09 CLASSIC WORKS OF ART, MARINE PAINTINGS – WITH FOOTNOTES, #42

Hernando Gonzalo Villa,  (American 1881-1952) 

The Men

Ol on canvas,

25″ x 18″

Private collection

Hernando Gonzalo Villa (born 1881, died 1952) was a prominent commercial artist and muralist whose work primarily depicted Native Americans, Mexican vaqueros, California missions, Spanish colonialists, and coastal views.

Villa was born in Los Angeles to Esiquia and Miguel de Villa. His parents came to Los Angeles as children from Baja California in 1846 when the area was still part of Mexico. He graduated from the Los Angeles School of Art and Design in 1905. Villa established himself as a commercial artist, illustrating magazines as well as a variety of artwork ranging from sheet music covers to newspaper advertisements, and a poster for the 1933 World’s Fair in Chicago.

Villa also executed easel paintings throughout his career which he showed primarily in California. He  was also a celebrated muralist who created murals for Tally’s New Broadway Theater in Los Angeles in 1916, the New Rialto Theater in Phoenix in 1921, and Citizen Bank in Los Angeles in 1926. Villa won a gold medal for a mural exhibited at the Panama-Pacific International Exhibition in 1915. More on Hernando Gonzalo Villa

Johannes Holst

The Siam in choppy Sea, c. 1936

Oil on canvas

70,5 x 100 cm

Private collection

The Siam, a fairly speedy ship of 745 tons, made four consecutive voyages to Auckland from 1865 till 1868, in command of Captain William Ashby. She was a favourite ship with passengers, and the whole of her berthing accommodation was taken up both on the outward and homeward passages. 

The ship was unfortunate in striking severe gales on all the outward passages. More on THE SIAM

Johannes Holst, (October 22, 1880 in Hamburg-Altenwerder – July 5, 1965 in Hamburg)Influenced by the profession of his father,  he was a skipper,  and by the closeness to Elbe and sea, Johannes became interested in shipping at an early age.

He completed an apprenticeship as an ornamental painter at the studio of Julius and Hinrich Lüdders.


At first he painted fishing boats, his later works were of sailing ships and steamers on the high seas. Stormy weather at sea are characteristical for his paintings. Holst created works of very high quality in a realistic manner of painting. The ships painted by him show every detail. The water is also depicted very realistically.


Holst was a very active artist and was tasked by many shipowners to paint portraits of their ships because of his high quality works. Portraits of sailing ships, for the shipping company F. Laeisz in Hamburg et al., form the main part of his complete works that consists of about 1000 paintings. The paintings of Holst are especially valued in northern Germany. More on Johannes Holst

Roger Rosary

The Pourquois-Pas? in Greenland

Oil on canvas

50,5 x 65 cm

Private collection

The Pourquoi Pas ? IV was the fourth ship built for Jean-Baptiste Charcot. She completed the second Charcot expedition of the Antarctic regions from 1908 to 1910. Charcot died aboard when she was wrecked on 16 September 1936, off the coast of Iceland. Of the forty men on board, only one survived.

In September 1936, returning from the mission to Greenland, and after carrying out a survey mission, the Pourquoi-Pas ? IV stopped at Reykjavík to re-provision on 13 September. They set out for Saint-Malo two days later, on 15 September, but on 16 September the ship was caught in a violent cyclonic storm and lost on the reefs of Álftanes at Mýrar.  More on The Pourquoi Pas ?

Roger Chapelet (25 September 1903 – 30 June 1995) was a French maritime painter, born in Versailles, France. He discovered his maritime passion boarding the Rollo in 1927, where his brother was a radio operator in the port of Marseilles. This was the beginning of his painting career at sea. He would then make a series of paintings in various ports: Le Havre, Antwerp, and Rotterdam. He sailed for the first time in 1929 to explore new horizons, and he boarded sailing boats to paint the fishermen on the banks of Newfoundland and Greenland. In the 1930s, he became the painter of the main French naval armaments, and in 1936, he was named Peintre de la Marine and became a member of the Naval Academy. During World War II, Chapelet served on the transatlantic convoys between 1939 and 1940. From 1942 to 1945, he served as commissioner of the navy in the Mediterranean, and in 1946, in Indochina. Meanwhile,he continued to paint different military operations and naval battles. He returned to civilian life after the war, and he became the painter of several ship companies: Mixed Company, Paquet, Compagnie Générale Transatlantique, National Navigation Company, etc. Chapelet died in Montpon-Ménestérol, France on 30 June 1995.


Along with Marin-Marie and Albert Brenet, Chapelet is considered one of the three great 20th century painters of the French Navy. More on Roger Rosary

Mary Blood Mellen, 1819 – 1886

Ship Leaving Harbor by Moonlight (Castine Harbor) 

Oil on canvas 

16 1/8 x 22 inches

Private collection

Castine is a town in Hancock County in eastern Maine, USA, which served from 1670 to 1674 as the capital of Acadia. Castine is the home of Maine Maritime Academy, a four-year institution that graduates officers and engineers for the United States Merchant Marine and marine related industries. 

During the 17th and early 18th century, New France defined the Kennebec River as the southern boundary of Acadia, which put Castine within Acadia. The town is named after Jean-Vincent d’Abbadie de Saint-Castin. More on Castine

Mary Blood Mellen, 1819 – 1886 is most known as a collaborative artist and friend to American Luminist master Fitz Henry Lane. Her known works are mostly of the greater Gloucester, Massachusetts region, although she studied art early in Sterling, Mass. Married at 21 to Rev. Charles Mellen in 1840, Mellen would visit family living in Gloucester and is known to have worked there alongside Lane, both in emulating his style and directly collaborating on at least one painting, a Maine coastal view which is signed by both, in the permanent collection of the Cape Ann Museum. 

For years thought of principally as Lane’s student, it has been suggested that there was more of a professional equilibrium between the two artists, as their paintings as early as 1860 show strong similarities, and that Lane traveled with Mellen to paint a scene of her family’s home in Sterling. More works have been discovered, some unsigned, and attributed to both Mellen and/or Lane. While she followed his original luminist style, she was to become a marine master in her own right, painting on through the and one of very few women to paint 19th Century marine works. More on Mary Blood Mellen

WILLIAM SADLER II (C.1782-1839)

The Mouth of the Liffey with the Poolbeg Lighthouse and Shipping

Oil on panel

34.5 x 54.5cm

Private collection

The present work is an atmospheric panorama ranging from the north of Dublin city on the right with it’s church spires over to south county Dublin on the extreme left, with views of Killiney and Dalkey and the Sugarloaf Mountain beyond. The main concentration however is on the myriad of ships that are heading into or exiting Dublin port. Sadler conveys the busyness of the channel leading into the city and the River Liffey, with an anchored coastal trader in the foreground and nearby a British naval frigate heading into port. Numerous other large sailing ships are evident further into the port area. 

The architectural landmarks are accurate, as you’d expect with the artist, whose skill in describing the topography of the city is well regarded. The Poolbeg Lighthouse is prominent, standing as it does at the end of the four kilometer long Great South Wall. Also visible is the Pigeon House Fort, built around the time of the 1798 Rebellion and which housed an armory, magazine, stores, a hospital and quarters for officers and men. A little further in several domes are visible, perhaps amongst them, the Custom??s House on the Liffey quays. More on this painting

William Sadler II (c.1782 – 1839) was an Irish painter, the son of the portrait painter and engraver William Sadler. Two of his sons became painters, the eldest being William Sadler III. Sadler, who grew up in Dublin, exhibited his paintings between 1809 and 1821 in the city. In 1828 and 1833 he exhibited at the Royal Hibernian Academy. Sadler also taught painting and one of his pupils was James Arthur O’Connor.

Sadler lived at a number of different addresses before settling in Manders’ Building, Ranelagh, where he died in December 1839.

Sadler was greatly influenced by Dutch genre painting. More on William Sadler II

Mihály Zichy, (1827-1906)

Lifeboat, c. 1847

Oil on canvas

Height: 135 cm (53.1 in). Width: 190 cm (74.8 in).

Hungarian National Gallery

Mihály Zichy (October 15, 1827 in Zala, Hungary – February 28, 1906 in St. Petersburg, Russia) was a Hungarian painter and graphic artist.

Zichy was a significant representative of Hungarian romantic painting. During his law studies in Pest from 1842, he attended Jakab Marastoni’s school as well. In Vienna he was Waldmüller’s pupil in 1844. “Lifeboat”, his first major work, comes from this time. On Waldmüller’s recommendation, he became an art teacher in St. Petersburg. He swore allegiance to freedom by painting the portrait of Lajos Batthyány, the first Hungarian prime minister, in 1849. From 1850 onwards, he worked as a retoucher, but he also did pencil drawings, water colours and portraits in oil. His erotic drawings have a particular warm intensity in which both members of the couple seem equal partners. He settled down in Paris in 1874.

In 1881 he was in Tbilisi, Georgia, where he started working on illustrations for “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” at the request of the Georgian intelligencia. He painted 35 pictures in total. The publishing commission of the work of “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” chose 27 pictures to be included in the publication. The painter refused to take payment for the works, so impressed was he by the poem itself. Instead, he gifted the works to the Georgian people. More on Mihály Zichy

William Skilling, after Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida, British/American (18?? – 1964)

Afternoon on the Beach (Beach at Zarauz), c. circa 1955

Oil on Canvas

48 x 60 in. (121.92 x 152.4 cm)

Private collection

Zarautz is a coastal town located in central Gipuzkoa, in Spain. It is bordered by Aia to the east and the south and Getaria to the west. It’s located about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) west of San Sebastián. As of 2014, Zarautz has a population of 22,890, which usually swells to about 60,000 in the summer.

The Palace of Narros, located adjacent to Zarautz’s 2.8 km long beach, is where Queen Isabella II and Fabiola of Belgium once spent their summer holidays. The beach is known for being the longest in the Basque Country and one of longest of the Cantabrian cornice. More on Zarautz

William Skilling, British/American (18?? – 1964) was a California artist known for portrait and landscape painting, he served in World War I and then settled in San Francisco where he died on April 8, 1964. He also did copies of work by artists including Edward Hicks, Parson Fisher and Giuseppe Arcimboldo. More on William Skilling

Lena Luckey, Prague, Czech Republic

By Land and Sea

Mixed Media on Canvas

30″ x 48″

Private collection

Lena Luckey, born in Prague, Czech Republic, traveled throughout Europe, Northern Africa and Indonesia where she was exposed at an early age to diverse cultures. Lena’s travels were not always pleasant – much of her traveling was done during an extremely tumultuous period of her life – and it was only ten years ago that Lena finally found the balance in her life and her ability to express her deepest emotions through her artistic process (Lena is self-taught). Her life experiences are reflected in the diversity of subjects, styles, textures and colors in her artwork. More on Lena Luckey

Howard Chesner Behrens, (August 20, 1933 – April 14, 2014) 

Summer stroll

Oil on canvas

41.5 x 47.5 in. (105.4 x 120.6 cm.)

Private collection

Howard Chesner Behrens (August 20, 1933 – April 14, 2014) was American popular artist whose original works of art are sold in fine art galleries, at auction on cruise ships, and at Costco. Behrens’ limited and open editions are sold internationally. Behrens was also one of the top-selling artists on Princess Cruises.

Behrens was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1933. He grew up near Washington, DC. He began drawing at age seventeen after being confined to bed following a sledding accident. His formal education in art was at the University of Maryland, College Park, where he earned a master’s degree in painting and sculpture. Behrens was hired by the United States Government Printing Office, where his father was employed as a printer, and worked there for the next seventeen years. Behrens resided in Potomac, Maryland and died on April 14, 2014 after a long battle with Parkinson’s Disease. More on Howard Chesner Behrens

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10 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings – With Footnotes, #38

Charles Dixon

Off Tilbury, c. 1912

Waterclor on paper on canvas

28.3×77.3 cm

Private collection

Tilbury is a town in the borough of Thurrock, Essex, England. It was established in the late 19th century, on land that was mainly part of Chadwell St Mary. It contains a 16th century fort and an ancient cross-river ferry. Tilbury has a major deep-water port which contributes to the local economy.

Tilbury’s history is closely connected with its geographical location. Its counterpart on the south bank of the River Thames, Gravesend, has long been an important communications link, and it was there that a cross-river ferry was connected, mainly due to the narrowness of the river at this point. More on Tilbury

Charles Edward Dixon (8 December 1872 – 12 September 1934) was a British maritime painter of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, whose work was highly successful and regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy. Several of his paintings are held by the National Maritime Museum and he was a regular contributing artist to magazines and periodicals. He lived at Itchenor in Sussex and died in 1934. More on Charles Edward Dixon

 

ADOLFO GIRÁDEDEZ Y PEÑALVER, (SPAIN, 1840-1920) 

PORT IN CADIZ

Oil on canvas

60 x 100 cm 

Private collection

Cádiz is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the province of Cádiz, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia.

Cádiz, the oldest continuously inhabited city in Spain and one of the oldest in western Europe, was founded by the Phoenicians. Cádiz is sometimes counted as the most ancient city still standing in Western Europe. and has been a principal home port of the Spanish Navy since the accession of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century.

Christopher Columbus sailed from Cádiz on his second and fourth voyages and the city later became the home port of the Spanish treasure fleet. Consequently, it became a major target of Spain’s enemies. The 16th century saw a series of failed raids by Barbary corsairs; the greater part of the old town was consumed in a major fire in 1569; and in April, 1587, a raid by the Englishman Francis Drake occupied the harbor for three days

In 1596, it was captured by another English fleet, this time under the Earls of Essex and Nottingham. They burned much of it before leaving with their booty. A third English raid was mounted against the city in 1625 by George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, and Edward Cecil, but the attempt was unsuccessful. During the Anglo-Spanish War, Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Cádiz from 1655 to 1657. In the 1702 Battle of Cádiz, the English attacked again under George Rooke and James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde, but they were repelled after a costly siege. More on Cádiz

CLAYS Paul Jean, (1819 – 1900)

“Entrance of the port of Flushing”

Oil on board of mahogany 

51×40.5cm.

