor painter and sculptor. Gascar came to England about 1674, probably at the behest of Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth, Charles II’s favourite mistress. Gascar was already known as a skillful portrait-painter.

The patronage of the Duchess of Portsmouth ensured Gascar a rapid success in England. His flamboyant style, contrasting with the stolid English approach, seemed to suit the frivolity of the time and he painted many of the ladies of Charles II’s court. His lack of attention to detail in the likeness he made up for by the sumptuous draperies and tawdry adornments around the subject. 

Some time before 1680 he was shrewd enough to see that his success was merely due to a fashionable craze, and he retired to Paris before this had entirely ceased. On his return to Paris, Gascar was elected a member of the Académie Royale. He subsequently went to Rome, where he enjoyed a high reputation, and died there on 1 January 1701, aged 66. More on Henri Gascar

Elisabeth-Louise Vigée Le Brun, PARIS 1755 – 1842


Oil on canvas

74,5 x 60 cm ; 29 1/4  by 29 1/4  in

Private Collection

Jeanne de Valois-Saint-Rémy, “Comtesse de la Motte” (22 July 1756[1] – 23 August 1791) was a highly placed confidence woman whose greatest scam, the “Affair of the Diamond Necklace,” sped the fall of the French monarchy.

Jeanne de Valois was born to a very poor family. Her father, Jacques de Valois de Saint-Rémy (1717–1762), was a direct male-line descendant of Henry de Saint-Rémy (1557–1621), an illegitimate son of King Henry II; despite having royal Valois blood, Jacques was known as a drunkard. Jeanne’s mother was a debauched servant girl.

Jeanne was the third of six children. According to Count Beugnot they were rescued by his father and the abbot of Langres. According to another source, the family moved to Boulogne near Paris where a priest and one of his rich parishioners, Madame de Boulainvilliers, took care of them.

Their Valois ancestry was ascertained by a genealogist at Versailles, and as a result of legal dispositions set up to help children from poor nobility.  On 6 June 1780,[3] Jeanne married Marc-Antoine-Nicolas de la Motte, Mr Surmont’s nephew and an officer of the gendarmes. At the time of her wedding, Jeanne was heavily pregnant at the time

While the de la Motte family’s claim to nobility was dubious, both husband and wife assumed the title comte and comtesse de La Motte Valois.


The French jewelry firm Boehmer and Bassenge had invested a great deal of money into the stones needed to make a great necklace of diamonds, which they attempted unsuccessfully to sell, first to Madame du Barry, the mistress of Louis XV, and then to Louis XVI’s wife, Marie Antoinette.   This necklace became an incredibly expensive prop in a convoluted intrigue:  Louis René Édouard, Cardinal de Rohan, was out of favor with the queen, and wished to regain her good graces.  The Comtesse de la Motte claimed to him that she was a favorite of the queen and could effect reconciliation.  She then encouraged the cardinal to correspond with the queen, but she herself provided the answers, which were inscribed by a confederate and signed with the queen’s name.  She even arranged a meeting with a Marie Antoinette impersonator, and after a while the cardinal became persuaded that not only was the queen no longer angry with him, she was in love with him. The comtesse then convinced him that the queen wanted to buy the great diamond necklace – and that he should negotiate the purchase for 1,600,000 louis d’or, which he did, apparently in good faith.  He then handed the necklace over to the comtesse for delivery. The deception came to light when the jewelers asked to be paid.

This was the beginning of the most incredible swindle in the history of France. In 1784. Jeanne de la Motte was found guilty and sentenced to be whipped, branded and imprisoned. The public sympathized with her. She was condemned to prison for life in the Salpêtrière, but soon escaped disguised as a boy and made her way to London where, in 1789, she published her memoirs, which attempted to justify her actions while casting blame upon her chief victim, Marie Antoinette. More at Bryn Mawr College

Engraved by Meyer-Heine after De La Charlerie’ From “Histoire de la Revolution Francaise” by Louis Blanc

The Torture of Madame de la Motte. Jeanne de Saint-Remy de Valois, Comtesse de la Motte. 

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (Marie Élisabeth Louise; 16 April 1755 – 30 March 1842), also known as Madame Lebrun, was a prominent French painter.

Her artistic style is generally considered part of the aftermath of Rococo, while she often adopts a neoclassical style. Vigée Le Brun cannot be considered a pure Neoclassicist, however, in that she creates mostly portraits in Neoclassical dress rather than the History painting. While serving as the portrait painter to Marie Antoinette, Vigée Le Brun works purely in Rococo in both her color and style choices.

Vigée Le Brun left a legacy of 660 portraits and 200 landscapes. In addition to private collections, her works may be found at major museums, such as the Hermitage Museum, London’s National Gallery, and museums in continental Europe and the United States. More on Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun


Gustav Gaul, (German, 1836-1888)

A woman in folk dress, 1886

Oil on canvas laid down on masonite

50 x 34-1/4 inches (127 x 87.0 cm)

Private Collection

Gustav Gaul (born 6 February 1836 in Vienna , 7 September 1888 in Vorderbrühl, Stadt Mödling ) was an Austrian portraiteur and historian. Gustav was the older son of the painter Franz Gaul ; His younger brother was the later painter Franz Xaver Gaul . Gaul received his first lessons from his father; Sponsored by this, Gaul became a pupil at the art academy of his hometown. 

After five years, Gaul left the academy nd undertook a study trip to Upper Italy, and later spent several weeks in Dresden studying the Venetians. In 1855, Gaul was invited to present some of his paintings at the world exhibition in Paris. There followed a few study journeys through France and the Netherlands, from which he brought with him many landscaped sketches, which now and then reappeared in his histories.

One of his major commissioned works was the decoration of a hall at the Palais Todesco in Vienna. On behalf of the banker Edward von Todesco, Gaul designed a ceiling painting in Tempera with the train of Bacchus and scenes from the myth of Amor , Psyche and Venus .

At the age of 52, Gustav Gaul died on 7 September 1888 in Vorderbrühl, Stadt Mödling. More on Gustav Gaul

Alexandre-Jean Dubois-Drahonet, PARIS 1791 – 1834 VERSAILLES


Oil on canvas

69 x 54,5 cm ; 27 1/4 by 21 1/2 in.

Private Collection

Maria Malibran (24 March 1808 – 23 September 1836) entered the world in 1808 with an uncommonly interesting backstory and set of genes. Her father, the famous tenor Manuel Garcia; her Spanish mother was a more minor opera singer. Garcia was a spectacular singer, a brilliant teacher, and a manic brute. Determined to make his daughter into one of the planet’s most brilliant vocalists, he battered and terrorized her regularly in service to this aim. She had a miraculous voice by the time she made her debut at a London concert at 16. 

Having made a strong start on fame, Maria began working her way toward notoriety. Her first taste of fame and her experiences with Garcia combined to make the attentions of a mild, middle-aged French businessman, Eugène Malibran, seem very acceptable. In 1826 she married him. Dissatisfaction followed soon enough.

She resumed her career in Paris in 1828, which brought her the frantic adulation that would follow her for the rest of her flamelike life, and the sobriquet La Malibran. When not performing or rehearsing, she was partying or thrilling onlookers with her skills as a dashing equestrienne. She created many of her iconic Rossini, Bellini, and Donizetti roles during this period. 

La Malibran’s conduct would not qualify her as a Shady Lady but for one event: In 1829, scandalously separated from her husband, she fell in love with Charles de Bériot, a violinist. Love led to pregnancy and a son, born well before she managed to obtain an annulment and marry de Bériot in 1836. Despite the abundant publicity around these events, she did not lose her public’s love and was widely mourned when her premature death came that same year, the result of a riding accident and probable head injury. More on Maria Malibran

DUBOIS-DRAHONET, Alexandre-Jean, (b. 1791, Paris, d. 1829, Versailles) was a French painter. Born and raised in Paris, Alexandre Dubois-Drahonet was a student and disciple of Neo-classical French master, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and first exhibited at the Salon in 1822. The young artist painted the future Queen of England (Queen Victoria) when a girl, commissioned by William IV in 1832 as part of a much larger commission of some ninety portraits of officers and soldiers in uniform (now in the Royal Collection, Windsor). It was part of the commission to paint a series of pictures illustrating recent changes in the uniforms and weapons of the British Army.

The artist also worked for Charles X, painting a portrait of his grandson, Henri, duke of Bordeaux (now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux) and also worked for Louis-Philippe when duke of Orléans and after his accession. More on DUBOIS-DRAHONET

François Bouchot, (1800–1842)

Title Portrait de la Malibran en Desdémone, c. 1831

Oil on canvas

Musée de la vie romantique

Portrait by François Bouchot (1800-1842) of the famous singer Maria Malibran, known as “La Malibran” (1808-1836) that sang Alfred de Musset in famous Stanzas. It is represented in the role of Desdemona in 1834 she sang in Rossini’s Othello.

François Bouchot (1800–1842), a painter and engraver, was born in Paris in 1800. He studied engraving under Richomme, and then became a pupil of Regnault, and subsequently of Lethière, and obtained the ‘grand prix de Rome’ in 1823. He exhibited at the Salon from 1824 till his death, which occurred in Paris in 1842. A ‘Drunken Silenus’ by him is in the Lille Gallery, and the ‘Burial of General Marceau ‘ in the Mairie at Chartres. He was also celebrated for his portraits. More on François Bouchot

Édouard Vuillard, 1868 – 1940


Pastel on paper

19 3/4 by 25 1/2 in., 50.1 by 64.7 cm

Executed in 1927.

Private Collection

The sitter is Gabrielle Jonas, wife of Édouard Jonas, an antique dealer. She is seated in the living room of Jos and Lucy Hessel at 33 rue de Naples, a location partially identifiable by the paintings behind her, most of them presumably obtained by Jos Hessel through his business as director of the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery owned by his cousins Gaston and Josse Bernheim.

 Vuillard portrayed Jonas in a series of works in both pastel and, oil—eleven works center on her, and she appears with other figures in at least two additional images. More on Gabrielle Jonas

Jean-Édouard Vuillard (11 November 1868 – 21 June 1940) was a French painter and printmaker associated with the Nabis. The son of a retired captain, he spent his youth at Cuiseaux (Saône-et-Loire); in 1878 his family moved to Paris in modest circumstances. After his father’s death in 1884, Vuillard received a scholarship to continue his education. In the Lycée Condorcet Vuillard met Ker Xavier Roussel (also a future painter and Vuillard’s future brother in law), Maurice Denis, musician Pierre Hermant, writer Pierre Véber, and Lugné-Poe.

Vuillard was a member of the Symbolist group known as Les Nabis (from the Hebrew and Arabic term for “prophets” and, by extension, the artist as the “seer” who reveals the invisible). However, he was less drawn to the mystical aspects of the group and more drawn to fashionable private venues where philosophical discussions about poetry, music, theatre, and the occult occurred. Because of his preference for the painting of interior and domestic scenes, he is often referred to as an “intimist,” along with his friend Pierre Bonnard. He executed some of these “intimist” works in small scale, while others were conceived on a much larger scale made for the interiors of the people who commissioned the work. More Jean-Édouard Vuillard


Lilla Cabot Perry, (1848–1933)

The Green Hat, c. 1913

Oil on canvas

Terra Foundation for American Art, Daniel J. Terra Collection, 1987.25

Lilla Cabot Perry (January 13, 1848 – February 28, 1933) was an American artist who worked in the American Impressionist style, rendering portraits and landscapes in the free form manner of her mentor, Claude Monet. Perry was an early advocate of the French Impressionist style and contributed to its reception in the United States. Perry’s early work was shaped by her exposure to the Boston School of artists and her travels in Europe and Japan. She was also greatly influenced by Ralph Waldo Emerson’s philosophies and her friendship with Camille Pissarro. Although it was not until the age of thirty-six that Perry received formal training, her work with artists of the Impressionist, Realist, Symbolist, and German Social Realist movements greatly affected the style of her oeuvre. More Lilla Cabot Perry

Acknowledgement: Heritage AuctionsYOONIQ   , and others

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12 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #11

Zinaida Evgenievna Serebriakova, (1884-1967),

Self portrait, c. 1921

Private collection

Zinaida Evgenievna Serebriakova, (1884-1967), was a Modernist Russian painter, and was one of the best known and most highly regarded of her time. She was the daughter of the sculptor Evgenii Lanceray and was said to have been raised in an environment that helped to foster a love of the arts. The Lanceray family was said to be one of the most cultured lineages in all of Czarist Russia.

Serebriakova’s first major influence in art came from a visit to Venice, Italy. Venice was one of the major art centers of the world, and Serebriakova found herself inspired. Soon thereafter in 1901 she was attending classes at the School of the Princess Maria Tenisheva, and then studied in Paris at the Academie de la Grande Chaumiere. 

Serebriakova enjoyed a relatively successful career as a precocious young and talented artist, until her family fortunes were ravaged due to the Revolution. Her husband died in 1921, leaving her to struggle in order to make a living, and as a result, had to move out of the country. Thus, Serebriakova began to travel widely, including ventures into North Africa, while keeping Paris her base home.

Zinaida Evgenievna Serebriakova, (1884-1967),

The bather (Self portrait), c. 1911

Oil on canvas 

The State Russian Museum – Saint Petersburg 

Serebriakova became known for her stunning nudes, executed with a style that art historians say differentiated from that of most other Russian artists of her time. Her style is most closely related to that of Expressionism. It is said that her art is driven by the pursuit of female beauty, and that she demonstrated a strong sense of color, particularly in blue and red. More on Zinaida Evgenievna Serebriakova

Dietz Edzard, 1893 – 1963


Oil on canvas

72.5 by 53cm.; 28½ by 21in.

Private collection

Vivien Leigh (born Vivian Mary Hartley, and also known as Lady Olivier after 1947; 5 November 1913 – 8 July 1967) was an English stage and film actress. She won two Academy Awards for Best Actress for her iconic performances as Scarlett O’Hara in Gone with the Wind (1939) and Blanche DuBois in the film version of A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), a role she had also played on stage in London’s West End in 1949. She also won a Tony Award for her work in the Broadway musical version of Tovarich (1963).

After her drama school education, Leigh appeared in small roles in four films in 1935 and progressed to the role of heroine in Fire Over England (1937). Lauded for her beauty, Leigh felt that her physical attributes sometimes prevented her from being taken seriously as an actress. Despite her fame as a screen actress, Leigh was primarily a stage performer. During her 30-year career, she played roles ranging from the heroines of Noël Coward and George Bernard Shaw comedies to classic Shakespearean characters such as Ophelia, Cleopatra, Juliet, and Lady Macbeth. Later in life, she performed as a character actress in a few films.

At the time, the public strongly identified Leigh with her second husband Laurence Olivier, who was her spouse from 1940 to 1960. Leigh and Olivier starred together in many stage productions, with Olivier often directing, and in three films. She earned a reputation for being difficult to work with, and for much of her adult life she suffered from bipolar disorder as well as recurrent bouts of chronic tuberculosis, which was first diagnosed in the mid-1940s and ultimately claimed her life at the age of 53. More on Vivien Leigh

Roger Furse, 1903 – 1972


Watercolour, pen and ink and pencil on paper 

40 by 35cm.; 15¾ by 13¾in.

Private collection

Dietz Edzard, 1893 – 1963, studied at Max Beckmann in Berlin from 1911 onwards . He worked in the Netherlands. In 1927 he went to France in Provence . In 1929 work was exhibited by him in the Jeu de Paume , a collection of Impressionist art in Paris. In 1930 he returned to Berlin. Later, however , he went to Paris , where he settled and lived and exhibited until his lifebloom (Galerie Durand-Ruel). In the Second World War, he was in the Les Milles internment and deportation camp in southern Franceinterned. His works include museums in Grenoble , Bremen, Hamburg and Wuppertal as well as in many American and Canadian private collections, where he sold most of his works. His themes: theater, circus, women and children, dancers, Venetian still life, flowers. The historian Birgi Neumann-Dietzsch found in research that five paintings of the painter were regarded as degenerate and destroyed under the Nazis. More Dietz Edzard

The work of Edzard is artistically inspired by French Impressionism.

Roger Kemble Furse (11 September 1903 – 19 August 1972) was an English art director and costume designer of stage and film, educated at Eton and the Slade School of Fine Arts.

A frequent collaborator with Laurence Olivier, Furse won two Oscars in 1948, one each for his art direction and costume design of Olivier’s version of Hamlet. His other film credits include Henry V (1945), Odd Man Out (1947), Ivanhoe (1952) and The Roman Spring of Mrs Stone (1961). 

He was also nominated for a Tony Award in 1961 for his set design of the Broadway hit drama, Duel of Angels. More on Roger Kemble Furse 

Circle of Andreas Møller, (Danish, 1664–d. after 1752)

Portrait of Empress Maria-Theresa, Queen of Hungary

Oil on canvas

99 x 84.5 cm. (39 x 33.3 in.)

Private collection

Her title after the death of her husband was: Maria Theresa, by the Grace of God, Dowager Empress of the Romans, Queen of Hungary, of Bohemia, of Dalmatia, of Croatia, of Slavonia, of Galicia, of Lodomeria, etc.; Archduchess of Austria; Duchess of Burgundy, of Styria, of Carinthia and of Carniola; Grand Princess of Transylvania; Margravine of Moravia; Duchess of Brabant, of Limburg, of Luxemburg, of Guelders, of Württemberg, of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Milan, of Mantua, of Parma, of Piacenza, of Guastalla, of Auschwitz and of Zator; Princess of Swabia; Princely Countess of Habsburg, of Flanders, of Tyrol, of Hainault, of Kyburg, of Gorizia and of Gradisca; Margravine of Burgau, of Upper and Lower Lusatia; Countess of Namur; Lady of the Wendish Mark and of Mechlin; Dowager Duchess of Lorraine and Bar, Dowager Grand Duchess of Tuscany.

Andreas Møller  (1684–1762)

Erzherzogin Maria Theresia, (1717-1780), c. 1727

Oil on canvas

94 × 75 cm (37 × 29.5 in)

Kunsthistorisches Museum

Andreas Møller (30 November 1684 – c. 1762) was a Danish portrait painter and pioneer of miniature painting who worked at many European courts.

Born in Copenhagen, Møller was the first Danish painter of international standing. Andreas was the son of Dthe drawing teacher of King Frederick IV. In his youth he spent much time abroad, particularly in London, winning early renown as an accomplished artist.

He e finally left Denmark to work in Vienna, Kassel, Dresden, London, Paris, Florence, Mannheim, Leipzig and Berlin, where are most of his works.