Private collection

The maritime history of Vlissingen, Flushing, goes back many centuries. Even in the 13th century the port of Vlissingen had a bustling trade in skins, salt, herring, tar and wool. In the same century Vlissingen was also infamous for its privateering and piracy.

One of the oldest harbours is the ‘Voorhaven’. This harbour, dug in the Middle Ages, is still intact and is currently used by the pilot boats. The Nije, Engelse or Vissershaven dates from 1455. Privateering, trade and crafts made Vlissingen a flourishing town in the sixteenth century, while the slave trade too played an important role. The ships of Vlissingen sailed around the world and contributed to the global power of the Seven United Provinces.

The Golden Age was followed by a deep point in Vlissingen’s history. During the Napoleonic occupation Vlissingen became a poor and destitute town. At the end of the nineteenth century the situation improved when the Dutch Government decided to dig the canal through Walcheren, build two inner harbours and the outer harbour and construct the railway line between Vlissingen and Bergen op Zoom. More on Flushing

Paul Jean Clays (27 November 1819 – 10 February 1900), Belgian artist, was born at Bruges, and died at Brussels. In 1851 he made his debut at the Paris Salon and, while he tried to stay in the mainstream, his art was heralded by those who were looking for a change to more realism.

In 1852 he moved to Antwerp where he lived from 1852 to 1856; it was during this period that his fortunes began to improve.

In 1856 he and his family moved to Brussels where he became a prolific artist, specializing in scenes along the Scheldt. He exhibited a number of works at the Exposition Universelelle of 1867 and the critic Burger-Thoré described him as one of the greatest marine painters of the time.

In 1868 he became a member of the Société Libre des Beaux-Arts, a society founded to help promote the works of artists who were interested in their individual interpretations of nature. He was a frequent exhibitor at the many exhibition halls in Europe and exhibited many pieces at the Paris Salon. More on Paul Jean Clays

Kovalev, Peter, (Russia, 20th century)

Two-Master in Distress

Oil on canvas

135.0 x 94.5 cm.

Private collection

WILLIAM PIERCE STUBBS, (AMERICAN, 1842-1909) 

THE SCHOONER ALICIA B. CROSBY 

Oil on canvas

26 1/2 x 42 in

Private collection

William Pierce Stubbs (1842–1909) or W.P. Stubbs was a marine painter in the Boston, Massachusetts, area in the 19th century. Examples of his work are in the Bostonian Society; Cape Ann Museum; and Peabody Essex Museum. He also lived in Bucksport, Maine. More on William Pierce Stubbs

Medvey, Heinrich von, (years active 1935 – 1980, Berlin),

Pirates of the Mediterranean Sea, c. 1952

Oil on hardboard

18.0 x 24.0 cm

Private collection

LORENZO GHIGLIERI,  (Oregon, born 1931)

Native American war party in two canoes with sails employed, c. 1976

OIL ON CANVAS 

30″ x 40″

Private collection

LORENZO GHIGLIERI,  (Oregon, born 1931), born in America of Italian, French and German immigrants, Lorenzo Ghiglieri grew up in a rich ethnic culture on the fringe of Los Angeles .  After receiving extensive formal training, Lorenzo took it upon himself to study the Old Masters, especially deriving influence from Rembrandt, Velazquez and Corot.  At the age of seventeen, he was honored with a prestigious art scholarship, but was interrupted serving duty on a U.S. destroyer during the Korean War.  He received his first commission as a combat illustrator from the United States Government.  At twenty-two, Lorenzo was working as an illustrator on various national accounts in New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles through an international advertising agency.

Lorenzo’s work graces the walls of the most prestigious establishments in the world. His sculptures and paintings have been presented to Pope John Paul II at The Vatican in Rome, President Ronald Reagan at the White House, Mikhail Gorbachev of the Kremlin and King Juan Carlos of the Royal Palace in Madrid. Tiger Woods, Luciano Pavarotti and General Schwartzkopf are a few others who take pride in their ownership of a Lorenzo Ghiglieri sculpture.

In 1994, Lorenzo sculpted the “Official American Bald Eagle” in bronze, silver, and gold, now on display at the White House and part of their permanent collection.  Later, he was commissioned to complete the “Timeline of Liberty,” a historical bronze piece documenting the forefathers of liberty from ancient Greece to modern times.  Lorenzo continues to create the aesthetics of great architecture in modern times. More on LORENZO GHIGLIERI

John Singer Sargent

Girl fishing at San Vigilio, c. 1913

Oil on canvas

49.5 x 71.1 cm. (19.5 x 28 in.)

 Private Collection

Sargent would become increasingly less interested in executing the society portraits for which he was famous and would take refuge in trips to the Alps, Venice and the Mediterranean with members of his family. San Vigilio is a small fishing village on a point at the southern end of Lake Garda in Italy and this painting was executed in 1913 on his last European sojourn before the outbreak of World War I. Sargent would travel with a variety of veils and shawls and the like to dress his “models” on such trips. “The woman in the present painting, possibly Jane de Glehn,” More on this painting

John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the “leading portrait painter of his generation” for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.

His parents were American, but he was trained in Paris prior to moving to London. Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his “Portrait of Madame X”, was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. He lived most of his life in Europe. More John Singer Sargent

SCHREIBER, PETER CONRAD, 1816 – 1894

Young fisherman on a beach before Capri. 

Oil on canvas. 

66 x 144 cm. 

 Private Collection

Peter Konrad Schreiber (born 11 August 1816 in Fürth , died 17 February 1894 in Nuremberg ) was interested in drawing early on. His father soon encouraged him by means of targeted instruction. He made great strides at the Nuremberg Academy of Fine Arts under Albert Christoph Reindel, who discovered the extraordinary talent of Schreiber, and gave the boy a further education in 1835, Academy in Berlin.

Schreiber belonged to the private circle of pupils of Professor Wilhelm Ferdinand Schirmer In Berlin, In 1839 he moved to Rome, where he created numerous landscape imprints and an extensive sketchbook. The impressions of Italy shaped his whole life. 

In 1842 Schreiber returned to Fürth. Starting from the school year 1844/45 , Schreiber becomes “Fachlehrer of the drawing art” at the Latin school at the Egidien-Gymnasium in Nuremberg. In 1847 he was married in second marriage to the Juliane Karoline Elise Krieg (1829-1894). On February 23, 1874 , he stopped drawing because of increasing eye weakness.”  However, he continued to paint. His last known and dated work is from 1892. More on Peter Konrad Schreiber 

Maggi Hambling

Wave Breaking (detail), March, 2007

Oil on canvas

122 x 183 cm © The Artist

Maggi Hambling CBE (born 23 October 1945 in Sudbury, Suffolk) is a British contemporary painter and sculptor. Hambling first studied art under at the Amberfield School in Nacton. She then studied at the East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing from 1960, then at Ipswich School of Art (1962–64), Camberwell (1964–67), and finally the Slade School of Art, graduating in 1969.

In 1995, she was awarded the Jerwood Painting Prize. In the same year she was awarded an OBE for her services to painting, followed by a CBE in 2010. Hambling’s celebrated series of North Sea paintings have continued since late 2002.

Portraits form part of Hambling’s oeuvre, with several works in the National Portrait Gallery, London. Women feature prominently in her portrait series. Her wider body of work is held in many public collections including the British Museum, Tate Collection, National Gallery, Scottish Gallery of Modern Art and the Victoria and Albert Museum. More on Maggi Hambling 

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07 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART – Interpretations of the Bible! by The Old Masters, With Footnotes # 60

Youssef Nabil, B. 1972, EGYPTIAN

PORTRAIT OF JANNANE AL ANI

Hand-coloured gelatin silver print

38 by 25cm.; 15 by 9 7/8 in.

Private collection

Jananne Al-Ani was born in Kirkuk, Iraq in 1966. She studied Fine Art at the Byam Shaw School of Art and graduated with an MA in Photography from the Royal College of Art in 1997. She is currently Senior Research Fellow at the University of the Arts London, and lives and works in London.

Working with photography, film and video, Al-Ani has an ongoing interest in the documentary tradition, through intimate recollections and more official accounts. Her work also engages with the landscape of the Middle East, its archaeology and its visual representation.

Summarising her work , Al-Ani said: “I have a longstanding interest in the representation of the body. The earliest works I exhibited were concerned with the way women’s bodies have been represented throughout the history of western painting. In advance of the development of photography and film, the shifting ideals of feminine beauty were clearly mapped out in the work of artists. However, the media coverage of the 1991 Gulf War, which focused on aerial and satellite images of a depopulated, barren landscape, had a major impact on my work. What followed was a reassessment on my part of the work of Orientalist painters and the way in which fantasies about the body and the landscape of the Middle East were constructed in their works. I began to see the body itself as a contested territory and during the 90s produced a series of works that attempted to counter the European obsession with uncovering and exposing the bodies of veiled women. More recently, with the Aesthetics of Disappearance project, I’ve attempted to re-occupy that space so, while the presence of the body is implied rather than explicit, the traces of human activity in the landscape are clear to see. More om Jananne Al-Ani

Youssef Nabil (born 6 November 1972) is an Egyptian artist and photographer. Fascinated by cinema in his youth, Egyptian photographer Youssef Nabil captures the contemporary paradoxes of the Middle East through the lens of fantasy. In 2003, Nabil was awarded The Seydou Keita Prize for Portraiture from the Rencontres Africaines de la Photographie, Bamako, Mali and in 2005 he was honored by the International Photography Awards, Los Angeles, CA. His first film, You Never Left, was first exhibited in 2010. His work has been the subject of recent solo shows at Maison Europeenne de la Photographie, Paris, France (2012); Nathalie Obadia Gallery, Paris, France (2011); Yossi Milo Gallery, New York, NY (2010); Savannah College of Art and Design, Atlanta, GA (2010); GALERIST, Istanbul, Turkey (2009); Villa Medici, Rome, Italy (2009); The Third Line Gallery, Dubai, UAE (2009); and Volker Diehl Gallery, Berlin, Germany (2009). More on Youssef Nabil

Kees van Dongen, (1877 – 1968)

La Marquise de Casati , Circa 1950

Lithograph printed in colours on wove paper

23 3/8 x 11 3/4 in.

Private collection

Luisa, Marchesa Casati Stampa di Soncino (23 January 1881 – 1 June 1957), also known as Luisa Casati, was an Italian heiress, muse, and patroness of the arts in early 20th-century Europe known for her eccentricities. As the concept of quaintrelle was re-developed, Marchesa Casati fitted the utmost example by saying: “I want to be a living work of art”.

Luisa was born in Milan, youngest of two daughters of Alberto Amman and his wife Lucia. Her father was of Austrian descent, while her mother was Italian and Austrian. Alberto Amman father was made a count by King Umberto I. Countess Amman died when Luisa was thirteen, and Count Amman died two years later, making his daughters, Luisa and her older sister, Francesca (1880–1919, married Giulio Padulli), reportedly the wealthiest women in Italy. More on Marquise de Casati

Cornelis Theodorus Maria ‘Kees’ van Dongen (26 January 1877 – 28 May 1968) was a Dutch-French painter and one of the Fauves at the controversial 1905 Salon d’Automne exhibition. He gained a reputation for his sensuous, at times garish, portraits.

Kees van Dongen was born in Delfshaven, a borough of Rotterdam. He was the second of four children in a middle-class family. In 1892, at age 16, Kees van Dongen started his studies at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Rotterdam During this period (1892–97), van Dongen frequented the Red Quarter seaport area, where he drew scenes of sailors and prostitutes. He met Augusta Preitinger at the Academy, a fellow painter.

In 1897, van Dongen lived in Paris for several months, where there was a large emigre community. Van Dongen began to exhibit in Paris, and participated in the controversial 1905 Salon d’Automne exhibition[4] along with Henri Matisse, André Derain, Albert Marquet, Maurice de Vlaminck, Charles Camoin, and Jean Puy.

Van Dongen’s candid, colourful portrait style was immensely fashionable by the end of World War I, and thereafter it remained his main focus. The figure of a glamorous woman with large eyes and red lips became his archetype. More on Kees van Dongen

 

Sandro Botticelli,  (1445–1510) 

Portrait of a Lady, known as Smeralda Brandini, c. 1470 and 1475

Tempera on panel

Height: 65.7 cm (25.9 in). Width: 41 cm (16.1 in).

Victoria and Albert Museum

The Portrait of Smeralda Brandini is a tempera on panel painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli of about 1475, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

The identification of the sitter is based on the old, but probably not original, inscription on the windowsill at the bottom of the picture Smeralda di M.Bandinelli Moglie di VI, the wife of Viviano Brandini, mother of the prominent Florentine goldsmith Michelangelo de Viviano de Brandini of Gaiuole, and grandmother of the sculptor Baccio Bandinelli (the son of Michelangelo). From archive documents it is known that in 1469 Smeralda was 30. More on Smeralda Brandini

Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, known as Sandro Botticelli (1445 –1510), was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the Florentine School.  Botticelli’s posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then, his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting.

Botticelli was born in Florence. He was initially trained as a goldsmith. There are very few details of Botticelli’s life, but it is known that he became an apprentice when he was about fourteen years old. By 1462 he was apprenticed to Fra Filippo Lippi; many of his early works have been attributed to the elder master, and attributions continue to be uncertain. Influenced also by the monumentality of Masaccio’s painting, it was from Lippi that Botticelli learned a more intimate and detailed manner.

By 1470, Botticelli had his own workshop. His work was characterized by a conception of the figure as if seen in low relief, drawn with clear contours, and minimizing strong contrasts of light and shadow which would indicate fully modelled forms.

In the mid-1480s, Botticelli worked on a major fresco cycle for Lorenzo the Magnificent’s villa near Volterra; in addition he painted many frescoes in Florentine churches. In 1491 he served on a committee to decide upon a façade for the Cathedral of Florence.

Botticelli never wed, and expressed a strong disliking to the idea of marriage, a prospect he claimed gave him nightmares. More on Sandro Botticelli

 

Anthony van Dyck, (1599–1641)

Princess Henrietta Maria of France, Queen consort of England, circa 1636 and circa 1638

Oil on canvas

San Diego Museum

Henrietta Maria of France (25 November[1609 – 10 September 1669) was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II.

Her Roman Catholicism made her unpopular in England, and also prohibited her from being crowned in an Anglican service. She never had a coronation. She began to immerse herself in national affairs as civil war loomed on the horizon, and was compelled to seek refuge in France in 1644, following the birth of her youngest daughter, Henrietta, during the height of the First English Civil War. The execution of King Charles in 1649 left her impoverished. She settled in Paris, and then returned to England after the Restoration of her eldest son, Charles, to the throne. In 1665, she moved back to Paris, where she died four years later.

The North American Province of Maryland was named in her honour, and the name was carried over into the current U.S. state of Maryland. More on Henrietta Maria

Sir Anthony van Dyck, ( 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching. The Van Dyke beard is named after him. More Sir Anthony van Dyck

Guercino, (1591–1666)

The Persian Sibyl, c. (1647 – 1648)

Oil on canvas

Height: 1,170 mm (46.06 in). Width: 960 mm (37.8 in).

Capitoline Museums, Piazza del Campidoglio, Capitoline Hill, Rome, Italy.

The Persian Sibyl – also known as the Babylonian, Hebrew or Egyptian Sibyl – was the prophetic priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle.

The word “Sibyl” , meaning “prophetess, there were many Sibyls in the ancient world, but the Persian Sibyl allegedly foretold the exploits of Alexander of Macedon. She has had at least three names: Sambethe, Helrea and Sabbe.

Sambethe was said to be of the family of Noah. A painting of Sibilla Persica by Guercino hangs in the Capitoline Museum in Rome. The medieval Byzantine encyclopedia, the Suda, credits the Hebrew Sibyl as author of the Sibylline oracles, a collection of texts of the 2nd to 4th century which were collected in the 6th century. More on The Persian Sibyl

AFTER GUERCINO, 19TH CENTURY

The Persian Sybil

Oil on canvas

112 x 74cm

Private collection

Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (February 8, 1591 – December 22, 1666), best known as Guercino, was an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from the region of Emilia, and active in Rome and Bologna. The vigorous naturalism of his early manner is in contrast to the classical equilibrium of his later works. His many drawings are noted for their luminosity and lively style.

Mainly self-taught, at the age of 16, he worked as apprentice in the shop of Benedetto Gennari, a painter of the Bolognese School. By 1615, he moved to Bologna, where his work was praised by Ludovico Carracci. Guercino painted two large canvases, Elijah Fed by Ravens and Samson Seized by Philistines, for Cardinal Serra, a Papal Legate to Ferrara. These paintings have a stark naturalist Caravaggesque style, although it is unlikely that Guercino saw any of the Roman Caravaggios first-hand.

Guercino’s early works are often tumultuous. He often claimed that his early style was influenced by a canvas of Ludovico Carracci that he saw in the Capuchin church in Cento. Some of his later works are closer to the style of his contemporary Guido Reni, and are painted with more lightness and clearness. More on Guercino

 

Michael Dahl, (1659–1743)

Portrait of Martha Langham

Oil on canvas

74 x 62cm

Private collection

Martha Langham4th daughter of Sir John Langham, as a young girl three-quarter length wearing a blue dress with a bowl of cherries and a canary, in a feigned oval. Martha died unmarried. 

Sir John Langham, 1st Baronet (20 April 1584 – 16 May 1671) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1654 and 1660.

He was the eldest son of Edward Langham of Guilsborough, Northamptonshire, who he succeeded in 1607. He was apprenticed to Sir Richard Napier, a Turkey merchant, for whom he worked in the Near East.

On his return he became a Turkey merchant himself,  and made a considerable fortune in the City of London. He built up an estate in Northamptonshire which included the purchase of the Cottesbrooke estate in 1635, (from which this painting comes). He was an alderman and sheriff of London in 1642. He was committed to the Tower of London twice, with the Lord Mayor and other aldermen of London for refusing to publish an act for the abolition of royalty. Langham died at the age of 87.  More on Sir John Langham

An acrimonious dispute within the Langhams,  one of England’s oldest families, will lead to the splitting up of their unique £1 million collection of portraits and heirlooms dating back more than five centuries. Generations of family portraits will go under the hammer after Sir John Langham, 44, failed to reconcile his differences with his mother, the dowager Lady Marion Langham, 64, who lives with her French boyfriend in a bungalow on the family estate. More on the dispute

Michael Dahl  (1659–1743), see below

Michael Dahl, (1659–1743)

A portrait of Elizabeth Langham

Oil on canvas

126 x 104cm

Private collection

A portrait of Elizabeth Langham, as a young woman, standing three quarter length on a terrace, a spaniel seated beside her, flowers in an ornamental urn at her shoulder, a wooded landscape beyond. It is thought that the landscape element represents the new landscaping at CottesbrookeMore on Cottesbrooke

Michael Dahl (Stockholm 1659-1743 London) studied in Sweden under Ehrenstrahl and began travelling in 1682, coming first to London where he may have studied under Kneller, then via Paris on to Rome in 1684. In 1687 he left Rome and came via Frankfurt to London where he settled for good in 1689. He soon became the best patronised portrait painter in England after Kneller. He was employed by Prince George of Denmark and did many portraits of the court of Queen Anne.  A great patron was the Duke of Somerset for whom he painted the famous ‘Petworth Beauties’.  After 1714 he lost court patronage but painted a large number of the nobility, the Law and the Church.  His style is very close to that of Kneller and his work is often misattributed to his rival but his interpretation of character tends to be softer and less formal. More on Michael Dahl

Michael Dahl,  (1659–1743)

Portrait of a Lady, c.1700-10

Oil on canvas Oil

Height: 1,260 mm (49.61 in). Width: 1,016 mm (40 in).

Dulwich Picture Gallery, South London

Michael Dahl  (1659–1743), see above

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09 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #14

Youssef Nabil, B. 1972, EGYPTIAN

PORTRAIT OF JANNANE AL ANI

Hand-coloured gelatin silver print

38 by 25cm.; 15 by 9 7/8 in.

Private collection

Jananne Al-Ani was born in Kirkuk, Iraq in 1966. She studied Fine Art at the Byam Shaw School of Art and graduated with an MA in Photography from the Royal College of Art in 1997. She is currently Senior Research Fellow at the University of the Arts London, and lives and works in London.

Working with photography, film and video, Al-Ani has an ongoing interest in the documentary tradition, through intimate recollections and more official accounts. Her work also engages with the landscape of the Middle East, its archaeology and its visual representation.

Summarising her work , Al-Ani said: “I have a longstanding interest in the representation of the body. The earliest works I exhibited were concerned with the way women’s bodies have been represented throughout the history of western painting. In advance of the development of photography and film, the shifting ideals of feminine beauty were clearly mapped out in the work of artists. However, the media coverage of the 1991 Gulf War, which focused on aerial and satellite images of a depopulated, barren landscape, had a major impact on my work. What followed was a reassessment on my part of the work of Orientalist painters and the way in which fantasies about the body and the landscape of the Middle East were constructed in their works. I began to see the body itself as a contested territory and during the 90s produced a series of works that attempted to counter the European obsession with uncovering and exposing the bodies of veiled women. More recently, with the Aesthetics of Disappearance project, I’ve attempted to re-occupy that space so, while the presence of the body is implied rather than explicit, the traces of human activity in the landscape are clear to see. More om Jananne Al-Ani

Youssef Nabil (born 6 November 1972) is an Egyptian artist and photographer. Fascinated by cinema in his youth, Egyptian photographer Youssef Nabil captures the contemporary paradoxes of the Middle East through the lens of fantasy. In 2003, Nabil was awarded The Seydou Keita Prize for Portraiture from the Rencontres Africaines de la Photographie, Bamako, Mali and in 2005 he was honored by the International Photography Awards, Los Angeles, CA. His first film, You Never Left, was first exhibited in 2010. His work has been the subject of recent solo shows at Maison Europeenne de la Photographie, Paris, France (2012); Nathalie Obadia Gallery, Paris, France (2011); Yossi Milo Gallery, New York, NY (2010); Savannah College of Art and Design, Atlanta, GA (2010); GALERIST, Istanbul, Turkey (2009); Villa Medici, Rome, Italy (2009); The Third Line Gallery, Dubai, UAE (2009); and Volker Diehl Gallery, Berlin, Germany (2009). More on Youssef Nabil

Kees van Dongen, (1877 – 1968)

La Marquise de Casati , Circa 1950

Lithograph printed in colours on wove paper

23 3/8 x 11 3/4 in.

Private collection

Luisa, Marchesa Casati Stampa di Soncino (23 January 1881 – 1 June 1957), also known as Luisa Casati, was an Italian heiress, muse, and patroness of the arts in early 20th-century Europe known for her eccentricities. As the concept of quaintrelle was re-developed, Marchesa Casati fitted the utmost example by saying: “I want to be a living work of art”.

Luisa was born in Milan, youngest of two daughters of Alberto Amman and his wife Lucia. Her father was of Austrian descent, while her mother was Italian and Austrian. Alberto Amman father was made a count by King Umberto I. Countess Amman died when Luisa was thirteen, and Count Amman died two years later, making his daughters, Luisa and her older sister, Francesca (1880–1919, married Giulio Padulli), reportedly the wealthiest women in Italy. More on Marquise de Casati

Cornelis Theodorus Maria ‘Kees’ van Dongen (26 January 1877 – 28 May 1968) was a Dutch-French painter and one of the Fauves at the controversial 1905 Salon d’Automne exhibition. He gained a reputation for his sensuous, at times garish, portraits.

Kees van Dongen was born in Delfshaven, a borough of Rotterdam. He was the second of four children in a middle-class family. In 1892, at age 16, Kees van Dongen started his studies at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Rotterdam During this period (1892–97), van Dongen frequented the Red Quarter seaport area, where he drew scenes of sailors and prostitutes. He met Augusta Preitinger at the Academy, a fellow painter.

In 1897, van Dongen lived in Paris for several months, where there was a large emigre community. Van Dongen began to exhibit in Paris, and participated in the controversial 1905 Salon d’Automne exhibition[4] along with Henri Matisse, André Derain, Albert Marquet, Maurice de Vlaminck, Charles Camoin, and Jean Puy.

Van Dongen’s candid, colourful portrait style was immensely fashionable by the end of World War I, and thereafter it remained his main focus. The figure of a glamorous woman with large eyes and red lips became his archetype. More on Kees van Dongen

 

Sandro Botticelli,  (1445–1510) 

Portrait of a Lady, known as Smeralda Brandini, c. 1470 and 1475

Tempera on panel

Height: 65.7 cm (25.9 in). Width: 41 cm (16.1 in).

Victoria and Albert Museum

The Portrait of Smeralda Brandini is a tempera on panel painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli of about 1475, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

The identification of the sitter is based on the old, but probably not original, inscription on the windowsill at the bottom of the picture Smeralda di M.Bandinelli Moglie di VI, the wife of Viviano Brandini, mother of the prominent Florentine goldsmith Michelangelo de Viviano de Brandini of Gaiuole, and grandmother of the sculptor Baccio Bandinelli (the son of Michelangelo). From archive documents it is known that in 1469 Smeralda was 30. More on Smeralda Brandini

Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, known as Sandro Botticelli (1445 –1510), was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the Florentine School.  Botticelli’s posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then, his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting.

Botticelli was born in Florence. He was initially trained as a goldsmith. There are very few details of Botticelli’s life, but it is known that he became an apprentice when he was about fourteen years old. By 1462 he was apprenticed to Fra Filippo Lippi; many of his early works have been attributed to the elder master, and attributions continue to be uncertain. Influenced also by the monumentality of Masaccio’s painting, it was from Lippi that Botticelli learned a more intimate and detailed manner.

By 1470, Botticelli had his own workshop. His work was characterized by a conception of the figure as if seen in low relief, drawn with clear contours, and minimizing strong contrasts of light and shadow which would indicate fully modelled forms.

In the mid-1480s, Botticelli worked on a major fresco cycle for Lorenzo the Magnificent’s villa near Volterra; in addition he painted many frescoes in Florentine churches. In 1491 he served on a committee to decide upon a façade for the Cathedral of Florence.

Botticelli never wed, and expressed a strong disliking to the idea of marriage, a prospect he claimed gave him nightmares. More on Sandro Botticelli

 

Anthony van Dyck, (1599–1641)

Princess Henrietta Maria of France, Queen consort of England, circa 1636 and circa 1638

Oil on canvas

San Diego Museum

Henrietta Maria of France (25 November[1609 – 10 September 1669) was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II.

Her Roman Catholicism made her unpopular in England, and also prohibited her from being crowned in an Anglican service. She never had a coronation. She began to immerse herself in national affairs as civil war loomed on the horizon, and was compelled to seek refuge in France in 1644, following the birth of her youngest daughter, Henrietta, during the height of the First English Civil War. The execution of King Charles in 1649 left her impoverished. She settled in Paris, and then returned to England after the Restoration of her eldest son, Charles, to the throne. In 1665, she moved back to Paris, where she died four years later.

The North American Province of Maryland was named in her honour, and the name was carried over into the current U.S. state of Maryland. More on Henrietta Maria

Sir Anthony van Dyck, ( 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching. The Van Dyke beard is named after him. More Sir Anthony van Dyck

Guercino, (1591–1666)

The Persian Sibyl, c. (1647 – 1648)

Oil on canvas

Height: 1,170 mm (46.06 in). Width: 960 mm (37.8 in).