His works include mainly portraits of members of European royal and princely houses, including a 1727 portrait of Maria Theresa (directly above), Holy Roman Empress as a girl aged 11. For the imperial family in Vienna, he made several portraits and miniatures.

Described as a versatile and elegant man, as well as a fine patriot, Møller spent his remaining years in Berlin, where he probably died in 1762. More on Andreas Møller


John Singer Sargent,  (1856–1925)

Capri Girl on a Rooftop, c. 1878

Oil on canvas

50.8 × 63.5 cm (20 × 25 in)

Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art

Rosina-Capri (1878), shows a 17-year-Rosina Ferrara dancing the tarentella on a rooftop  of (probably) Sargent’s hotel., accompanied by a female musician with a tambourine. More on this work

“At the invitation of Frank Hyde, an English painter working in Capri, Sargent established a studio in the abandoned monastery of Santa Theresa. It was there that Hyde introduced him to a famous local model, Rosina Ferrara, who appears in the present painting. Sargent described her as ‘an Ana Capri girl, a magnificent type, about seventeen years of age, her complexion a rich nut-brown, with a mass of blue-black hair, very beautiful, and of an Arab type’. Rosina became the artist’s favorite model during his sojourn on the island, appearing in a number of other paintings.The present painting is one of two very similar versions of the same subject, showing the young Rosina dancing the tarantella on the rooftop of the Marina Hotel, accompanied by a female musician playing a tambourine.” The other version (below), is a bit more detailed and less atmospheric. More on this painting

John Singer Sargent  (1856–1925)

Capri Girl on a Rooftop, c. 1878


John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the “leading portrait painter of his generation” for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.

His parents were American, but he was trained in Paris prior to moving to London. Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his “Portrait of Madame X”, was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. He lived most of his life in Europe. More John Singer Sargent

John Singer Sargent — American painter 

View of Capri, c. 1878   

Oil on academy board   

10 x 13 1/4 in

Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Conn

Rosina Ferrara (1861–1934) was an Italian girl from the island of Capri, who became the favorite muse of American expatriate artist John Singer Sargent. Captivated by her exotic beauty, a variety of 19th-century artists, including Charles Sprague Pearce, Frank Hyde, and George Randolph Barse made works of art of her that are now owned by private collectors and museums. Ferrara was featured in the 2003 art exhibit “Sargent’s Women” at New York City’s Adelson Galleries, as well as in the eponymous book published that year.

At about the age of thirty, Ferrara married Barse and they moved to the United States, settling in Westchester County, New York. More on Rosina Ferrara

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)

Rosina Ferrara, Head of a Capri Girl, 1878

Oil on cardboard 

12 7/8 x 9 7/8 in

Berger Collection

Sargent painted this intimate study of Rosina Ferrara, whom he met on the island of Capri, off the coast of Naples, during the summer of 1878, when he was only twenty-two. Rosina was his most frequent model and muse that summer. He was introduced to her by a fellow artist, Frank Hyde, to whom Sargent inscribed a dedication at the lower right of the picture. More a sketch than a finished painting, it combines careful brushwork in the depiction of Rosina’s delicate features with freely drawn outlines describing her back and upper body. Sargent made numerous sketches of Rosina as well as several finished paintings. More on this work


Portrait of Catherine de Médicis, c. 1556

Oil on Canvas

Palazzo Pitti, Galleria Palatina, Florence, Italy, 

Catherine de’ Medici (13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589), Born to an Italian father and a French mother, both of whom died within weeks of her birth, Catherine of Medici grew to be arguably the most powerful woman in 16th Century Europe.  The Medici family were very wealthy, while her French mother was from an exceptionally powerful French noble family. This combination of wealth and status made for a turbulent and often dangerous life for the young Caterina.

In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Catherine married Henry, second son of King Francis I and Queen Claude of France. She was Queen consort of France from 1547 to 1559. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state affairs. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state affairs and instead showered favours on his chief mistress, Diane de Poitiers (below), who wielded much influence over him.

François Clouet,  (1515–1572)

A Lady in Her Bath, (probably depicting Diane de Poitiers), circa 1571

Oil on oak

Height: 923 mm (36.34 in). Width: 812 mm (31.97 in).

National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Henry’s death thrust Catherine into the political arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II. When he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers. After Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III. He dispensed with her advice only in the last months of her life.

Clouet François, (vers 1515-1572)

Catherine de Médicis, reine de France (1519-1589)- c. 1556

Oil on wood

H 0.31 m, W: 0.22 m

Versailles, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon

François Clouet (c. 1510 – 22 December 1572), was a French Renaissance miniaturist and painter, particularly known for his detailed portraits of the French ruling family. He was born in Tours. François Clouet studied under his father. 

In 1541 the king renounces for the benefit of François his father’s estate, which had escheated to the crown as the estate of a foreigner. The younger Clouet is said to have followed his father very closely in his art. Like his father, he held the office of groom of the chamber and painter in ordinary to the king. Many drawings are attributed to this artist, often without perfect certainty.

As the praises of François Clouet were sung by the writers of the day, his name was carefully preserved from reign to reign, and there is an ancient and unbroken tradition in the attribution of many of his pictures. To him are attributed the portraits of Francis I at the Uffizi and at the Louvre, and various drawings relating to them.

He died on 22 December 1572, shortly after the massacre of St Bartholomew. His daughters subsequently became nuns. More on François Clouet

The problems facing the monarchy were complex and daunting but Catherine was able to keep the monarchy and the state institutions functioning even at a minimum level. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the rebelling Protestants, or Huguenots, as they became known. Later she resorted, in frustration and anger, to hard-line policies against them. In return, she came to be blamed for the excessive persecutions carried out under her sons’ rule, in which thousands of Huguenots were killed in Paris and throughout France.

Her authority was always limited by the effects of the civil wars. Her policies, therefore, may be seen as desperate measures to keep the Valois monarchy on the throne, and her patronage of the arts as an attempt to glorify a monarchy whose prestige was in steep decline. Without Catherine, it is unlikely that her sons would have remained in power. More on Catherine de’ Medici

Gustave Jean Jacquet, (French, 1846-1909)

Portrait of a lady, said to be Madame la Marquise d’Estrées 

Oil on canvas

61 x 51cm (24 x 20 1/16in)

Private collection

Gabrielle d’Estrées, Duchess of Beaufort and Verneuil, Marchioness of Monceaux (French 1573 – 10 April 1599) was a mistress, confidante and adviser of Henry IV of France. She persuaded Henry to renounce Protestantism in favour of Catholicism in 1593. Later she urged French Catholics to accept the Edict of Nantes, which granted certain rights to the Protestants. It was legally impossible for the king to marry her, because he was already married to Margaret of Valois, but he acknowledged Gabrielle as the mother of three of his children, and as “the subject most worthy of our friendship”. More on Gabrielle d’Estrées,

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10 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #10

Pablo Picasso, 1881 – 1973

Madame Canals, Benedetta Bianco. Paris, 1905

Oil and charcoal on canvas. 

90 x 70 cm

Museu Picasso, Barcelona

Once he had settled down definitively in Paris in 1904, Picasso got back in touch with several of his old friends from Barcelona. Without doubt, it was the ties to Ricard Canals which were strengthened the more in these new circumstances, and the portrait of Benedetta Bianco, the sentimental partner of Canals, testifies to that. At the Bateau Lavoir the two couples – Picasso and Fernande, and Canals and Benedetta – established a very close friendship: according to Fernande, Picasso would spend the days in the studio of Canals and Benedetta would make use of her culinary skills to feed everyone when the economic resources were scarce. More on Madame Canals

Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, also known as Pablo Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973), was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. One of his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907).

Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. His work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1904–1906), the African-influenced Period (1907–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), also referred to as the Crystal period.

Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art. More on Pablo Picasso


Ricardo Canals y Llambi

A Balcony At The Bullfight, 1904

Oil on canvas

157.00 x 256.30 cm

Private collection

Painted in 1904 while Canals was living and working in a studio at the Bateau Lavoir in Montmartre, this animated painting shows a wonderfully elegant array of ladies dressed up for the great social occasion of the bullfight, in manola dress with their black and white mantillas. As part of a typical artistic device, used by Renoir, Manet, and Goya before them, the spectators become the spectacle, The bull ring offered a wonderful opportunity for the audience – especially the ladies – to show off their finery, and became almost as much an occasion for observing one another as it was to follow the performance. More on Balcony At The Bullfight

The two central ladies leaning on the balustrade were Fernande Olivier and Benedetta (‘Bianco’) Coletti. Fernande was muse and model to the Catalan painter Joaquín Sunyer, but she famously left him for Picasso when the latter arrived at the Bateau Lavoir in 1904. The Italian-born Benedetta became Canal’s lover and later his wife. At the beginning of her relationship with Picasso, Fernande was living with Canals and Bianco, and the pose of the central figures in the present work is clearly borrowed directly from a 1904 photograph of the two in Canals’ studio. More on this painting

Ricard Canals i Llambí (13 December 1876, Barcelona – 7 February 1931, Barcelona) was a Catalan Impressionist painter, illustrator and engraver; initially associated with the short-lived “Saffron Group”.

He began his studies in 1893 at the Escola de la Llotja, but stayed only a short time before leaving to travel with friends. He ended up in Paris with Nonell, where he held a successful showing at “Le Barc de Boutteville”, a gallery devoted to young artists. This enabled him to obtain Paul Durand-Ruel as an agent and exhibit throughout Europe and the United States.