Capitoline Museums, Piazza del Campidoglio, Capitoline Hill, Rome, Italy.

The Persian Sibyl – also known as the Babylonian, Hebrew or Egyptian Sibyl – was the prophetic priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle.

The word “Sibyl” , meaning “prophetess, there were many Sibyls in the ancient world, but the Persian Sibyl allegedly foretold the exploits of Alexander of Macedon. She has had at least three names: Sambethe, Helrea and Sabbe.

Sambethe was said to be of the family of Noah. A painting of Sibilla Persica by Guercino hangs in the Capitoline Museum in Rome. The medieval Byzantine encyclopedia, the Suda, credits the Hebrew Sibyl as author of the Sibylline oracles, a collection of texts of the 2nd to 4th century which were collected in the 6th century. More on The Persian Sibyl

AFTER GUERCINO, 19TH CENTURY

The Persian Sybil

Oil on canvas

112 x 74cm

Private collection

Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (February 8, 1591 – December 22, 1666), best known as Guercino, was an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from the region of Emilia, and active in Rome and Bologna. The vigorous naturalism of his early manner is in contrast to the classical equilibrium of his later works. His many drawings are noted for their luminosity and lively style.

Mainly self-taught, at the age of 16, he worked as apprentice in the shop of Benedetto Gennari, a painter of the Bolognese School. By 1615, he moved to Bologna, where his work was praised by Ludovico Carracci. Guercino painted two large canvases, Elijah Fed by Ravens and Samson Seized by Philistines, for Cardinal Serra, a Papal Legate to Ferrara. These paintings have a stark naturalist Caravaggesque style, although it is unlikely that Guercino saw any of the Roman Caravaggios first-hand.

Guercino’s early works are often tumultuous. He often claimed that his early style was influenced by a canvas of Ludovico Carracci that he saw in the Capuchin church in Cento. Some of his later works are closer to the style of his contemporary Guido Reni, and are painted with more lightness and clearness. More on Guercino

 

Michael Dahl, (1659–1743)

Portrait of Martha Langham

Oil on canvas

74 x 62cm

Private collection

Martha Langham4th daughter of Sir John Langham, as a young girl three-quarter length wearing a blue dress with a bowl of cherries and a canary, in a feigned oval. Martha died unmarried. 

Sir John Langham, 1st Baronet (20 April 1584 – 16 May 1671) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1654 and 1660.

He was the eldest son of Edward Langham of Guilsborough, Northamptonshire, who he succeeded in 1607. He was apprenticed to Sir Richard Napier, a Turkey merchant, for whom he worked in the Near East.

On his return he became a Turkey merchant himself,  and made a considerable fortune in the City of London. He built up an estate in Northamptonshire which included the purchase of the Cottesbrooke estate in 1635, (from which this painting comes). He was an alderman and sheriff of London in 1642. He was committed to the Tower of London twice, with the Lord Mayor and other aldermen of London for refusing to publish an act for the abolition of royalty. Langham died at the age of 87.  More on Sir John Langham

An acrimonious dispute within the Langhams,  one of England’s oldest families, will lead to the splitting up of their unique £1 million collection of portraits and heirlooms dating back more than five centuries. Generations of family portraits will go under the hammer after Sir John Langham, 44, failed to reconcile his differences with his mother, the dowager Lady Marion Langham, 64, who lives with her French boyfriend in a bungalow on the family estate. More on the dispute

Michael Dahl  (1659–1743), see below

Michael Dahl, (1659–1743)

A portrait of Elizabeth Langham

Oil on canvas

126 x 104cm

Private collection

A portrait of Elizabeth Langham, as a young woman, standing three quarter length on a terrace, a spaniel seated beside her, flowers in an ornamental urn at her shoulder, a wooded landscape beyond. It is thought that the landscape element represents the new landscaping at CottesbrookeMore on Cottesbrooke

Michael Dahl (Stockholm 1659-1743 London) studied in Sweden under Ehrenstrahl and began travelling in 1682, coming first to London where he may have studied under Kneller, then via Paris on to Rome in 1684. In 1687 he left Rome and came via Frankfurt to London where he settled for good in 1689. He soon became the best patronised portrait painter in England after Kneller. He was employed by Prince George of Denmark and did many portraits of the court of Queen Anne.  A great patron was the Duke of Somerset for whom he painted the famous ‘Petworth Beauties’.  After 1714 he lost court patronage but painted a large number of the nobility, the Law and the Church.  His style is very close to that of Kneller and his work is often misattributed to his rival but his interpretation of character tends to be softer and less formal. More on Michael Dahl

Michael Dahl,  (1659–1743)

Portrait of a Lady, c.1700-10

Oil on canvas Oil

Height: 1,260 mm (49.61 in). Width: 1,016 mm (40 in).

Dulwich Picture Gallery, South London

Michael Dahl  (1659–1743), see above

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others

We do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

08 Carvings & Sculpture from the Bible! 15 – 19th Century. With Footnote, # 15

Netherlandish, Malines, early 17th century

NATIVITY

Gilt alabaster reliefs

12 x 9,5 cm; each relief: 4 3/4  by 3 3/4  in.

Private collection

In Christian theology the nativity marks the incarnation of Jesus as the second Adam, in fulfillment of the divine will of God, undoing the damage caused by the fall of the first man, Adam. The artistic depiction of the nativity has been a major subject for Christian artists since the 4th century. Since the 13th century, the nativity scene has emphasized the humility of Jesus and promoted a more tender image of him, as a major turning point from the early “Lord and Master” image, affecting the basic approaches of Christian pastoral ministry. More on the nativity

Mechelen (French: Malines) is one of Flanders’ prominent cities of historical art, with Antwerp, Bruges, Brussels, Ghent, and Leuven. It was notably a centre for artistic production during the Northern Renaissance, when painters, printmakers, illuminators and composers of polyphony were attracted by patrons such as Margaret of York, Margaret of Austria and Hieronymus van Busleyden. More on Mechelen

South Nertherlandish or North German, circa 1600

CHRIST WASHING THE FEET OF THE APOSTLES

Alabaster relief

30,5 x 26,5 cm,

Private collection

Jesus Washes His Disciples’ Feet. It was just before the Passover Festival. Jesus knew that the hour had come for him to leave this world and go to the Father. 

While yhe evening meal was in progress, Jesus got up from the meal, took off his outer clothing, and wrapped a towel around his waist. After that, he poured water into a basin and began to wash his disciples’ feet, drying them with the towel that was wrapped around him. More on Jesus Washes His Disciples’ Feet.

Netherlandish, Malines, early 17th century

CHRIST’S ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM

Gilt alabaster reliefs

12 x 9,5 cm; each relief: 4 3/4  by 3 3/4  in.

Private collection

In the accounts of the four canonical Gospels, Jesus’ triumphal entry into Jerusalem takes place in the days before the Last Supper, marking the beginning of his Passion. Crowds gather around Jesus and believe in him after he raised Lazarus from the dead, and the next day the multitudes that had gathered for the feast in Jerusalem welcome Jesus as he enters Jerusalem. More on Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem

Netherlandish, Malines, early 17th century, see above

Netherlandish, Malines, early 17th century

THE LAST SUPPER

Alabaster reliefs

9 x 12,5 cm; 3 1/2  by 5 in.

Private collection

The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist, also known as “Holy Communion” or “The Lord’s Supper”.

The four canonical Gospels all state that the Last Supper took place towards the end of the week, after Jesus’ triumphal entry into Jerusalem and that Jesus and his Apostles shared a meal shortly before Jesus was crucified at the end of that week. During the meal Jesus predicts his betrayal by one of the Apostles present, and foretells that before the next morning, Peter will deny knowing him.

The three Synoptic Gospels and the First Epistle to the Corinthians include the account of the institution of the Eucharist in which Jesus takes bread, breaks it and gives it to the Apostles, saying: “This is my body which is given for you”. The Gospel of John does not include this episode, but tells of Jesus washing the feet of the Apostles, giving the new commandment “to love one another as I have loved you”, and has a detailed farewell discourse by Jesus, calling the Apostles who follow his teachings “friends and not servants”, as he prepares them for his departure.

Scholars have looked to the Last Supper as the source of early Christian Eucharist traditions. Others see the account of the Last Supper as derived from 1st-century eucharistic practice as described by Paul in the mid-50s. More on The Last Supper

 

Netherlandish, Malines, early 17th century

 Monogrammed VB for Jan ou Hans Verbeke, or Peeter van Baelen.

CHRIST IN THE GARDEN OF OLIVES

Gilt alabaster reliefs

12 x 9,5 cm; 4 3/4  by 3 3/4  in.

Private collection

Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane refers to the events in the life of Jesus as recorded in the New Testament, between the Farewell Discourse at the conclusion of the Last Supper and Jesus’ arrest. 

According to all four Gospels, immediately after the Last Supper, Jesus took a walk to pray. The gospels of Matthew and Mark identify this place of prayer as Gethsemane. Jesus was accompanied by three Apostles: Peter, John and James, whom he asked to stay awake and pray. He moved “a stone’s throw away” from them, where He felt overwhelming sadness and anguish, and said “My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass me by. Nevertheless, let it be as you, not I, would have it.” Then, a little while later, He said, “If this cup cannot pass by, but I must drink it, your will be done!”. He said this prayer three times, checking on the three apostles between each prayer and finding them asleep. He commented: “The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak”. An angel came from heaven to strengthen him. During his agony as he prayed, “his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down upon the ground”.

At the conclusion of the narrative, Jesus accepts that the hour has come for him to be betrayed. More on Christ in the Garden

Netherlandish, Malines, early 17th century

JACOB’S LADDER

Aabaster reliefs

9,5 x 12 cm, 3 3/4  by 4 3/4  in

Private collection

Jacob’s Ladder is the colloquial name for a connection between the earth and heaven that the biblical Patriarch Jacob dreams about during his flight from his brother Esau, as described in the Book of Genesis. The significance of the dream has been somewhat debated, but most interpretations agree that it identified Jacob with the obligations and inheritance of the ethnic people chosen by God, as understood in Abrahamic religions. It has since been used as a symbolic reference in various other contexts. More on Jacob’s Ladder

Netherlandish, Malines, early 17th century

Monogrammed TT for Tobias van Tissenaken (active in 1596-1624)

THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES : THE FAITH, THE CHARITY AND THE HOPE

Alabaster reliefs

9,5 x 12 cm, 3 3/4  by 4 3/4 in., 3 1/2  by 5 in.

Private collection

Theological virtues are virtues associated in Christian theology and philosophy with salvation resulting from the grace of God. Virtues are traits or qualities which dispose one to conduct oneself in a morally good manner. Traditionally they have been named faith, hope, and charity, and can trace their importance in Christian theology to Paul the Apostle in 1 Corinthians 13, who also pointed out charity is the most important.

The medieval Catholic philosopher Thomas Aquinas explained that these virtues are called theological virtues “because they have God for their object, both in so far as by them we are properly directed to Him, and because they are infused into our souls by God alone, as also, finally, because we come to know of them only by Divine revelation in the Sacred Scriptures”. More on Theological virtues

VIRGIN OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION MEXICO, END OF THE 18TH CENTURY Carved and upholstered wood.

105 cm high.

Private collection

 

The Immaculate Conception, according to the teaching of the Catholic Church, was the conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the womb of her mother, Saint Anne, free from original sin by virtue of the foreseen merits of her son Jesus Christ. The Catholic Church teaches that Mary was conceived by normal biological means, but God acted upon her soul (keeping her “immaculate”) at the time of her conception.

The Immaculate Conception is commonly and mistakenly taken to mean the conception of Mary’s son Jesus Christ in her own womb, and the Virgin Birth of Jesus. These are covered by the Doctrine of Incarnation, while the Immaculate Conception deals with the conception of Mary herself, not that of her son. More on The Immaculate Conception







Acknowledgement: Sothebys, and others


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08 Paintings, of The amorous game, Part 3 – With Footnotes

Filippo Indoni, (Italian, born circa 1842-1908)

The distracted shepherd

Watercolour and bodycolour 

76.5 x 54cm (30 1/8 x 21 1/4in)

Private collection

Filippo Indoni, Italian (1800 – 1884). In a reaction against the frivolous and unrealistic images of early 19th century Romanticism, artists turned to less glamorous aspects of life and society in search of a direct experience. By 1850, they had formed a relatively cohesive movement that battled for popularity with Romanticism, a far more widespread style.

This movement, known as Realism, revolutionized art, and artists took a renewed interest in genre scenes – the everyday activities of middle and lower class citizens that previously had been excluded from the fine arts. Roman-born artist Filippo Indoni embraced this artistic movement, presenting jubilant peasants reaping the rewards of their hard work, thus encouraging viewers to seek aesthetic pleasure in the unheralded members of society and moments of daily living. Realists’ work such as Indoni’s suggests that the everyday movements of life can be as lovely as the life-changing events. More on Filippo Indoni, Italian

Attributed to Luca Postiglione, (Italian, 1876-1936)

The stolen kiss

signed ‘L.Postiglione’ (lower left)

oil on canvas 

53.4 x 50.2cm (21 x 19 3/4in).

Private collection

Luca Postiglione (Naples, October 18, 1876 – 1936) was an Italian painter, mainly of portraits, and historic and genre subjects, in a Realist style.

He was the son of the painter Luigi Postiglione. His elder brother, Salvatore Postiglione was also a painter and his teacher. Luigi’s uncle, Raffaele (1818–1897) was a professor at the Neapolitan Institute of Fine Arts.

Among his works are L’orfana exhibited at the Italian Exhibition in London in 1904, while Il giglio, and La Soglia were exhibited at the International Exposition in Rome in 1906. More on Luca Postiglione

Heine, A. (South Germany)

Jovial Lunch Break, c. 1901

Oil on wood

40.0 x 31.5 cm.

Private collection

Buchholz – Stark, Helene, (1902 – 1989 Berlin)

Reclining Couple in a Wide Landscape

Mixed media on wood

102.0 x 142.0 cm

Private collection

Simeon Solomon, 1840–1905

Sappho and Erinna in a Garden at Mytilene, c. 1864

Watercolour on paper

330 x 381 mm

The Tate collection

The picture depicts Sappho embracing her fellow poet Erinna in a garden at Mytilene on the island of Lesbos. Sappho was born at Lesbos in about 612BC. After a period of exile in Sicily she returned to the island and was at the centre of a community of young women devoted to Aphrodite and the Muses. Although Solomon believed Erinna to have been part of this community, we now know that she lived not on Lesbos, but on the Dorian island of Télos, and slightly later than Sappho, at the end of the 4th Century BC. Sappho wrote nine books of poetry, of which only fragments survive. The principal subject of her work is the joy and frustration of love and the most complete surviving poem is an invocation to the goddess Aphrodite to help her in her relationship with a woman. More Sappho and Erinna

Simeon Solomon (9 October 1840 – 14 August 1905) was an English Pre-Raphaelite painter noted for his depictions of Jewish life and same-sex desire. Born and educated in London, Solomon started receiving lessons in painting from his older brother around 1850. He started attending Carey’s Art Academy in 1852. His older sister first exhibited her works at the Royal Academy during the same year.

As a student at the Royal Academy Schools, Solomon was introduced to other members of the Pre-Raphaelite circle. His first exhibition was at the Royal Academy in 1858. He continued to hold exhibitions of his work at the Royal Academy between 1858 and 1872. In addition to the literary paintings favoured by the Pre-Raphaelite school,

In 1873 his career was cut short when he was arrested and charged with attempting to commit sodomy: he was fined £100. He was arrested again in 1874 in Paris, after which he was sentenced to spend three months in prison.

After his prosecutions he no longer exhibited, but achieved a degree of celebrity amongst those who shared his sensibilities: Oscar Wilde, John Addington Symonds, Count Eric Stenbock, and Walter Pater all collected his works.

In 1884 he was admitted to the workhouse where he continued to produce work, but his life and talent were blighted by alcoholism. Twenty years later in 1905, he died from complications brought on by his alcoholism. More Simeon Solomon 

 

Arthur Heyer, (Hungarian 1872-1931) 

Her Little Secret 

Oil on canvas 

30 x 37-1/2 in (76.2 x 95.2 cm)

Private collection

Arthur Heyer (28 February 1872, Haarhausen, Amt Wachsenburg, German Empire – 1931, Budapest, Hungary) was a German-Hungarian painter who primarily painted animals.

On the basis of his artistic talents, he attended, from 1890 to 1895, Unterrichtsanstalt des Kunstgewerbemuseums Berlin. During this period, he published his first drawings in various newspapers. In 1892 and 1895, he conducted study trips to Transylvania, where he came into contact with the local Hungarian culture. In 1896, he moved to Budapest and earned his living with book illustrations. In 1900, he became a naturalized Hungarian citizen, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1906, he held his first exhibition in Budapest, followed by numerous others. In 1909, he had two exhibitions in Thuringia, the Grand Ducal Museum in Weimar and the Kunstverein Gotha. In 1911, he received the Hungarian Count Andrássy Prize. After several exhibitions, including at the Vienna Künstlerhaus and the Glaspalast in Munich, he was appointed professor there in 1915. In 1929, the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest acquired his self-portrait. In 1931, he died in Budapest at the age of 59 and received a state funeral at Kerepesi Cemetery. More on Arthur Heyer

Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1828–1882

The Wedding of St George and Princess Sabra, c. 1857

Watercolour on paper

365 x 365 mm

The Tate collection

This work was executed while Rossetti and other artists were decorating the Oxford Union with medievalist murals. In Oxford, Rossetti saw Jane Burden, later Mrs William Morris, and immediately asked her to pose for him. She is the model for Princess Sabra, threading a lock of her hair through St George’s helmet.

The claustrophobic composition is characteristic of much of Rossetti’s work at this time. Sabra’s embrace of an armoured figure, enmeshing him with her hair, and St George’s distracted gaze hint at Rossetti’s dilemma of being involved with Elizabeth Siddall but feeling a strong attraction for Jane. More St George and Princess Sabra

Dante Gabriel Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882) was an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 with William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais. Rossetti was later to be the main inspiration for a second generation of artists and writers influenced by the movement. His work also influenced the European Symbolists and was a major precursor of the Aesthetic movement.

Rossetti’s personal life was closely linked to his work, especially his relationships with his models and muses Elizabeth Siddal, Fanny Cornforth and Jane Morris. More

ERNEST ALBERT WATERLOW,

“The porposal”

Oil on canvas

61 x 46 cm.

Private collection

Sir Ernest Albert Waterlow RA (24 May 1850 – 25 October 1919) was an English painter. He was born in London, and received the main part of his art education in the Royal Academy schools, where, in 1873, he gained the Turner medal for landscape-painting.

He was elected associate of the Royal Watercolour Society in 1880, member in 1894, and president in 1897; associate of the Royal Academy in 1890, and academician in 1903; and he was knighted in 1902. Sir Sydney Waterlow was his uncle.

He began to exhibit in 1872 and produced a considerable number of admirable landscapes, in oil and watercolour, handled with grace and distinction. One of his pictures, Galway Gossips, is in the Tate collection (below). More on Sir Ernest Albert Waterlow

Sir Ernest Albert Waterlow 1850–1919

Galway Gossips

Oil paint on canvas

762 x 1276 mm

Tate

Sir Ernest Albert Waterlow 1850–1919, see above

 

Emil Ganso, (1895-1941 German/American) 

Joyce in a Green Dress 

Oil on canvas 

30′ H x 25′ W 

Private collection

Emil Ganso, (1895-1941 German/American)  was born in Halberstadt, Germany in and came to the United States as a teenager. By 1914 Ganso was taking evening classes at the National Academy’s School of Fine Arts while supporting himself as a baker. His work was soon identified by Erhard Weyhe who went on to show Ganso’s work at the Weyhe Gallery. Ganso first exhibited at the Society of Independent Artists in 1921, as well as at the Salons of America from 1922 to 1925. By 1925 Weyhe Gallery began to represent Ganso which gave him the funds to spend his first summer in the art colony of Woodstock, New York in 1926. Weyhe Gallery continued to exhibit Ganso’s work through the 1940s. 

 In 1929 Ganso visited Paris. Perhaps it was this Paris trip that sparked Ganso’s interest in photography. Ganso received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1933 which he used to study and paint in Europe. In the 1930s Ganso also kept a studio at 54 West 74th Street. 

In 1930 Emil Ganso began to be invited to exhibit at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC (1930-1935); the Art Institute of Chicago; the Wichita Art Museum, Kansas; the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (1931-1938); and the Whitney Museum of American Art (1927-1941). Emil Ganso also exhibited at both the 1939 New York World’s Fair and the Golden Gate Exposition in San Francisco that same year. Ganso was awarded the Pennell Memorial Medal from the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1938. As a result of the success of his art, Ganso was offered an artist-in-residence position in 1940 at the University of Iowa. It was there that he died in 1941. More on Emil Ganso 

 

Zichy, Mihaly von, (1827 Zala County – 1906 St. Petersburg)

The Game of Love

Gouache

30.5 x 36.0 cm

Private collection

Mihály Zichy (October 15, 1827 in Zala, Hungary – February 28, 1906 in St. Petersburg, Russia) was a Hungarian painter and graphic artist.

Zichy was a significant representative of Hungarian romantic painting. During his law studies in Pest from 1842, he attended Jakab Marastoni’s school as well. In Vienna he was Waldmüller’s pupil in 1844. “Lifeboat”, his first major work, comes from this time. On Waldmüller’s recommendation, he became an art teacher in St. Petersburg. He swore allegiance to freedom by painting the portrait of Lajos Batthyány, the first Hungarian prime minister, in 1849. From 1850 onwards, he worked as a retoucher, but he also did pencil drawings, water colours and portraits in oil. His erotic drawings have a particular warm intensity in which both members of the couple seem equal partners. He settled down in Paris in 1874.

In 1881 he was in Tbilisi, Georgia, where he started working on illustrations for “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” at the request of the Georgian intelligencia. He painted 35 pictures in total. The publishing commission of the work of “The Knight in the Panther’s Skin” chose 27 pictures to be included in the publication. The painter refused to take payment for the works, so impressed was he by the poem itself. Instead, he gifted the works to the Georgian people. 

More on Mihály Zichy

Novoskoltsev, Alexander Nikanorovich, (1853 – 1919 Russia)

Lascivious Nude on Divan

Oil on canvas

20.5 x 26.5 cm

Private collection

Novoskoltsev, Alexander Nikanorovich, (1853 – 1919 Russia) studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture under Vladimir Perov and won numerous gold and silver medals for his masterfully rich historical and genre paintings. He went on to study throughout Europe and later taught at the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg.  Several of his most important masterpieces hang in the State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg. Novoskoltsev is known to have painted a composition on a similar theme in 1886, which is listed in Fedor Bulgakov’s 1890 biographical dictionary of contemporary artists Nashi khudozhniki on page 74. More on Novoskoltsev, Alexander Nikanorovich

 

Youssef Nabil, Egyptian, b. 1972

Sweet Temptation, c. 1993

Digital print 

31.5 x 21 in. (80.01 x 53.34 cm.)

Private collection

Fascinated by cinema in his youth, Egyptian photographer Youssef Nabil captures the contemporary paradoxes of the Middle East through the lens of fantasy. In 2003, Nabil was awarded The Seydou Keita Prize for Portraiture from the Rencontres Africaines de la Photographie, Bamako, Mali and in 2005 he was honored by the International Photography Awards, Los Angeles, CA. His first film, You Never Left, was first exhibited in 2010. His work has been the subject of recent solo shows at Maison Europeenne de la Photographie, Paris, France (2012); Nathalie Obadia Gallery, Paris, France (2011); Yossi Milo Gallery, New York, NY (2010); Savannah College of Art and Design, Atlanta, GA (2010); GALERIST, Istanbul, Turkey (2009); Villa Medici, Rome, Italy (2009); The Third Line Gallery, Dubai, UAE (2009); and Volker Diehl Gallery, Berlin, Germany (2009). More on Youssef Nabil 

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14 Paintings, MODERN & CONTEMPORARY MIDDLE EASTERN ART, With Footnotes – 4

Laila Shawa, B. 1940, PALESTINIAN

THE ZAR (FROM THE WOMEN AND MAGIC SERIES), c. 1992

Acrylic on canvas

90.7 by 90.5cm.; 35¾ by 35½in

Private collection

The Zar is best described as a “healing cult” which uses drumming and dancing in its ceremonies. It also functions as a sharing of knowledge and charitable society among the women of these very patriarchal cultures. Most leaders of Zar are women, and most participants are women. Many writers have noted that while the majority of the possessing spirits are male, those possessed are generally female. This is not to say that the men do not contribute to zar ceremonies: they may help with drumming, the slaughter of ritual animals, or may themselves be a husband or relative required to make offerings to the possessing spirit. In fact, it is perhaps an unfortunate trend that in cultures where the zar becomes more visible, there is more of a tendency for men to co-opt the ceremonies, and for men to become zar leaders. More on The Zar

Laila Shawa (Born Gaza 1940) graduated summa cum laude in Fine Arts from the Italian Accademia di Belle Arti in 1964 and received a diploma in plastic arts from the Accademia San Giacomo in Rome. From 1965 to 1967, she returned to Gaza to teach arts and crafts to underprivileged children. She now lives and works in London. As a Palestinian artist, Shawa’s concern is to reflect the political realities of her country, becoming, in the process, a chronicler of events. Her work is based on a heightened sense of realism and targets injustice and persecution wherever their roots may be.

Her work has been exhibited in Italy, Germany, Austria, and the United Kingdom, in most Arab countries, North Africa, Iraq, Russia, China, Japan, Malaysia and USA. She is represented in public and private collections across the world, including the National Galleries of Jordan and Malaysia, the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, the British Museum in London and the National Museum for Women in the Arts, Washington D.C. Her work is currently on tour in Brazil, in the Centro Cultural Banco do Brazil’s exhibition Isla, the first major exhibition of Islamic Art in Brazil.

Khadiga Riad, B.1914, EGYPTIAN

UNTITLED (NUBIA SCENE), c. 1952

Oil on canvas 

33 by 47cm.; 13 by 18 1/2 in.

Private collection

Nubia is a region along the Nile rivers encompassing the areas between what is today central Sudan and southern Egypt. It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, with a history that can be traced from at least 2000 B.C., and was home to one of the African empires. Nubia became divided between Egypt and the Sennar sultanate, resulting in the Arabization of much of the Nubian population. Nubia was again united within Ottoman Egypt in the 19th century, and within the Kingdom of Egypt from 1899 to 1956. More on Nubia

Khadiga Riad,  born in 1914 in Cairo, Egypt, studied at the Mere de Dieu college and from 1950 to 1954. She is regarded as Egypt’s foremost female surrealist.

She followed an informal education in painting from the studio of the Armenian Egyptian artist Zorian between 1950 and 1955. In the 1950’s she won fame as she was awarded a prize in the 1959 Alexandria Biennale. In 1960 she exhibited in the Venice Biennale and in 1962 she won the first prize in a national Egyptian painting competition. 