Although many of his Parisian paintings were in Spanish costumbrista style, to appeal to his French clients, during this time he came under the influence of Renoir and Degas. He also continued a friendship with Picasso, whom he had met in Barcelona. In 1905, Picasso painted a portrait of the model, Benedetta Bianco (above), who would later become Canals’ wife. The year before, Canals had painted “A Box at the Bullfight”, which portrayed Bianco and Picasso’s future partner, Fernande Olivier (this painting).

He returned to Barcelona in 1907. Three years later, he was named Chairman of the painting section of the newly founded association, “Les Arts i els Artistes”. He remained a member until his death. The organization disbanded in 1936. During this time, he made long stays in Madrid, Seville and Granada, painting a wide variety of subjects, although he is especially remembered for his portraits. More on Canals

Venetian School, 18th/19th century


Oil on panel

6-1/2”h, 5”w

Private collection

Venetian school (art). From the later part of the 15th century, Venice had a distinctive, thriving and influential art scene. Beginning with the work of Giorgione (c. 1477–1510), and the workshop of Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430–1516), major artists of the Venetian school included Titian (1489–1576), Tintoretto (1518–1594), Veronese (1528–1588) and the Bassano (1510–1592). Considered to bring a primacy of color over line, this tradition was seen to contrast with the Mannerism then prevalent in the rest of Italy, and the Venetian style is viewed as having had a great influence on the subsequent development of painting. More on Venetian school

Ignacio Zuloaga, 1870 – 1945, SPANISH

LA OTERITO (Eulalia Franco), c. 1936

Oil on canvas

176 by 120.5cm., 69¼ by 47½in.

Private collection

Zuloaga’s depiction of the dancer Eulalia Franco – familiarly called La Bella Oterito – sitting in her dressing room is one of the most sexually suggestive portraits that he ever painted.

But for wearing a bullfighter’s short cropped chaquetilla, a bouquet of flowers in her hair, and a pair of red satin high-healed shoes on her feet, Eulalia sits proudly naked at her dressing table as she turns to look teasingly at the viewer. Her supremely elegant and confident pose – the product of a colourful career on stage – belies any notion of her own sense of déshabillé. The velvet curtain pulled back to the left of the composition simultaneously alludes to the artist’s debt to the Spanish Baroque, indicates Eulalia’s profession, and – peep-show-like in intent – allows the viewer the opportunity to glory in her titillating state of undress.

Eulalia Franco’s diminutive appellation ‘La Oterito’ is derived from comparisons made of her to another leading dancer of the day Carolina ‘la belle’ Otero (1868-1965), who made her stage reputation in Paris in the role of an Andalusian gypsy and as a star at Les Folies Bergère. Eulalia likewise specialised in performing Spanish dances and songs, and in her free interpretation and exuberant delivery she not only made the most of her curvaceous form, but was widely viewed as technically more accomplished than her namesake. Although she attracted considerable attention within Spain, her reputation was made in performances abroad, where she garnered a huge following as the star attraction in shows across Europe, the USA and South America. More on Eulalia Franco

Ignacio Zuloaga, in full Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta (born July 26, 1870, Eibar, near Bilbao, Spain—died Oct. 31, 1945, Madrid) Spanish genre and portrait painter noted for his theatrical paintings of figures from Spanish culture and folklore.

The son of a successful metalworker, Zuloaga was a largely self-taught artist who learned to paint by copying Old Masters in the Prado Museum in Madrid. Beginning about 1890, he split his time between Paris and Spain. In Paris he became acquainted with the artists Paul Gauguin, Edgar Degas, and Auguste Rodin. Despite his contact with these prominent French artists, however, his main influences were the Spanish masters El Greco, Diego Velázquez, and Francisco de Goya.

Inspired by a visit to the Andalusia region of Spain in 1892, Zuloaga began to focus on subject matter from Spanish culture and folklore, such as bullfighters, peasants, and dancers. He used earthen colours almost exclusively and often placed his figures against dramatic landscapes. Zuloaga began to achieve international success with the painting Daniel Zuloaga and His Daughters, which was exhibited in 1899 and purchased by the French government for the Luxembourg Museum in Paris. About 1907 he became a popular society portraitist, an aspect of his career that brought him considerable wealth.

After spending much of his career working in Paris, Zuloaga settled permanently in Spain in 1924. His paintings were exhibited in a highly successful one-man show in New York City in 1925. He was awarded the grand prize for painting at the Venice Biennale in 1938. More on Ignacio Zuloaga


British School, 19th century

Portrait of a lady

Oil on canvas

30-1/4”h, 25-1/4”w.

Private collection

In the 18th century, English painting finally developed a distinct style and tradition again. Sir James Thornhill’s paintings were executed in the Baroque style of the European Continent and William Hogarth reflected the new English middle-class temperament — English in habits, disposition, and temperament, as well as by birth. His satirical works, full of black humour, point out to contemporary society the deformities, weaknesses and vices of London life.

Portraits were, as elsewhere in Europe, most easy and most profitable way for an artist to make a living, and the English tradition continued to draw of the relaxed elegance of the portrait style developed in England by Van Dyck. By the end of the century, the English swagger portrait was much admired abroad, and had largely ceased to look for inspiration abroad.

The early 19th century also saw the emergence of the Norwich school of painters. Influenced by Dutch landscape painting and the landscape of Norfolk. It was short-lived due to sparse patronage and internal faction prominent members.

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood movement, established in the 1840s, dominated English art in the second half of the 19th century. Its members concentrated on religious, literary, and genre works executed in a colorful and minutely detailed almost photographic style. More on British School, 18th & 19th century

Auguste Toulmouche, (French 1829-1890)

“Le Billet”   1883 

Oil on Canvas Size

66 x 45 cm

Museum of Fine Arts, Nantes, France

Auguste Toulmouche (September 21, 1829 – October 16, 1890) was a French painter who painted in the academic realism style.  He studied design with a local sculptor and painting with a local portraitist.  In 1846, he moved to Paris.  There he entered the studio of Swiss artist Charles Gleyre and, by 1848, was ready to make his Salon debut.  He was only nineteen years old. He won a third class medal in 1852 and a second class medal in 1861.  In 1870, he was awarded the Legion of Honour.

Toulmouche is best known for his depictions of richly clad women set against the backdrop of luxurious interiors.  His paintings have been called “elegant trifles” and the ladies who feature in them have been referred to as “Toulmouche’s delicious dolls.”  One critic even compared the interiors of a Toulmouche painting to daintily decorated jewel boxes.  

In 1862, Toulmouche married a cousin of Claude Monet.  This alliance led to his being asked to mentor the young Monet.

Auguste Toulmouche died in Paris on October 16, 1890.  Those paintings of his that are not now in private collections can be found hanging in some of the finest museums in the world. More Auguste Toulmouche


Julius LeBlanc Stewart, 1855 – 1919

Portrait of Marie Renard 

Oil on panel 

9 1/2 by 6 inches (24.1 by 15.2 cm)

Private collection

Marie Renard (8 January 1864 – 19 October 1939) was an Austrian operatic mezzo-soprano, later soprano. Born Marie Pölzl, she first studied voice in her native city of Graz and later in Berlin. She debuted in 1882 in Graz as Azucena in Verdi’s Il trovatore, filling in for another singer, and was engaged there until 1884. The following season (1884–1885) she sang at the German Theatre in Prague. After making guest appearances in the title roles at the Berlin Hofoper in 1885, she became a member of that company from 1885 to 1888 and sang there in the premiere of Heinrich Hofmann’s Donna Diana on 15 November 1886.

In 1888 she was engaged by the Vienna Hofoper. She reached the peak of her career and popularity with that company. She was prized above all for her portrayals of roles in French operas (sung in German), in particular as Carmen. One of her most memorable performances was as Charlotte in the world premiere of Massenet’s Werther.

After her retirement she married Count Rudolf Kinsky. She died in her native city of Graz. More on Marie Renard

Julius LeBlanc Stewart (September 6, 1855, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania — January 5, 1919, Paris, France), was an American artist who spent his career in Paris. A contemporary of fellow expatriate painter John Singer Sargent.

His father, the sugar millionaire William Hood Stewart, moved the family from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Paris in 1865, and became a distinguished art collector. Julius studied under Eduardo Zamacois andJean-Léon Gérôme at the École des Beaux-Arts, and later was a pupil of Raymondo de Madrazo.

Stewart’s family wealth enabled him to live a lush expatriate life and paint what he pleased, often large-scaled group portraits. He exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon from 1878 into the early 20th century, and helped organize the “Americans in Paris” section of the 1894 Salon. The Baptism, which reportedly depicts a gathering of the Vanderbilt family, was shown at the 1893 Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition, and received acclaim at the 1895 Berlin International Exposition (below).

Julius LeBlanc Stewart  (1855–1919)

The Baptism, c. 1892

Oil on canvas

201.3 × 297.5 cm (79.3 × 117.1 in)

Los Angeles County Museum of Art

He painted a series of sailing pictures. The most accomplished of these, Venice, showed a sailing party on deck and included a portrait of the actress Lillie Langtry. Another, Yachting on the Mediterranean, set a record price for the artist, selling in 2005 for US$2.3 million.[2]

Late in life, he turned to religious subjects, but Stewart is best remembered for his Belle Époque society portraits and sensuous nudes. More on Julius LeBlanc Stewart

Natalia Baykalova, April 7, 1985 Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Hakama №1

Oil on canvas

36.2 H x 49.2 W x 1.2 in

Private collection

Hakama are a type of traditional Japanese clothing. Trousers were used by the Chinese imperial court in the Sui and Tang dynasties, and this style was adopted by the Japanese in the form of hakama beginning in the sixth century. Hakama are tied at the waist and fall approximately to the ankles. They are worn over a kimono (hakamashita). More on Hakama

Natalia Baykalova, April 7, 1985 Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Hakama №2

Oil on canvas

50 x 70 x 2 cm

Private collection

Natalia Baykalova was born on April, 7th, 1985 in Krasnoyarsk, Russia. Her mother Tatiana noticed her artistic talent and encouraged her to persue her ambition. At the age of 10 years Natalia started to attending classes in an art studio, then progressed to he most higher art school of Surikova. At the age of 15 Natalia joined the Art College of Surikova, well known for their classical traditions. 

Natalia begins her career working as a designer, illustrator, and then as an Art Director in City Format Magazine. At the magazine she has begun to work as a photographer. This new work helped Natalia to define further visions and directions for her paintings. During those same years she created her own style of painting. Painting has become her first priority. All her life experiences and education are mixed together to deliver a very talented and experienced paintings to the world. “In paintings I reflect my knowledge, emotions, myself and the world”. More on Natalia Baykalova

Acknowledgement: Sotheby’s, and others

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12 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, with Footnotes. # 24

Pedro Sáenz y Sáenz

Chrysanthemums/ Madame Butterfly, ca. 1900

Oil on canvas

81 x 55 cm

Propiedad de la Excma. Diputación Provincial de Málaga

Madame Butterfly: In 1904, a U.S. naval officer named Pinkerton rents a house on a hill in Nagasaki, Japan, for himself and his soon-to-be wife, “Butterfly”. Her real name is Ciocio-san. She is a 15-year-old Japanese girl whom he is marrying for convenience, since he intends to leave her once he finds a proper American wife, and since Japanese divorce laws are very lax. The wedding is to take place at the house. Butterfly had been so excited to marry an American that she had earlier secretly converted to Christianity. After the wedding ceremony, her uninvited uncle, a bonze, who has found out about her conversion, comes to the house, curses her and orders all the guests to leave, which they do while renouncing her. Pinkerton and Butterfly sing a love duet and prepare to spend their first night together.

Three years later, Butterfly is still waiting for Pinkerton to return. The American consul, Sharpless, comes to the house with a letter which he has received from Pinkerton which asks him to break some news to Butterfly: that Pinkerton is coming back to Japan, but Sharpless cannot bring himself to finish it because Butterfly becomes very excited to hear that Pinkerton is coming back. Sharpless asks Butterfly what she would do if Pinkerton were not to return. She then reveals that she gave birth to Pinkerton’s son after he had left and asks Sharpless to tell him.

The next morning Sharpless and Pinkerton arrive at the house, along with Pinkerton’s new American wife, Kate. They have come because Kate has agreed to raise the child. But, as Pinkerton sees how Butterfly has decorated the house for his return, he realizes he has made a huge mistake. He admits that he is a coward and cannot face her, leaving Suzuki, Sharpless and Kate to break the news to Butterfly. Agreeing to give up her child if Pinkerton comes himself to see her, she then prays to statues of her ancestral gods, says goodbye to her son, and blindfolds him. She places a small American flag in his hands and goes behind a screen, cutting her throat with her father’s hara-kiri knife. Pinkerton rushes in, but he is too late, and Butterfly dies. More on Madame Butterfly

Pedro Saenz Saenz ( Malaga , 14 as October as 1863 – Malaga , October as January as 1927 ) was a  Raphaelite painter, belonging to the Malaga school of painting . Disciple of Bernardo Ferrándiz , he studied at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando . 

He completed his training in Rome in 1888, where he met other Spanish painters such as Simonet , Sorolla or Viniegra . At this stage he is also influenced by Art Nouveau and Catalan modernism .

His work can be considered academic , but has a predilection for the themes of romantic symbolism, as in The grave of the poet or Stella Matutina , both at the Museum of Málaga and both made him a medal in 1901. 

Among his works predominate portraits and female nudes, luminous and detailed, and some portraits, such as those of the Town Hall of Malaga . Some other of his paintings to review are: The amateur , Carlota or the Portrait of the Marchioness of Loring. More Pedro Saenz Saenz 

ANDY WARHOL, (1928-1987) 

Hélène Rochas, c. 1974

Acrylic and silkscreen ink on canvas

101.6 x 101.6 cm. (40 x 40 in.) 

Private collection

Helene Rochas (1921 – 2011). Nelly Brignole studied dance and acting before meeting at 19, the fashion designer Marcel Rochas whom she soon married and became Hélène – much more elegant than Nelly. Beautiful and graceful, she perfectly embodied the Femme Rochas, she was her husband’s ideal muse and model and had to renounce to her acting career even though she was offered a role in Jacques Becker’s Golden Helmet. When her husband died in 1955, she proved she was not only a pretty face and took over his perfume brand and managed to make it become an international flourishing company. His death also helped ‘La Belle Hélène’ grow free of her Pygmalion’s influence and she could finally decide what to wear and developed her own artistic taste – more modernist and subtle. The friend and inspiration of many fashion designers such as Hubert de Givenchy and Yves Saint Laurent, she imprinted contemporary art’s mythology with the portrait Andy Warhol depicted of her in 1975. More Helene Rochas

Andy Warhol (born Andrew Warhola; August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was an American artist, director and producer who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture, and advertising that flourished by the 1960s. 

Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol initially pursued a successful career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in several galleries in the late 1950s, he began to receive recognition as an influential and controversial artist. 

Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions, books, and feature and documentary films. The Andy Warhol Museum in his native city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives. Many of his creations are very collectible and highly valuable. More on Andy Warhol

Anders Zorn, Swedish, 1860-1920

Isabella Stewart Gardner in Venice, c. 1894

Oil on canvas

91 x 66 cm (35 13/16 x 26 in.)

Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum

While visiting the Gardners in Boston in February 1894, Anders Zorn made an etching of Mrs. Gardner, which neither of them considered to be a complete success. Later that year Zorn and his wife visited the Gardners in Venice, staying for several weeks as their guests in the Palazzo Barbaro. He attempted again to make a portrait of Mrs. Gardner, but continued to struggle with the task. One evening, Mrs. Gardner stepped out into the balcony to see what was happening outside, and as she came back into the drawing-room, pushing the French windows open, Zorn exclaimed (according to Morris Carter): “Stay just as you are! That is the way I want to paint you.” He went instantly for his materials, and then and there the portrait was begun. More on this painting

Isabella Stewart Gardner (April 14, 1840 – July 17, 1924) was a leading American art collector, philanthropist, and patron of the arts. She founded the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston.

Isabella Stewart Gardner had a zest for life, an energetic intellectual curiosity and a love of travel[citation needed]. She was a friend of noted artists and writers of the day, including John Singer Sargent, James McNeill Whistler, Dennis Miller Bunker, Anders Zorn, Henry James, Okakura Kakuzo and Francis Marion Crawford.

Gardner created much fodder for the gossip columns of the day with her reputation for stylish tastes and unconventional behavior. The Boston society pages called her by many names, including “Belle,” “Donna Isabella,” “Isabella of Boston,” and “Mrs. Jack”. Her surprising appearance at a 1912 concert (at what was then a very formal Boston Symphony Orchestra) wearing a white headband emblazoned with “Oh, you Red Sox” was reported at the time to have “almost caused a panic”, and remains still in Boston one of the most talked about of her eccentricities. More on Isabella Stewart Gardner 

Anders Leonard Zorn (18 February 1860 – 22 August 1920) was one of Sweden’s foremost artists. He obtained international success as a painter, sculptor and etcher. From 1875 to 1880 Zorn studied at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts in Stockholm. Members of Stockholm society approached him with commissions. Zorn traveled extensively to London, Paris, the Balkans, Spain, Italy and the United States, becoming an international success as one of the most acclaimed painters of his era. It was primarily his skill as a portrait painter that gained Zorn international acclaim based principally upon his incisive ability to depict the individual character of his model. At 29, he was made a Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur at the Exposition Universelle 1889 Paris World Fair. More Anders Leonard Zorn

Kerri-Jane Evans, South Africa, born in 1967. 

Winter Portrait

Oil on board

60 x 60 cm

Everard-Read Gallery, Johannesburg

In this age of cybernetics, cynicism and simulacra, there exists the misconception that art should say big things about big issues. It is a discourse driven by ‘the idea’ and lubricated by the nutrients of parody, commentary and critique. The paintings of Kerri-Jane Evans move against this flow. And the term ‘flux’ is central to her vision because, like the constant shifts of light and colour that determine and regulate the cycles of day and night, colour and brushstroke in her paintings ebb and flow, and her forms seem to morph from solid and substantial to the ethereal. It is as though Evans is reluctant to impose too much authority or ownership on the paintings.