Riad adopted an abstract style characterized by the heavy use of a multi-layered paints delicately treated on the surface to give an ethereal and surrealist dimension to her compositions. More on Khadiga Riad

Laila Shawa, B. 1940, PALESTINIAN

Birds of Paradise, 2011

Photography and mixed media on canvas

70 x 95cm

Private collection

Shawa’s multi-media pieces have spanned four decades. As someone who has a close proximity to her native Palestine’s politics, her analysis and documentation of events there is at the core of her work. For that, it is in strength that she is known for her “uncompromising documentation of events of today’s Middle East.”  More on Laila Shawa

Shawa uses freeze-frames from this awful footage, digitally combining them with imagery edited from cartoons, news footage and photographs of dolls who serve as mute puppets re-enacting the real-time political traumas of the present. These mixed media works see-saw between hyper-realism and surreal landscapes of the imagination; between stark representation and vivid interpretation; and between brutal distortion and fantasy-fuelled idealist aspiration. More on this work

Hamed Owais, 1919-2011, EGYPTIAN

AL HOD HOD (THE HOPOOE BIRD), c. 1998

Oil on wood panel

80.8 by 65.8cm.; 31¾ by 25 7/8 in.

Private collection

Hamed Owais, 1919-2011, was born into a peasant family in the small village of Kafr Mansour. He received his primary and secondary education before becomings a metalworker. He moved to Cairo, where he joined the School of Fine Arts. After he graduated in 1944, he pursued his studies at the Institute of Art Education in Cairoi. He received his diploma in 1946 and in the following year, he founded the Group of Modern Art, together with other artists of his generation.

From 1948 to 1955, Owais worked as a drawing teacher in the Farouk Ist Secondary School in Alexandria. He traveled to Italy in 1952 and visited the Venice Biennial where the works of Italian Social Realist artists were being exhibited. In 1958, he was appointed a professor at the Faculty of Fine Arts in Alexandria. Owais received a scholarship to continue his studies at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando in Madrid. From 1977 to 1979, he served as the head of the Faculty of Fine Arts in Alexandria. He died in Cairo in 2011, at the age of ninety-two. More on Hamed Owais

Paul Guiragossian, 1926-1993, LEBANESE

MÈRE ET ENFANT (MOTHER AND CHILD), c. 1987

Oil on canvas 

90 by 70cm.; 35 1/2 by 27 1/2 in.

Executed circa 1987

Private collection

Paul Guiragossian (1926 – November 20, 1993) was an Armenian Lebanese painter. Born to Armenian parents, Paul Guiragossian experienced the consequences of exile from a very tender age. Raised in boarding schools, he grew up away from his mother who had to work to make sure her two sons got an education.

In the 1950s, Guiragossian started teaching art in several Armenian schools and worked as an illustrator. He later started his own business with his brother Antoine, painting cinema banners, posters and drawing illustrations for books. Soon after he was discovered for his art and introduced to his contemporaries after which he began exhibiting his works in Beirut and eventually all over the world.

In 1956, Guiragossian won the first prize in a painting competition, which landed him a scholarship by the Italian government to study at The Academy of Fine Arts of Florence.

In 1962, Guiragossian was granted another scholarship, this time by the French Government, to study and paint in Paris at Les Atelier Des Maîtres De L’Ecole De Paris.

By the mid 1960s Guiragossian had grown to become one of the most celebrated artists in Lebanon and eventually of the Arab world and even though war broke out in the early 1970s, his attachment to Lebanon grew bigger and his works became more colorful with messages of hope for his people.

In 1989, Guiragossian went to Paris to exhibit his works in La Salle Des Pas Perdus in UNESCO and lived in the city with part of his family until 1991. In that year, he had a solo exhibition at the Institut du Monde Arabe. This exhibition was extended and marked the first solo show at the IMA for any artist. More on Guiragossian

Hossein Khosrojerdi, (Iran, born 1957)

Untitled

Acrylic and digital print on canvas

Numbered 2/5

127.9 x 98.8cm (50 3/8 x 38 7/8in).

Private collection

Hossein Khosrojerdi (Iran, born 1957), prominent artist of his generation and well-known in Iran, was born in 1957 in Iran and graduated from the Faculty of Fine Arts of Tehran University. He twice participated in the Triennale-India, was included in the Venice Biennale in 2003, received an award at the Sharjah Biennial in 2001 and has been a founding member of the Iranian Artists’ Association.  His body of work increasingly takes a strong abstract and geometric direction which has an impactful yet refined quality. While deeply rooted in his heritage as a person. More on Hossein Khosrojerdi

Hassan Hajjaj, (Morocco, born 1961)

Sista, c. 2000

c-print on board

129.8 x 94cm (51 1/8 x 37in).

Private collection

Hassan Hajjaj (born Larache, Morocco in 1961) is a contemporary artist who lives and works between London, UK and Marrakech, Morocco.

Hajjaj’s work is in the collections of the Brooklyn Museum, New York; the British Museum, London; the Nasher Museum of Art, Duke University, Durham, NC; the Newark Museum, New Jersey; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles; Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles; the Victoria & Albert Museum, London; the Farjam Collection, Dubai; Institut des Cultures d’Islam, Paris; Kamel Lazaar Foundation, Tunisia; and Virginia Museum of Fine Art, Richmond, VA.

Hajjaj was the winner of the 2011 Sovereign Middle East and African Art Prize and was shortlisted for Victoria & Albert Museum’s Jameel Prize in 2009. In 2013, Rose Issa Projects published a monograph of the artist exploring his upbringing in Morocco and London. More on Hassan Hajjaj

 

Georges Hanna Sabbagh, 1877 – 1951, EGYPTIAN

THE MINARET OF IBN TULUN MOSQUE

signed and dated G.H. Sabbagh 1940

oil on canvas 

73 by 60cm.; 28 3/4 by 23 5/8 in

Private collection

The Mosque of Ibn Tulun is located in Cairo, Egypt. It is arguably the oldest mosque in the city surviving in its original form, and is the largest mosque in Cairo in terms of land area.

The mosque was commissioned by Ahmad ibn Tulun, the Turkic Abbassid governor of Egypt from 868–884 whose rule was characterized by de facto independence. The historian al-Maqrizi lists the mosque’s construction start date as 876 AD,[1] and the mosque’s original inscription slab identifies the date of completion as AH 265 (878/879). More on The Mosque of Ibn Tulun

Georges Hanna Sabbagh (1877–1951) was an Egyptian-born French artist, born at Alexandria to a Catholic family of Lebanese origin. He studied art in Paris, being the first Egyptian at the Louvre School. He was a pupil of Paul Sérusier, Félix Vallotton and the Symbolist painter Maurice Denis, and worked beside Amedeo Modigliani. His family and the region of Brittany provided him with subjects for many of his paintings, before trips to Egypt led him to rediscover the lights, landscapes and characters of his childhood. He excelled in portraits, nudes and landscapes both in France and in Egypt. A painter of talent, Georges Sabbagh forms one of the group of artists who Jean Cassou called “the sacrificed generation”, absorbing the school of Les Nabis, Fauvism and Cubism at the beginning of the century, but forgotten after the Second World War.  More on Georges Hanna Sabbagh

Georges Hanna Sabbagh, 1877 – 1951, EGYPTIAN

THE ASWAN CATARACT , c. 1925

Oil on canvas 

66 by 81.5cm.; 26 by 32in.

Private collection

The Aswan Low Dam or Old Aswan Dam is a gravity masonry buttress dam on the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt. The dam was built at the former first cataract of the Nile. When initially constructed between 1899 and 1902, nothing of its scale had ever been attempted; on completion, it was the largest masonry dam in the world. The dam was designed to provide storage of annual floodwater and augment dry season flows to support greater irrigation development and population growth in the lower Nile. The dam, originally limited in height by conservation concerns, worked as designed, but provided inadequate storage capacity for planned development and was raised twice, between 1907 and 1912 and again in 1929–1933. These heightenings still did not meet irrigation demands and in 1946 it was nearly over-topped in an effort to maximize pool elevation. This led to the investigation and construction of the Aswan High Dam 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) upstream. More on the Aswan Dam 

Georges Hanna Sabbagh, 1877 – 1951, EGYPTIAN, see above

Lalla Essaydi, Moroccan, b. 1956

Les Femmes du Maroc: Harem #11, 2009

Chromogenic prints (c-print) mounted on aluminum, in three parts

40 x 30 in. (101.6 x 76.2 cm.)

Private collection

Moroccan born photographer Lalla Essaydi explores Arab female identity by hand-painting Arabic calligraphy in henna on different surfaces such as female bodies, fabric and walls. Through her compositions, Essaydi references nineteenth century Orientalist style and rejects traditional objectified representations of Arab women. The artist critiques French painters such as Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres and Eugène Delacroix who often painted middle-eastern harems filled with eroticized Arab female bodies. Her photographs address and deconstruct the complex power structures imposed on the Arab female body by alluding to historical stereotypes. More on Lalla Essaydi

Lalla Essaydi, Moroccan, b. 1956

Harem, #12

Private collection

In her series Harem, Essaydi refers to the dangerous nature of the harem, contrasting the idealistic setting that Western artists previously depicted. The artist places her figures within the Moroccan Palace Dar El Basha and dresses them in patterns similar to the palace’s mosaics, wood carvings and stained glass. By camouflaging the women’s bodies into the background, Essaydi illustrates how women seemingly appear as another piece of décor in the room. To counter societal norms, Essaydi utilizes calligraphy and applies henna to adorn the female bodies. The text is not necessarily meant to be read or understood, but rather alludes symbolically to the restrictions faced by women in today’s societies and how they find their voice despite all imposed restrictions. Through the perspective of an Arab woman living in a Western world, Lalla Essaydi redefines Arab female identity. More on Lalla Essaydi

LALLA ESSAYDI

Harem #15, 2009

Chromogenic print mounted to aluminum with a UV protective laminate

30 × 40 in, 76.2 × 101.6 cm

Edition of 15

Private collection

Harem a sacred inviolable place; for female members of the family. Harem properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations. Similar institutions have been common in other Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilizations, especially among royal and upper-class families and the term is sometimes used in non-Islamic contexts. The structure of the harem and the extent of monogamy or polygamy has varied depending on the family’s personalities, socio-economic status, and local customs. A harem may house a man’s wife—or wives and concubines, as in royal harems of the past.

In the West, Orientalist imaginary conceptions of the harem as a fantasy world of forbidden sexuality where numerous women lounged in suggestive poses have influenced many paintings, stage productions, films and literary works. Several European Renaissance paintings dating to the 16th century defy Orientalist tropes and portray the women of the Ottoman harem as individuals of status and political significance. In many periods of Islamic history women in the harem exercised various degrees of political power. Harem. More on the Harem

More on Lalla Essaydi, above

Mahmoud Said, 1897-1964, EGYPTIAN

NU COUCHÉ AU DIVAN BLEU (NUDE LYING ON A BLUE SOFA), c. 1938

Oil on panel 

68 by 98cm.; 26 3/4 by 38 5/8 in

Private collection

Mahmoud Said, 1897-1964, EGYPTIAN. Born into a wealthy Alexandrian family, Mahmoud Said first studied jurisprudence at the French School of Law in Cairo in the 1910s. During his studies, he became interested in painting, and joined the studios of Italian painters Amelia Casonato da Forno and Arturo Zanieri, before travelling to France to study in Paris, briefly at the Académie Julian. Though he worked for almost thirty years as a lawyer and then a judge, he continued to paint in his free time until he quit law in the late 1940s and devoted himself to art completely. He is considered the foremost painter of the ‘Pioneer’ generation of Egyptian artists, renowned for his bold, richly coloured portraits, nudes, and landscapes. He painted continuously until his death in 1964.

 Said’s works are housed in private and public collections including Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art, Doha; Museum of Modern Egyptian Art, Cairo; Mahmoud Said Museum, Alexandria, and Ministry of Culture, Egypt. More

 

Sohrab Sepehri,1928-1980,IRANIAN

UNTITLED (FROM THE TREE TRUNK SERIES) , c. 1972

oil on canvas 

97 by 126cm.; 38 1/8 by 49 1/2 in.

Private collection

Sohrab Sepehri (Persian: Sohrāb Sepehri‎‎) (October 7, 1928 – April 21, 1980) was a notable Iranian poet and a painter. He was born in Kashan, Iran. He is considered to be one of the five most famous Iranian poets who have practiced modern poetry. 

Sepehri was also one of Iran’s foremost modernist painters.

Well-versed in Buddhism, mysticism and Western traditions, he mingled the Western concepts with Eastern ones, thereby creating a kind of poetry unsurpassed in the history of Persian literature. To him, new forms were new means to express his thoughts and feelings.

His poetry has been translated into many languages including English, French, Spanish, German, Italian, Swedish, Arabic, Turkish and Russian. An English translation of his selected poems by Ali Salami appeared in 2003.

Sepehri died in Pars hospital in Tehran of leukemia. His poetry is full of humanity and concern for human values. He loved nature and refers to it frequently. More on Sohrab Sepehri,

Acknowledgement: BonhamsSotheby’s, and others


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15 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #13

Feuerbach, Anselm Friedrich, (b. 1829, Speyer, d.1880, Venezia)

Miriam, c. 1862

Oil on canvas

102 x 81 cm

Nationalgalerie, Berlin

Feuerbach’s imposing Italian model, Anna Risi, the wife of a Roman shoemaker, is found in many of his paintings. Her severe beauty suggests both a dominatrix and a nanny. In Miriam, she poses as Moses’ sister, striking a tambourine to celebrate the safe crossing of the Red Sea.

Anselm Feuerbach, (born September 12, 1829, Speyer, Bavaria [now in Germany]—died January 4, 1880, Venice, Italy) one of the leading German painters of the mid-19th century working in a Romantic style of Classicism.

Feuerbach was the son of a classical archaeologist and the nephew of the philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach. After studying art at the Düsseldorf Academy and in Munich, he went twice to Paris, where he worked in the studio of Thomas Couture and was influenced by Gustave Courbet and Eugène Delacroix.

Feuerbach lived in Italy from 1855 to 1873, and much of his best work was produced during this period. He was influenced by antique Greek and Roman art and Italian High Renaissance painting, and he developed an interest in idealized figure compositions of a lyrical, elegiac nature.