She never completes one painting before starting another. She works – or rather reworks – on all simultaneously. Each work in inherently, deliberately incomplete. In places her mark is stylized and linear, only to be subverted by her loose brushstrokes and unpredictable palette. For Evans the greatest challenge is to accept the paradox of incomplete endings. “The image never reaches completion; rather it stops at the point where it is taken away, almost like a small death.” More on Kerri Evans

Jeremy Mann, b. 1979

The Muse, c. 2012

Oil on panel

48 x 48 in.

Private collection


“A muse is anything but a paid model. The muse in her purest aspect is the feminine part of the male artist, with which he must have intercourse if he is to bring into being a new work. She is the anima to his animus, the yin to his yang, except that, in a reversal of gender roles, she penetrates or inspires him and he gestates and brings forth, from the womb of the mind. Painters don’t claim muses until painting begins to take itself as seriously as poetry. Andrea del Sarto, an Italian painter born in 1486, was famously married to his muse, Lucrezia, whose features so closely approached his ideal that he made all his female figures in her likeness, at a time when most other painters were building their beautiful female images on the well-loved bodies of boys. Since then, artists as different as Rubens, Bonnard, Renoir, Charles Blackman and Brett Whiteley have painted their wives over and over again, but their wives were their subjects rather than their muses.” More on a muse

Jeremy Mann (American, b.1979) is a painter best known for his moody, dark cityscapes. Mann graduated from Ohio University with a degree in Fine Art painting, and later attended the Academy of Art University in San Francisco.

Working on wood panels, Mann employs various techniques when creating his pieces, including staining the surface, wiping away paint with solvents, and applying broad marks with an ink brayer. Mann uses vivid, atmospheric colors, and is often inspired by the city of San Francisco, where he currently lives and works. In addition to his urban scenes, he also paints still lifes, and portraits of young women in his characteristically impressionistic manner. He has exhibited at venues around San Francisco and throughout the United States, at galleries such as John Pence Gallery, the Studio Gallery, Christopher Hill Gallery, and Principle Gallery, among others. More on Jeremy Mann


John Singer Sargent, American, 1856-1925

Portrait of Isabella Stewart Gardner, c. 1888

Oil on canvas

190 x 80 cm

Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum

Mrs. Gardner sat for Sargent during his visit to Boston in January 1888. He was paid $3000 for the portrait, which was exhibited to great acclaim at Boston’s St. Botolph Club. The work also inspired gossip and legend: someone jokingly titled it “Woman: An Enigma,” while others believed that the sensuous display of flesh deliberately echoed the scandal recently created by Sargent’s Madame X. Mrs. Gardner herself said that she rejected eight renderings of the face until she was satisfied. Jack Gardner seems to have asked his wife not to publicly show the portrait again while he was alive, and indeed the portrait was placed in the Gothic Room, which remained private until Mrs. Gardner’s death. More on this painting

John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the “leading portrait painter of his generation” for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.

He was trained in Paris prior to moving to London. Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his “Portrait of Madame X”, was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. He lived most of his life in Europe. More on John Singer Sargent

John Singer Sargent,  American painter

Caterina Vlasto, (or Catherine), c. 1897

Oil on canvas

148.6 x 85.4 cm (58 1/2 x 33 5/8 in.)

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Caterina (or Catherine) Vlasto, born. 30 July 1875 Londen, UK, the eighth of nine children  and died 3 June 1899 London, UK.  She was the second youngest of her siblings. 

When Sargent painted her she would have been 22. The piano is identified (by Ormond and Kilmurray) as the Bechstein which was in Sargent’s Tite Street studio. 

The ancestors of the Vlasto family have been traced back to the island of Chios (Greece) and Constantinople (Turkey) of the 15th century. They were a noble family but were scatted in the 16th century to escape persecution from the Turks. By the 1800’s they were all over Europe. Although Catherine was born in London, her father — Alexandre (Antoine) Vlasto — was born in Trieste, Italy (1833), and his father was born on the Greek island of Chios (1804). More Caterina Vlasto

John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the “leading portrait painter of his generation” for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.

His parents were American, but he was trained in Paris prior to moving to London. Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his “Portrait of Madame X”, was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. He lived most of his life in Europe. More John Singer Sargent

Georges Moreau de Tours, (1848 – 1901, French)

Blanche de Castille, 19e siècle

Nevers ; musée de la Faïence

Blanche of Castile (Spanish: Blanca; 4 March 1188 – 27 November 1252) was Queen of France by marriage to Louis VIII. She acted as regent twice during the reign of her son, Louis IX: during his minority from 1226 until 1234, and during his absence from 1248 until 1252. She was born in Palencia, Spain, 1188, the third daughter of Alfonso VIII, king of Castile, and Eleanor of England. Eleanor was a daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Louis VIII and Blanche were crowned on August 6. Upon Louis’ death in November 1226 he left Blanche, by then 38, regent and guardian of his children. Of her children Louis was the heir — afterwards the sainted Louis IX — he was twelve years old. She had him crowned within a month of his father’s death in Reims and forced reluctant barons to swear allegiance to him. St. Louis owed his realm to his mother and remained under her influence for the duration of her life. 

In 1248, Blanche again became regent, during Louis IX’s absence on the Crusade, a project which she had strongly opposed. In the disasters which followed she maintained peace, while draining the land of men and money to aid her son in the East. She fell ill at Melun in November 1252, and was taken to Paris, but lived only a few days. More on Blanche of Castile

Georges Moreau de Tours (4 April 1848, Ivry-sur-Seine – 12 January 1901, Bois-le-Roi) was a French history painter and illustrator. In 1865 he entered the École des Beaux-Arts, where he studied with Alexandre Cabanel. He was a regular exhibitor at the Salon from that time until 1896. In addition to his canvas paintings, he produced three scenes for the wedding chamber at the Town Hall in the Second Arrondissement. More on Georges Moreau de Tours


Circle of Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger (Bruges 1561-1635 London)

Portrait of a lady, traditionally identified as Elizabeth Throckmorton

Oil on panel, trimmed

108.7 x 78.4cm (42 13/16 x 30 7/8in)

Private collection

Elizabeth “Bess” Raleigh, (16 April 1565 – circa 1647), née Throckmorton, was Sir Walter Raleigh’s wife and a Gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England. Their secret marriage precipitated a long period of royal disfavour for both her and her husband.

Queen Elizabeth first became aware in May 1592 of the secret marriage. She first placed Bess and Raleigh under house arrest, then sent them to the Tower of London, in June 1592. Raleigh was released from the Tower in August 1592 and Bess in December 1592. Elizabeth expected the couple to sue for pardon, but they refused to, and Raleigh remained out of favour for five years.

The couple remained devoted to each other. Due to Raleigh’s frequent absences, whether on expeditions, diplomatic duties, or in prison, Bess had to shoulder an unusual level of responsibility for a woman of her time.

The couple’s third son was born in January 1605, by which time Raleigh was a prisoner in the Tower of London. He was christened within the walls of the Tower in the church of St Peter ad Vincula. After Raleigh’s execution in 1618, Bess worked tirelessly to re-establish her late husband’s reputation and, in 1628, saw a Bill of Restitution restore the Raleigh name ‘in blood’, which allowed her one surviving son to inherit.

Bess is said to have had her husband’s head embalmed and to have carried it around with her for the rest of her life. An account from 1740 claims that, after Bess’ death, Raleigh’s head was returned to his tomb in St Margaret’s, Westminster. More on Elizabeth “Bess” Raleigh

Jeanne Fourquet Jeanne Laisné Jeanne Hachette Résistance Beauvais

Watercolor engraving engraved in 1841

26 x 17 cm

Original document of the XIXth century

Jeanne Laisné (born 1456) was a French heroine known as Jeanne Fourquet and nicknamed Jeanne Hachette (‘Joan the Hatchet’). She was the daughter of a peasant.

She is currently known for an act of heroism on 27 June 1472, when she prevented the capture of Beauvais by the troops of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. The town was defended by only 300 men-at-arms, commanded by Louis de Balagny.

Illustration H. Grobet

Jeanne Hachette, heroine of the Siege of Beauvais, 1472

History of France

The Burgundians were making an assault, and one of their number had actually planted a flag upon the battlements, when Jeanne, axe in hand, flung herself upon him, hurled him into the moat, tore down the flag, and revived the drooping courage of the garrison. In gratitude for this heroic deed, Louis XI instituted a procession in Beauvais called the “Procession of the Assault”, and married Jeanne to her chosen lover Colin Pilon, loading them with favours. A statue of her was unveiled on July 6th, 1851. More on Jeanne Laisné

Doreen Southwood, b. 1997

The Dancer, 1997

Bronze, steel, enamel paint and fabric

70 x 45 x 50 cm each

Private collection

Doreen Southwood (born 1974) is a South African artist, designer, and boutique owner based in Cape Town. She works in a wide variety of media in her artwork, producing sculptures, objects, prints, film, and more, which she often bases on personal experiences and self exploration. Her  Afrikaans upbringing inform much of her work.

In 2003, Southwood was named the overall winner of the Brett Kebble Art Awards for her painted bronze sculpture, “The Swimmer.”  (Below) The sculpture featured a young woman gazing blankly ahead as she stands on the end of a diving board. 