In 1873 Feuerbach became a professor at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and painted for the academy building Fall of the Titans, generally regarded as his weakest work. Discouraged by the harsh criticism of this work, Feuerbach left Vienna in 1876 and returned to Italy, where he died. More on Anselm Feuerbach

 

Domenico Ghirlandaio (Domenico Bigordi)

Portrait of Giovanna degli Albizzi Tornabuoni, 1489 – 1490

Mixed media on panel

77 x 49 cm

Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid

This panel is a fine example of fifteenth-century Florentine portraiture. Artists of the time followed classical dictates: body proportions were idealised while faces left devoid of expression were expected to convey character. In this half-length portrait, the sitter appears in strict profile, with her arms bent and her hands clasped together. In the background, a selection of personal belongings appears within a simple architectural frame. The cartellino to the right bears part of an epigram by Martial and the date of his death in Roman numerals. 

The model has been identified as Giovanna Tornabuoni on the basis of a medallion by Niccolò Fiorentino showing her likeness and her name. She is also portrayed full length in the Visitation fresco painted by Ghirlandaio for the Tornabuoni chapel in the church of Santa Maria Novella (Florence). More on this Painting

Domenico Ghirlandaio (2 June 1448 – 11 January 1494) was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence. Ghirlandaio was part of the so-called “third generation” of the Florentine Renaissance, along with Verrocchio, the Pollaiolo brothers and Sandro Botticelli. Ghirlandaio led a large and efficient workshop that included his brothers Davide Ghirlandaio and Benedetto Ghirlandaio, his brother-in-law Bastiano Mainardi from San Gimignano, and later his son Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Many apprentices passed through Ghirlandaio’s workshop, including the famous Michelangelo. Ghirlandaio’s particular talent lay in his ability to posit depictions of contemporary life and portraits of contemporary people within the context of religious narratives, bringing him great popularity and many large commissions. More on Domenico Ghirlandaio

François Gérard,  (1770–1837)

Joséphine en costume de sacre/ Empress Josephine in Coronation Robes, circa 1807-1808

Oil on canvas

Musée national du Château de Fontainebleau‎

Joséphine de Beauharnais (née Tascher de la Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French.

Her marriage to Napoleon I was her second; her first husband Alexandre de Beauharnais was guillotined during the Reign of Terror, and she was imprisoned in the Carmes prison until five days after Alexandre’s execution. Her two children by Alexandre became significant to royal lineage. Through her daughter, Hortense, she was the maternal grandmother of Napoléon III. Through her son, Eugène, she was the great-grandmother of later Swedish and Danish kings and queens. The reigning houses of Belgium, Norway and Luxembourg also descend from her. She did not bear Napoleon any children; as a result, he divorced her in 1810 to marry Marie Louise of Austria.

Joséphine was the recipient of numerous love letters written by Napoleon, many of which still exist. Her Château de Malmaison was noted for its magnificent rose garden, which she supervised closely, owing to her passionate interest in roses, collected from all over the world. More on Joséphine de Beauharnais

François Pascal Simon, Baron Gérard (4 May 1770 – 11 January 1837), was a French painter born in Rome. At the age of twelve Gérard obtained admission into the Pension du Roi in Paris. From the Pension he passed to the studio of the sculptor Augustin Pajou which he left at the end of two years for that of the history painter Nicolas-Guy Brenet, whom he quit almost immediately to place himself under Jacques-Louis David.

In 1794 he obtained  first prize in a competition. Further stimulated by the successes of his rival and friend Girodet in the Salons of 1793 and 1794. Gérard produced in 1795 his famous Bélisaire. In 1796 a portrait of his generous friend obtained undisputed success. In 1799, his portrait of Madame Mère established his position as one of the first portrait-painters of the day.

In 1808 as many as eight, and in 1810 no less than fourteen, portraits by him, were exhibited at the Salon, and these figures afford only an indication of the enormous numbers which he executed yearly; all the leading figures of the Empire and of the Bourbon Restoration, all the most celebrated men and women of Europe, sat for Gérard. Rich and famous, Gérard was stung by remorse for earlier ambitions abandoned. In 1817 he did homage to the returned Louis XVIII. After this date Gérard declined, watching with impotent grief the progress of the Romantic school.

Loaded with honors – baron of the Empire in 1809, member of the Institut on 7 March 1812, officer of the légion d’honneur, first painter to the king – he worked on, sad and discouraged; the revolution of 1830 added to his disquiet; and on 11 January 1837, after three days of fever, he died. More on Baron Gérard

Unknown, 19th century

Marriage of Napoleon with Joséphine de Beauharnais, or

Napoleon, Josefina and Mme Tallien, or

The marriage of Napoleon and Joséphine with one of the witnesses 

John Butler Yeats, 1839-1922

MRS HERBERT OF MUCKROSS WITH A MALTESE TERRIER

Oil on canvas

91.5 by 71cm., 36 by 28in.

Private collection

The present portrait was John Butler Yeats’s first big commission, received in 1872 from an unknown benefactor. Shortly after completing the painting, Mrs Herbert absconded with a lover never to return to the house. Family tradition has it that the lover who whisked Mrs Herbert away was the footman. More on The present portrait

Mary Herbert who, together with her husband, the Right Hon Henry Arthur Herbert, had acted as hosts for Queen Victoria on her visit to Killarney in August 1861.  Queen Victoria visited the estate with the Royal family in 1861 and received several of Mary’s paintings as a parting gift.

Mary Balfour Herbert (1817–1893) was a British artist. She grew up in Whittingehame House, East Lothian, Scotland, and travelled widely during her childhood. She took drawing lessons but had no other formal art education.

She met Henry Arthur Herbert while abroad in Rome and married him in September, 1837. His family owned the Muckross Estate near Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland, and they moved there to Torc Cottage after their wedding. She loved the Muckross estate.

She also worked at developing her talents as a watercolour artist, and she displayed considerable skill with practice. She painted many scenes from the Lakes of Killarney and was recognised as the “…most gifted amateur in the kingdom.”(The Times, Friday, August 30, 1861.)

In 1871, Mary moved to Bellagio, Italy, near Lake Como and continued her artwork there. She died in London in 1893 and was buried with her husband in Killegy graveyard. The house has subsequently become a museum, and the estate, the much-loved Killarney National Park. More on Mary Balfour Herbert

John Butler Yeats (16 March 1839 – 3 February 1922) was an Irish artist. He was born in Lawrencetown, townland of Tullylish, County Down. Yeats began his career as a lawyer and devilled briefly with Isaac Butt before he took up painting in 1867 and studied at the Heatherley School of Fine Art. There are few records of his sales, so there is no catalogue of his work in private collections. It is possible that some of his early work may have been destroyed by fire in World War II. He had no trouble getting commissions as his sketches and oils are found in private homes in Ireland, England and America. His later portraits show great sensitivity to the sitter. However, he was a poor businessman and was never financially secure. He moved house frequently and shifted several times between England and Ireland. At the age of 69 he moved to New York, where he was friendly with members of the Ashcan School of painters. He is buried in Chestertown Rural Cemetery in Chestertown, New York, next to his friend, Jeanne Robert Foster. More on John Butler Yeats 

 

Gabriel Schachinger, (German. 1850-1912)

A Young Beauty with Flowers

Oil on Canvas

30″ by 50″

Private collection

Gabriel Schachinger (* 31 March 1850 in Munich , † 9 May 1912 [1] in Eglfing ) was a German painter .

The son of a gilder studied at the Kunstakademie in Munich and received his artistic training with Hermann Anschütz , Alexander von Wagner and Karl von Piloty . From 1876 to 1878 he held a Bavarian State scholarship in Italy.

Schachinger then settled down in Munich. His most important works include a ceiling painting for the Kurhaus Wiesbaden and a curtain for the court theater in Munich . Apart from that, he mainly created portraits , flower still-life and genre pictures. His most famous painting, completed in 1887, shows King Ludwig in the guise of the Grand Master of the Order of St. George and hangs in the Museum of Herrenchiemsee Castle. More on Gabriel Schachinger

 

Shepard Fairey

We The People (Set Of 3), 2017

Lithographs On Paper

Each 24″ x 36″

Private collection

Shepard Fairey designed this series of posters to protest President-elect Donald Trump, who will be inaugurated as President of the United States later today.

Taking its name from the first line of the US constitution, the series We the People features portraits of Native Americans, African Americans, Muslims, and Latinas depicted in Fairey’s trademark style. 

“We thought [they were the] groups that had been maybe criticized by Trump and maybe were going to be most, if not necessarily vulnerable in a literal sense, most feeling that their needs would be neglected in a Trump administration,” Fairey told CNN. More on this art

 

Frank Shepard Fairey (born February 15, 1970) is an American contemporary street artist, graphic designer, activist and illustrator.He first became known for his “Andre the Giant Has a Posse” sticker campaign while attending the Rhode Island School of Design.

He became widely known during the 2008 U.S. presidential election for his Barack Obama “Hope” poster. The Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston has described him as one the best known and most influential street artists. More on Frank Shepard Fairey

 

Tamara Łempicka, (1898-1980)

The Orange Turban II, ca. 1945

Oil on canvas

30.5 x 26 cm

MuMa Le Havre

Painted in vivid colours, The Orange Turban II is the idealized portrait of a young woman with an intense, inquisitive gaze and elegant posture. It is undoubtedly the subject Lempicka replicated the most. There are eight known versions of this composition, the last of which was done in 1979, more than thirty years after the one at above.

Tamara Łempicka (born Maria Górska; 16 May 1898 – 18 March 1980), also known as Tamara de Lempicka, was a Polish painter active in the 1920s and 1930s, who spent her working life in France and the United States. She is best-known for her polished Art-Deco portraits of aristocrats and the wealthy, and for her highly-stylized paintings of nudes.

Born in Warsaw, Lempicka moved to Saint Petersburg where she married a prominent Polish lawyer, then emigrated to Paris with her husband following the Russian Revolution. Her style was a blend of late, refined cubism and the neoclassical style, particularly inspired by the work of Jean-Dominique Ingres. She was an active participant in the artistic and social life of Paris between the Wars. In 1928 she became the mistress of wealthy art collector from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Baron Raoul Kuffner. After the death of his wife in 1933, the Baron married Lempicka in 1934, and thereafter she became known in the press as “The Baroness with a Brush.”

Following the outbreak of World War II in 1939, she and her husband moved to the United States and she painted celebrity portraits, as well as still-lifes and, in the 1960s, some abstract paintings. Her work was out of fashion after World War II, but made a comeback in the late 1960s, with the rediscovery of Art Deco. She moved to Mexico in 1974, where she died in 1980. At her request, her ashes were scattered over the Popocatapetl volcano. More on Tamara Łempicka

Rudolf Johann Weisse, Swiss, 1846-1933 

Portrait of a Woman in a Green Robe 

Oil on canvas 

31 7/8 x 25 3/4 inches 

Private collection

Rudolph Weisse was born in Usti, Bohemia. While he is often confused with the Swiss Orientalist painter, Johann Rudolf Weiss (1846-1933), both men have their own distinct styles. 

According to Bénézit’s Dictionary of French Artists, Weisse specialized in portraits of Parisian beauties and Orientalist street scenes of Cairo. Weisse studied at the Viennese Akademie der Bildenden Künste and exhibited at the Paris Salon from 1889-1927. His paintings were also shown in Vienna, London, Bordeaux, and Toulon. More on Rudolph Weisse

François-Edouard Picot, PARIS 1786 – 1868 PARIS

PRESUMED PORTRAIT OF PAULINE VIARDOT, c. 1844

Oil on canvas

81,5 x 69,5 cm ; 32 by 27 3/8 in.

Private collection

Pauline Viardot (18 July 1821 – 18 May 1910) was a leading nineteenth-century French mezzo-soprano, pedagogue, and composer, of Spanish descent. She achieved initial fame as “Pauline García”; the accent was dropped at some point, but exactly when is not clear. After her marriage, she referred to herself simply as “Mme Viardot”.

Viardot made her concert debut at the age of 15 in Brussels and her operatic debut two years later as Desdemona in Gioachino Rossini’s Otello in London. She was noted for her wide vocal range and could sing both soprano and contralto roles. The climax of her career came in 1859 when she performed the title role in Hector Louis Berlioz’ re-creation of Christoph Gluck’s Orfeo ed Eurydice at the Théâtre Lyrique in Paris. 

She sang for several seasons in the opera in St. Petersburg, Russia, and was one of the first artists to promote Russian music in western Europe. Her thoughtful interpretations earned her a place in Parisian intellectual circles, and Johannes Brahms, Camille Saint-Saëns, Robert Schumann, and Gabriel Fauré all wrote pieces for her. More on Pauline Viardot

François-Édouard Picot (Paris, 10 October 1786 – 15 March 1868, Paris) was a French painter during the July Monarchy, painting mythological, religious and historical subjects.

Born in Paris, Picot won the Prix de Rome painting scholarship in 1813, and gained success at the 1819 Salon with his neoclassical L’Amour et Psyché (Louvre).

He painted The Crowning of the Virgin in the church of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette  and had large commissions for the Galerie des Batailles. He exhibited at the Paris Salon between 1819 and 1839. Elected to the Paris Academy in 1836, Picot was also created an officer of the Legion of Honor in 1832. More on François-Édouard Picot 

Circle of Jean-Baptiste, Greuze, (French, 1775-1805)

“La Cruche Cassée (The Broken Jug/Pitcher)”

Oil pastel on canvas

42.5″h x 33″w

Private collection

Showing such a young lady alone implied that she was awaiting a tryst with a lover, and sadly, the message was that we was not likely to show up. A painting of a broken pitcher was a common symbol of lost virginity and virtue, so this work sent a clear message to its contemporary viewers. More on a Broken Pitcher

Jean-Baptiste Greuze, (French, 1725 – 1805). After training in Lyon, Jean-Baptiste Greuze arrived in Paris in 1750, where he sporadically attended the Académie Royale. His 1755 Salon debut was a triumph, but the acclamation turned his head. He antagonized everyone, including fellow artists, which later proved disastrous. 