In 2001 she opened a shop in Cape Town called Mememe, which seeks to make the work of African fashion designers available to the public. Southwood’s own designs have been featured in fashion weeks in Johannesburg and Cape Town  and are known for embodying features of the feminine and nostalgic. More on Doreen Southwood

Doreen Southwood,  b. 1997

The Swimmer, 2003

Painted bronze

175 cm x 42.3cm x 232 cm

Private collection

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13 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, with Footnotes. # 23

Gustav Klimt  (1862–1918)

Portrait of Baroness Elisabeth Bachofen-Echt, c. 1914-1916

Oil on canvas

180 × 126 cm (70.9 × 49.6 in)

Private collection

Elisabeth Bachofen-Echt was the daughter of August and Serena Ledere (below), Klimt’s most important patrons. The family’s collection eventually grew to include some fifteen canvases by the artist, among them an 1899 portrait of Serena – described by those who knew her as the best-dressed woman in Vienna – and a 1915 painting of her mother, Charlotte Pulitzer, a relation of Joseph Pulitzer, founder of the famous prize for writing. More on Elisabeth Bachofen-Echt 

Gustav Klimt (Austrian, Baumgarten 1862–1918 Vienna)

Serena Pulitzer Lederer (1867–1943), Date:1899

Oil on canvas

75 1/8 x 33 5/8 in. (190.8 x 85.4 cm)

The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Serena (Szeréna) Lederer, born Pulitzer (* 20 May 1867 in Budapest; † 27 March 1943 ) was the spouse of the Industry Magnate August Lederer, close friend of Gustav Klimt and instrumental in the constitution of the collection of Klimt’s art pieces.

Born into a wealthy family, (a relative of the U.S. journalist Joseph Pulitzer), Serena was known for being a beauty in her youth and later a Grande Dame. The family was resident at the castle Ledererschlössel in Weidlingau. In Vienna, one room of the flat was dedicated to Klimt works. The painting of Szeréna Lederer done in 1899 was the origin of a close friendship. On Klimt’s recommendation, in 1912, Egon Schiele was introduced to the Lederer family and became friends with Erich Lederer, the youngest son. Szeréna Lederer was instrumental in the collection of Klimt’s work. There are portraits of her mother, her daughter Elisabeth (above) and herself by the artist. It has been suggested Elisabeth was the biological daughter of Lederer and Klimt.

The Lederer collection was confiscated from Serena in 1940 and she fled to Budapest, where she died three years later. The Gestapo transferred the collection to Immendorf Castle, but the castle was set on fire in May, 1945 so that it would not fall into the hands of the Allies and the collection was destroyed. More on Serena (Szeréna) Lederer

Gustav Klimt, 1862 – 1918


Oil on board

20 1/2 by 20 1/2 in., 52 by 52 cm

Private collection

Dame im Fauteuil (Woman in Armchair) shows the artist’s affiliation with the Symbolist painters of the late nineteenth century. The female sitter, richly swathed in a matching red dress and hat, her narrow waist belted in a deep green, is seated in a patterned armchair against an abstracted background of brownish-red and taupe. The serenity and delicate pallor of her face is echoed in the ghostly quality of the two outlined heads in the upper left of the composition. More on Dame im Fauteuil 

Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objets d’art. Klimt’s primary subject was the female body, and his works are marked by a frank eroticism. In addition to his figurative works, which include allegories and portraits, he painted landscapes. Among the artists of the Vienna Secession, Klimt was the most influenced by Japanese art and its methods.

Early in his artistic career, he was a successful painter of architectural decorations in a conventional manner. As he developed a more personal style, his work was the subject of controversy that culminated when the paintings he completed around 1900 for the ceiling of the Great Hall of the University of Vienna were criticized as pornographic. He subsequently accepted no more public commissions, but achieved a new success with the paintings of his “golden phase,” many of which include gold leaf. More Gustav Klimt


Alfred Seifert (1850–1901)

Hypatia, c. 1901

Oil on panel

50.2 x 39.4 cm

Private collection

Hypatia of Alexandria (370-415 CE) was a scientist, inventor, and philosopher. She is also the first known female mathematician. Her death definitively ended the great era of ancient Greek mathematics and science. The Middle Ages came soon after.

Her father, Theon, was also a mathematician and philosopher, associated with the Musæum (a pagan temple-cum-philosophical school), and assisted her in getting started in her work. He personally taught her in the arts, literature, mathematics, science and philosophy.She was best known as a teacher, eventually becoming the head of the Alexandrian neo-Platonic school.

She was known for being very eloquent, very virtuous, and very beautiful, easily able to hold her own among men; the rationalist minister M. M. Mangasarian described her thus:

“”It appears that her beauty, which would have made even a Cleopatra jealous, was as great as her modesty, and both were matched by her eloquence, and all three surpassed by her learning.”

Chronicles relate that around the time of Hypatia’s death, the patriarch Cyril drummed up a large mob.  Hypatia was seen by the Christian population as being the cause of their continuing dispute and it was calumniously reported among the Christian populace, that it was she who prevented Orestes from being reconciled to the bishop. Some of them therefore, hurried away by a fierce and bigoted zeal, waylaid her returning home, and dragging her from her carriage, they took her to the church called Cæsareum, where they completely stripped and murdered her with tiles. More on Hypatia

SIR JAMES GUTHRIE P.R.S.A., H.R.A., R.S.W., L.L.D. (SCOTTISH 1859-1930) 



52cm x 62cm (20.5in x 24.5in)

Private collection

John Singer Sargent, 1856 – 1925


Oil on canvas

58 by 37 7/8 inches, (147.3 by 96.2 cm)

Private collection

Mrs Charles Alexander, née Harriet Crocker (1859-1935) was the daughter of Charles Crocker of San Francisco, one of the Big Four who built the Central Pacific Railroad across the Sierra Nevada Mountains to connect with the Union Pacific Railroad, then under construction westwards from Omaha. She married Charles Beatty Alexander, a distinguished New York lawyer, in 1887. They lived in a mansion on the site of the present Bergdorf Goodman department store, and were collectors and patrons of art.

Their wealth and style made them prominent figures in society, but they seemed to represent an older, more gracious New York that was passing. On the day of Alexander’s funeral (9 February 1927), the art dealer René Gimpel wrote: ‘His wife leads all society here. With him, a moment in American life comes to an end. More on Mrs Charles Alexander

John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the “leading portrait painter of his generation” for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.

His parents were American, but he was trained in Paris prior to moving to London. Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his “Portrait of Madame X”, was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. He lived most of his life in Europe. More John Singer Sargent


John William Godward, R.B.A., 1861-1922, BRITISH


Oil on canvas

31 1/2 by 23 5/8 in., 80 by 60 cm

Private collection

The excavation of Pompeii in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries captivated the popular imagination, and Godward has emblazoned his model against a red ground that may reference the walls of the House of Julia Felix, a wealthy heiress, property owner, business woman and public figure in Pompeii.  Her villa was first discovered in 1775,  a richly decorated shrine was uncovered in 1912,  which Godward may have visited. Like his contemporary, Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Godward was an exacting researcher, sourcing every element of his paintings from the collection at the British Museum, or from photographs and objects that he collected. The table top, for example, is strewn with various objets de toilette from antiquity: including the Roman glass Pyxis, a cylindrical box used for storing cosmetics, the ivory and wood box, and a hand mirror with Etruscan motif handle. The model is dressed in a teal colored stola (the feminine form of the ancient Roman toga), drawn tightly at the waist with a palla (Roman shawl) of a deep wine color, and tied with an exquisitely-painted patterned yellow ribbon. Her hair is twisted into a long cascading braid, which she is arranging on top of her head using ivory hairpins. More on Julia

John William Godward (9 August 1861 – 13 December 1922) was an English painter from the end of the Neo-Classicist era. He was a protégé of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, but his style of painting fell out of favour with the arrival of painters such as Picasso. He committed suicide at the age of 61 and is said to have written in his suicide note that “the world is not big enough for myself and a Picasso”.

His already estranged family, who had disapproved of his becoming an artist, were ashamed of his suicide and burned his papers. No photographs of Godward are known to survive. More John William Godward

John Singer Sargent, (1856–1925)

Portrait of Grace Curzon, Marchioness Curzon of Kedleston (1879-1958), c. 1925

Oil on canvas

127 × 92.7 cm (50 × 36.5 in)

Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire

Grace Elvina Curzon, Marchioness Curzon of Kedleston, GBE (1878 – 29 June 1958) was a United States-born British marchioness and the second wife of George Curzon, British parliamentarian, cabinet minister, and former Viceroy of India. She was born in Decatur, Alabama. Her first husband was Alfred Huberto Duggan of Buenos Aires, Argentina, with whom she had three children.

Grace Duggan was a wealthy woman after her husband’s death, inheriting large estancias in South America. In 1916, Philip Alexius de László painted her as a widow in nurse’s uniform. (below).

In 1917, aged 38, she became the second wife of Lord Curzon. In 1923, when Curzon was passed over for the office of Prime Minister partly on the advice of Arthur Balfour, Balfour joked that Curzon ‘has lost the hope of glory but he still possesses the means of Grace”.

Despite her fertility-related operations and several miscarriages, the couple did not produce a heir. This eroded their marriage, which ended in separation but not divorce. Letters from Curzon to Grace in the early 1920s indicate that they remained devoted to each other.

In 1925, soon before she was again widowed, her portrait was painted by the American artist John Singer Sargent (above). This oil on canvas painting was Sargent’s last oil portrait. The painting was purchased in 1936 by the Currier Museum of Art in Manchester, New Hampshire.

She was named Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in the 1922 for “services rendered during the War to the British Red Cross Society, and to the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Families Association, the Belgian -Soldiers’ Club, and Queen Alexandra’s Nursing’ Association. More on Grace Elvina Curzon

John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) see above


Philip de László,  (1869–1937)

Grace Elvina Hinds, Marchioness Curzon of Kedleston (1877-1958), c. 1916

Oil on canvas

79.4 × 63.5 cm (31.3 × 25 in)

 National Trust, Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire

Philip Alexius de László, MVO (30 April 1869 – 22 November 1937) was a Hungarian painter known for his portraits of royal and aristocratic personages. In 1900, he married Lucy Guinness of Stillorgan, County Dublin, and became a British citizen in 1914. László was born in humble circumstances in Budapest as Laub Fülöp. He was apprenticed at an early age to a photographer while studying art, eventually earning a place at the National Academy of Art, where he studied. He followed this with studies in Munich and Paris. László’s portrait of Pope Leo XIII earned him a Grand Gold Medal at the Paris International Exhibition in 1900. In 1903 László moved from Budapest to Vienna. In 1907 he moved to England and remained based in London for the remainder of his life

László’s patrons awarded him numerous honours and medals. In 1909 he was invested MVO by Edward VII. In 1912 he was ennobled by King Franz Joseph of Hungary; his surname then became “László de Lombos”, but he soon was using the name “de László”.

Despite his British citizenship, his marriage and five British sons, de László was interned for over twelve months in 1917 and 1918 during the First World War. He was exonerated and released in June 1919. Due to overwork de László suffered heart problems for the last years of his life. In October 1937 he had a heart attack and died a month later at his home in Hampstead, London. More on Philip Alexius de László

Evelyn Pickering de Morgan, 1855 – 1919, BRITISH

CLYTIE, c. 1886-7

Oil on canvas

41 3/4 by 17 1/2 in., 106 by 44.5 cm

Private collection

In this painting, de Morgan interprets the story of the water nymph Clytie, the daughter of the King of Babylon.  As told by Ovid in his Metamorphoses, Clytie falls in love with the sun god, Apollo, and when he abandons her for another, she strips herself and sits naked on the rocks in the sun, nourished only by her tears. Each day from dawn to dusk, she stares at the chariot of the sun, driven by her erstwhile lover, as he journeys through the sky.  On the ninth day, she is transformed into a sunflower (a popular emblem of the Aesthetic movement), which turns its head to look longingly at the sun.  More on Clytie

Evelyn De Morgan (30 August 1855 – 2 May 1919) was an English painter whose works were influenced by the style of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. She was a follower of Pre-Raphaelist Edward Burne-Jones. Her paintings exhibit spirituality; use of mythological, biblical, and literary themes; the role of women; light and darkness as metaphors; life and death; and allegories of war.

She was born Mary Evelyn Pickering to upper middle class parents. Evelyn was educated at home and started drawing lessons when she was 15. She went on to persuade her parents to let her go to art school. At first they discouraged it, but in 1873 she was enrolled at the Slade School of Art. She was granted a scholarship at Slade which entitled her to three years of financial assistance. However, since the scholarship required that she draw nudes using charcoal and she did not care for this technique, she eventually declined it.

She was also a pupil of her uncle John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, who was a great influence on her works. Beginning in 1875, Evelyn often visited him in Florence where he lived. This also enabled her to study the great artists of the Renaissance; she was particularly fond of the works of Botticelli. This influenced her to move away from the classical subjects favored by the Slade school and to make her own style. She first exhibited in 1877 at the Grosvenor Gallery in London and continued to show her paintings thereafter. More on Evelyn De Morgan

Franz Xaver Winterhalter, (German, Menzenschwand 1805–1873 Frankfurt)

FLORINDA, c. 1853

Oil on canvas

70 1/4 x 96 3/4 in. (178.4 x 245.7 cm)

Royal Collection

The legend of the eighth-century Visigothic king Rodrigo of Hispania tells how Rodrigo’s seduction of the beautiful maiden Florinda (‘La Cava’) initiated the Arab conquest of Spain. In this scene Florinda (centre left) and her companions, all draped to varying degrees in luxurious Indian silks, prepare to bathe in the grounds of the castle near Toledo where she lives, unaware that they are being watched by King Rodrigo who hides in the bushes nearby. Rodrigo falls violently in love and seduces Florinda, to the anger of her father, Count Julian, who secretly meets with the Moors and encourages them to invade Spain. In the subsequent war Rodrigo is killed in battle by the invaders, who subject the country to their rule for two hundred years. More on this painting

Franz Xaver Winterhalter (20 April 1805 – 8 July 1873). Born in a small village in Germany’s Black Forest, Franz Xaver Winterhalter left his home to study painting at the academy in Munich. Before becoming court painter to Louis-Philippe, the king of France, he joined a circle of French artists in Rome. In 1835, after he painted the German Grand Duke and Duchess of Baden, Winterhalter’s international career as a court portrait painter was launched. Although he never received high praise for his work in his native Germany, the royal families of England, France, and Belgium all commissioned him to paint portraits. His monumental canvases established a substantial popular reputation, and lithographic copies of the portraits helped to spread his fame. 

Winterhalter’s portraits were prized for their subtle intimacy, but his popularity among patrons came from his ability to create the image his sitters wished or needed to project to their subjects. He was able to capture the moral and political climate of each court, adapting his style to each client until it seemed as if his paintings acted as press releases, issued by a master of public relations. More on Franz Xaver Winterhalter 

William Edward Frost, SURREY 1810 – 1877 LONDRES, ÉCOLE ANGLAISE


Oil on canvas

70 x 86 cm ; 27 1/2 by 37 3/4 in.

Private collection

William Edward Frost (September 1810 – 4 June 1877) was an English painter of the Victorian era. Virtually alone among English artists in the middle Victorian period, he devoted his practice to the portrayal of the female nude.

Frost was educated in the schools of the Royal Academy, beginning in 1829; he established a reputation as a portrait painter before branching into historical and mythological subjects, including the subgenre of fairy painting that was characteristic of Victorian art. In 1839 he won the Royal Academy’s gold medal for his Prometheus Bound, and in 1843 he won a prize in the Westminster Hall competition for his Una Alarmed by Fauns (a subject from Spenser’s The Faerie Queene). He was elected an associate member of the Royal Academy in 1846, and a full member in 1870.

Frost is widely recognized as a follower of William Etty, who preceded him as the primary British painter of nudes in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Despite the prudishness of the Victorian era, Frost’s relatively chaste nudes were popular, and his career was financially successful. More on William Edward Frost

School of Paul Emil Jacobs,  (1802–1866)

The Pasha’s Favourite (Ali Pasha and Kira Vassiliki), c. 1844

Oil on canvas

102.5 × 123 cm (40.4 × 48.4 in)

Private collection

Vassiliki Kontaxi, nicknamed Kyra Vassiliki, Lady Vassiliki, 1789 – 1834) was an influential Greek woman brought up in the seraglio of the Ottoman ruler Ali Pasha. Vassiliki was born in the Greek village of Plisivitsa in Thesprotia. At the age of twelve she sought an audience with the local Ottoman ruler, Ali Pasha, to intercede for her father’s life. Having granted her father pardon, Ali Pasha married Vassiliki in 1808 and she joined his harem. Being allowed to practice her Christian faith, she interceded on behalf of Greeks. During this period she undertook a number of charity initiatives. In 1819–20 she financed a number of restoration works in Mount Athos.

In January 1822, during the last stage of the siege of Ioannina by the Ottoman Sultan’s forces, Vassiliki together with Ali Pasha and his private guard escaped to Ioannina Island. Ali Pasha was executed there on January 22 by an Ottoman delegation, having being declared an outlaw by the Sultan. Following Ali’s death, Vassiliki was sent as a prisoner to the Ottoman capital, Constantinople. She was later pardoned and returned to Greece, which meanwhile gained its independence after the successful Greek War of Independence (1821–30). In 1830, the Greek state gave Vassiliki a medieval tower in Katochi, where she lived the rest of her life. She died in 1834. More on Kyra Vassiliki

Paul Emil Jacobs (August 20, 1802 in Gotha – January 6, 1866) was a German painter. Jacobs received his art training at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts and first became known for his painting of Mercury and Argus (from Classical mythology). In 1824 he went to Rome, where he attracted critical attention by painting “The Raising of Lazarus”. In 1836 he made a series of historical paintings at the Welfenschloss in Hannover.

Jacobs was noted for his mastery of nudes, expressed particularly in the representation of such Orientalist themes as “A slave market” or of sleeping and waking boys. His image of Scheherezade from Arabian Nights is noted for its light effects. The famous Ali Pasha was depicted by Jacobs in a moment of relaxed intimacy with his favorite mistress (or wife) Kira Vassiliki (above).

Like many Europeans of his generation, Jacobs shared in the Philhellene sympathy for the Greek War of Independence, which took place when he was in the early stage of his artistic career. This was manifested in his painting very sympathetic pictures of “Greek Freedom Fighters”.

Jacobs was also a portrait painter. Lithographed portraits by him include those of Goethe, Karl Gottlieb Bretschneider and Döring.

In 1844, Jacobs created the monumental altarpiece “Calvary”, for St. Augustine’s Church in Gotha. It was removed from St. Augustine’s in 1939, and since 1998 the altarpiece has been located in the church of Hohenleuben. More on Paul Emil Jacobs

Acknowledgement: Sotheby’s and others

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