While retaining the clear, bright colors and lighter attitude of eighteenth-century painting, Greuze introduced a Dutch-influenced realism into French genre painting and portraiture. Through vivid facial expressions and dramatic gestures, Greuze’s moralizing paintings exemplified the new idea that painting should relate to life. They captured the details of settings and costumes, “spoke to the heart,” educated viewers, and aimed to make them “virtuous.” 

In 1769 Académie members refused Greuze membership as a history painter, accepting him only in the lower category of genre, perhaps partly from ill will. Humiliated, he withdrew from public exhibitions completely. During the 1770s Greuze enjoyed a widespread reputation and engravings after his paintings were widely distributed, but his wife embezzled most of the proceeds. By the 1780s, Neoclassicism curtailed his popularity and his quality declined. After enduring poverty and neglect, he died unnoticed, having outlived his time and his reputationMore on Jean-Baptiste Greuze

Attributed to Jacques Emile Blanche, (French, 1861-1942)

“Femme en Contemplation,” “Woman in Contemplation,”

Pastel on canvas

36.5″h x 39.75″w

Private collection

Jacques-Émile Blanche (French: [blɑ̃ʃ]; 1 January 1861 – 20 September 1942) was a French artist born in Paris. He was brought up in the rich Parisian neighborhood of Passy in a house that had belonged to the Princesse de Lamballe.

Although Blanche received some instruction in painting, he may be regarded as self-taught. He became a very successful portrait painter, with a style derived from 18th-century English painters such as Thomas Gainsborough as well as Édouard Manet and John Singer Sargent. He worked in London, where he spent time from 1870 on, as well as Paris, where he exhibited at the Salon and the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. One of his closest friends was Marcel Proust, who helped edit several of Blanche’s publications. He also knew Henry James and is mentioned in Gertrude Stein’s The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas.

In 1902 Jacques-Émile Blanche took over the direction of the Académie de La Palette, where he would remain director until 1911. He taught at the Académie Vitti in 1903.

He was the author of the unreliable Portraits of a Lifetime: the late Victorian era: the Edwardian pageant: 1870–1914 (London: J.M. Dent, 1937) and More Portraits of a Lifetime, 1918–1938 (London: J.M. Dent, 1939), about which Walter Sickert said “he is liable to twist things he hears or doesn’t into monstrous fibs”. More on Jacques-Émile Blanche

 

MARGARITO VELA, (MEXICO, MID 19TH CENTURY-1917)

VANITAS (LADIES WITH JEWELS), c. 1899

Oil on canvas

32 x 44 cm

Private collection

Margarito Vela was the pseudonym of Margarito Ramirez, a prolific potosinian artist who excelled as a copyist and made many portraits. He was the author of famous works such as the portrait of Francisco I. Madero, which is preserved in the National Museum of History, and that of Manuel José Othón, currently in the Othonian Museum of San Luis Potosí. He also made works for the temple of San José and the Chapel of Guadalupe in SLP. More on 

Margarito Vela 

Stuart Luke Gatherer, (British, born 1972)

Envy – The understudy 

signed with initials ‘SLG’ (lower left),

oil on canvas

38 x 49cm (14 15/16 x 19 5/16in)

Private collection

Stuart Luke Gatherer was brought up in the Eastern Highlands of Scotland, and graduated from Edinburgh College of Art in 1995 with an MA in Fine Art. His paintings entice the viewer to interact with contemporary scenes from the vantage point of an unseen onlooker. This creates a psychological ambiguity that is emphasised by strong forms and colours modelled in dramatic light and shade. More on Stuart Luke Gatherer

 

Manfong Lee, (Indonesian/Chinese, 1913-1988)

Female Doing Make-Up

Ink washes on paper

16.25″h x 12.75″w

Private collection

Lee Man Fong was born on November 14, 1913 in Guangdong, China. Fong moved to Singapore in 1917 and studied at the Anglo-Chinese School until 1929. In 1932 he migrated to Java and worked for a Dutch printing and publishing company. In 1936 the head of the Dutch East Indies Association in Batavia invited Fong to participate in an exhibition, a great honor since he was the first non-Dutch artist to be given this invitation. 

After 1940 Fong devoted himself full-time to painting. He visited Bali, working briefly there, and held solo shows in Jakarta and Bandung. Fong quickly gained recognition for his paintings of Balinese subjects. He then held a solo show in Jakarta in 1941, after which he was interned by the Japanese.

In 1949 Fong was awarded a Malino scholarhip to study art in the Dutch Netherlands. He was there for three years, and then returned to Indonesia where his talent was acknowledged by President Soekarno, to whom he became an art advisor.

During this period Fong was awarded Indonesian citizenship. In 1967, when Soekarno fell from grace, Man Fong, who was considered close to Sukarno, and alleged to have communist inclinations, and this resulted in the artist’s decision to move to Singapore in 1970. His career continued to thrive, and he was often given lucrative commissions by Chinese businessmen who wanted him to paint animals of the Chinese zodiac.

Lee Man Fong, who returned to Indonesia in 1985, died on April 3, 1988 in Jakarta. More on Manfong Lee

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08 CLASSIC WORKS OF ART, MARINE PAINTINGS – WITH FOOTNOTES, #39

Charles Edward Dixon, (British, 1872-1934)

‘Oak, Hemp, and Powder, Trafalgar, 1805′ , c. /1920’ (lower right)

Gouache

118.5 x 241cm (46 5/8 x 94 7/8in)

Private collection

The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).

Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson aboard HMS Victory defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships of the line under the French Admiral Villeneuve in the Atlantic off the southwest coast of Spain, just west of Cape Trafalgar, in Caños de Meca. The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost. It was the most decisive naval battle of the war, conclusively ending French plans to invade England.

The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established during the eighteenth century and was achieved in part through Nelson’s departure from the prevailing naval tactical orthodoxy.

Nelson was shot by a French musketeer during the battle and died shortly after, becoming one of Britain’s greatest war heroes. Villeneuve was captured along with his ship Bucentaure. Admiral Federico Gravina, the senior Spanish flag officer, escaped with the remnant of the fleet and succumbed months later to wounds sustained during the battle. Villeneuve attended Nelson’s funeral while a captive on parole in Britain. The Battle of Trafalgar

Charles Edward Dixon (8 December 1872 – 12 September 1934) was a British maritime painter of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, whose work was highly successful and regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy. Several of his paintings are held by the National Maritime Museum and he was a regular contributing artist to magazines and periodicals. He lived at Itchenor in Sussex and died in 1934. More on Charles Edward Dixon

Charles Edward Dixon, (British, 1872-1934)

The Trafalgar off Greenwich , 1932

Watercolour and bodycolour

52 x 75.5cm

Private collection

Greenwich is located within the Royal Borough of Greenwich, to which it lends its name. Notable for its maritime history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Meridian and Greenwich Mean Time. 

The town became a popular resort in the 18th century. The maritime connections of Greenwich were celebrated in the 20th century, with the siting of the Cutty Sark and Gipsy Moth IV next to the river front, and the National Maritime Museum in the former buildings of the Royal Hospital School in 1934. Greenwich formed part of Kent until 1889 when the County of London was created. More on Greenwich

 

Charles Edward Dixon, (British, 1872-1934), see above

 

Hayley Lever, 1876 – 1958

GLOUCESTER HARBOR

Oil on canvas laid down on Masonite

13 by 16 inches, (33 by 40.6 cm)

Private collection

Gloucester, on Cape Ann in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the United States. It is part of Massachusetts’ North Shore.  An important center of the fishing industry and a popular summer destination, Gloucester consists of an urban core on the north side of the harbor and the outlying neighborhoods. More on Gloucester

 

Richard Hayley Lever (28 September 1875 – 6 December 1958) was an Australian-American painter, etcher, lecturer and art teacher. Lever was born in Bowden, South Australia. He excelled in painting classes at Prince Alfred College, and on leaving school continued to study at his Norwood art school. He was a charter member of the Adelaide Easel Club in 1892.

An inheritance was sufficient for Lever to finance a trip to England in 1899 to further his career in painting. He moved to St. Ives. The town’s reputation as a centre for marine painting. He studied painting techniques under the Impressionists Olsson and Algernon Talmage. Lever also painted in the French port villages of Douarnenez and Concarneau, Brittany.

In late 1904 Lever made a trip back to Adelaide, where he staged several exhibitions, painted seascapes and taught. In 1906 he returned to Europe 

In 1911, an Impressionist painter, persuaded Lever to move to America, saying he would have greater success there. From 1919 to 1931, Lever taught art classes at the Art Students League of New York. Lever went to Pittsburgh in 1922 as an art juror for the Carnegie International exhibition.

In 1924, Lever was commissioned to paint a portrait of the presidential yacht, Mayflower, which was subsequently presented to President Calvin Coolidge. By 1930, Lever had moved to Caldwell, New Jersey, staying there until 1938, when he moved to Mount Vernon, New York. While living in New York, Lever painted marines and landscapes in New Jersey, Vermont, New England, New York and the Canadian Maritimes. Throughout his life, he traveled and painted extensively, including Nova Scotia and Grand Manan Island in Canada, the Bahamas and Florida, while often returning to Europe. In 1933, Hayley was named Director of the Green Mountains summer art school at Smugglers Notch, Stowe Vermont. Lever also taught painting classes at the Forum School of Art in Bronxville, New York from 1934 to 1935. More on Richard Hayley Lever

 

Louis Charles Moeller, 1855 – 1930

DISCUSSING THE CATCH

Oil on canvas

12 by 16 inches, (30.5 by 40.6 cm)

Private collection

Louis Charles Moeller (born in New York City, 5 August 1855; died in Weehawken, New Jersey, 1930) was a United States genre painter. He was the son of a decorative painter, with whom he served a three years’ apprenticeship. He then studied painting in New York, and in Munich. His meager resources obligated him to return from Munich back home to New York in 1883, where he again devoted himself to decorative painting.

The year of his return, he sent “A Girl in a Snow-Storm” to the National Academy of Design. His second work, “Puzzled,” gained him the Hallgarten Prize, and election as an associate to the National Academy in 1884. He was made a National Academician in 1895. More on Louis Charles Moeller

 

William Trost Richards, 1833 – 1905

EBBING TIDE, c. 1891

 oil on canvas

20 1/2 by 40 1/2 inches, (52.1 by 102.9 cm)

Private collection

William Trost Richards (June 3, 1833 – November 8, 1905) was an American landscape artist. He was associated with both the Hudson River School and the American Pre-Raphaelite movement. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Between 1850 and 1855 he studied part-time with the German artist Paul Weber while working as designer and illustrator of ornamental metalwork. Richards first public showing was part of an exhibition in New Bedford, Massachusetts, organized by artist Albert Bierstadt in 1858.

In 1862 he was elected honorary member of the National Academy of Design and Academician in 1871. In 1863, he became a member of the Association of the Advanced of Truth in Art, an American Pre-Raphaelite group. In 1866, he departed for Europe for one year. Upon his return and for the following six years he spent the summers on the East Coast.

In the 1870s, he produced many acclaimed watercolor views of the White Mountains, several of which are now in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Richards exhibited at the National Academy of Design from 1861 to 1899, and at the Brooklyn Art Association from 1863 to 1885. He was elected a full member of the National Academy in 1871.

He died on April 17, 1905 in Newport, Rhode Island. More on William Trost Richards

 

Francis Augustus Silva, 1835 – 1886

LATE AFTERNOON

Oil on canvas

18 by 30 inches, (45.8 by 76.2 cm)

Private collection

Francis Augustus Silva, 1835 – 1886; was born in New York City in 1835. Silva never received formal training as an artist but manifested artistic talent from an early age. At thirteen he exhibited ink drawings at the Annual Fair of the American Institute of the City of New York. He set up his first studio in 1858, but his career as a painter was put on hold when he joined the New York militia and served in the Civil War. In 1868, Silva was discharged from the military. The same year, he had his first exhibit at the National Academy of Design, which marked the start of his painting career. 

Throughout most of the 1870s Silva kept a studio in New York City and took frequent painting trips along the East Coast. He developed his brand of dramatically lit, atmospheric Luminism from painting marine subjects  His fondness for harbor views surrounding his native city was evidenced in the boat and shipwreck scenes of Brooklyn and Long Island he exhibited at the Brooklyn Art Association exhibitions (1869–1885). Around 1880 Silva moved to Long Branch, New Jersey but kept a studio in the famous Tenth Street Studio Building in New York City. He painted scenes along the New Jersey coasts until his death in 1886. More on Francis Augustus Silva

 

Francis Augustus Silva, 1835 – 1886

EARLY MOONRISE, CONEY ISLAND

Oil on canvas

12 by 20 inches

(30.5 by 50.8 cm)

Private collection

Francis Augustus Silva, 1835 – 1886, see above

 

Emil Carlsen, 1853 – 1932

BREAKERS, c. 1908

Oil on canvas

28 by 34 inches, (71.1 by 86.3 cm)

Private collection

Soren Emil Carlsen (October 19, 1853 – January 2, 1932, New York City, U.S.) was an American Impressionist painter who emigrated to the United States from Denmark. He became known for his still lifes. In an era when many artists succumbed to the pressure resulting from The Armory Show to follow modernistic “developments” Carlsen remained faithful to his inborn aesthetic sense. Later in his career Carlsen expanded his range of subjects and becoming known for landscapes and marines as well.

During his long career he won many of the most important honors in American art and was elected to membership in the National Academy of Design. For more than forty years he was also a respected teacher in Chicago, San Francisco and New York. More on Soren Emil Carlsen

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