05 Paintings by the Orientalist Artists in the Nineteenth-Century, with footnotes, 12

Adolf Schreyer, 1828 – 1899, GERMAN


Oil on canvas

82.5 by 68cm., 32½ by 26¾in.

Private collection

Adolf Schreyer (July 9, 1828 Frankfurt-am-Main – July 29, 1899 Kronberg im Taunus) was a German painter, associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. He studied art, first at the Städel Institute in his native town, and then at Stuttgart and Munich. He painted many of his favourite subjects in his travels in the East. He first accompanied Maximilian Karl, 6th Prince of Thurn and Taxis through Hungary, Wallachia, Russia and Turkey; then, in 1854, he followed the Austrian army across the Wallachian frontier. In 1856 he went to Egypt and Syria, and in 1861 to Algiers. In 1862 he settled in Paris, but returned to Germany in 1870; and settled at Cronberg near Frankfurt, where he died.

Schreyer was, and is still, especially esteemed as a painter of horses, of peasant life in Wallachia and Moldavia, and of battle incidents. His work is remarkable for its excellent equine draughtsmanship, and for the artist’s power of observation and forceful statement; and has found particular favour among French and American collectors. Of his battle-pictures there are two at the Schwerin Gallery, and others in the collection of Count Mensdorff-Pouilly and in the Raven Gallery, Berlin.  More on Adolf Schreyer

Charles Landelle, 1821 – 1908, FRENCH


Oil on canvas

55.5 by 38.5cm., 22 by 15in.

Private collection

Zacharie Charles Landelle, born on 2 June 1821 In Laval, the October 13 , 1908 In Chennevières-sur-Marne, is a French painter and portraitist. Born to a modest family. In 1857 he married Alice Letronne, daughter of the general of the guard Jean-Antoine Letronne who saved the National Archives in 1848 . Two sons, Georges and Paul, were born of this union, all of whom died during the lifetime of their father.

He followed his father  to Paris 1827. He only return to his hometown only at the end of his life.

He developed a talent and a very solid craft at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris where he was admitted in 1837 as a pupil of Paul Delaroche and Ary Scheffer . At the beginning of his career, he painted several portraits to support himself. Influenced by Italian paintings after traveling in the South of France and Italy, he made copies of some of the paintings by the great masters of the Renaissance at the Louvre.

His portraits and large religious paintings were instantly successful, and allowed him to gain the recognition of the high society of the nineteenth century. Napoleon III admired him very much, bought from him the two canvases of the Beatitudes ( 1852 ) to offer them to the city of Laval. He received numerous state commissions.

From his travels in North Africa and the Middle East in the 1860s , he created works that were often very successful. His first voyage to Morocco dates from 1866. In 1866 he painted Femme Fellah, which earned him the nickname of a painter of the fellahs , a work purchased by the Emperor for his personal collection, but destroyed in the fire at the Château de Saint-Cloud in 1870. A replica, executed By Charles Landelle, is preserved in the museum of the Old Castle of Laval.

In 1875 , he is in Egypt, and travels the Nile with the explorer Mariette . He travelled each year to the East, or Algeria and returned with paintings. At the end of his life, Charles Landelle encouraged the creation in Laval of a museum of painting which he inaugurated in 1895, at the height of his glory, alongside the President of the Republic : it is the current Science Museum. More on Zacharie Charles Landelle

Frederick Arthur Bridgman, 1847 – 1928, AMERICAN


Oil on panel

18.5 by 23.5cm., 7¼ by 9¼in.

Private collection

Frederick Arthur Bridgman (November 10, 1847 – 1928) was an American artist, born in Tuskegee, Alabama. The son of a physician, Bridgman would become one of the United States’ most well-known and well-regarded painters and become known as one of the world’s most talented “Orientalist” painters. He began as a draughtsman in New York City, for the American Bank Note Company in 1864-1865, and studied art in the same years at the Brooklyn Art Association and at the National Academy of Design; but he went to Paris in 1866 and became a pupil of Jean-Leon Gerome. Paris then became his headquarters. A trip to Egypt in 1873-1874 resulted in pictures of the East that attracted immediate attention, and his large and important composition, The Funeral Procession of a Mummy on the Nile, in the Paris Salon (1877), bought by James Gordon Bennett, brought him the Cross of the Legion of Honor. Other paintings by him were An American Circus in Normandy, Procession of the Bull Apis (now in the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), and a Rumanian Lady (in the Temple collection, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). More on Frederick Arthur Bridgman

Blas Olleros Y Quintana (Spanish, 1851–1919)


Oil on canvas

123.5 by 92cm., 48¾ by 36¼in

Private collection

Blas Olleros y Quintana was a Spanish visual artist who was born in 1852. Many works by the artist have been sold at auction, including ‘In a Persian Bath’ (above)sold at Sotheby’s London ‘European Paintings’ in 2012. More on Blas Olleros y Quintana

Emile Cambiaggio, 1857 – 1930, ITALIAN

UNE CHARMEUSE, The charmer

Oil on canvas

141 by 204cm., 55½ by 80in.

Private collection

Emile Cambiaggio, 1857 – 1930, ITALIAN was a French visual artist who was born in 1857. Several works by the artist have been sold at auction, including ‘Une charmeuse’ (above)sold at Christie’s London ’19th Century European Art’ in 2003. More on Emile Cambiaggio

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05 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART – Interpretations of the Bible! by The Old Masters, With Footnotes # 70

The Master of the Figdor St Eustache



Oil on panel, maroflauged

88.3 x 65.3 cm.; 34 3/4  x 25 3/4  in.

Private collection

Saint Sebastian (died c. 288 AD) was an early Christian saint and martyr. Sebastian had prudently concealed his faith, but in 286 was detected. Diocletian reproached him for his betrayal, and he commanded him to be led to a field and there to be bound to a stake so that archers from Mauritania would shoot arrows at him. “And the archers shot at him till he was as full of arrows as an urchin is full of pricks, and thus left him there for dead.” Miraculously, the arrows did not kill him.

Sebastian later stood by a staircase where the emperor was to pass and harangued Diocletian for his cruelties against Christians. This freedom of speech, and from a person whom he supposed to have been dead, greatly astonished the emperor; but, recovering from his surprise, he gave orders for his being seized and beat to death with cudgels, and his body thrown into the common sewer. A pious lady, called Lucina, admonished by the martyr in a vision, got it privately removed, and buried it in the catacombs at the entrance of the cemetery of Calixtus, where now stands the Basilica of St. Sebastian. More St. Sebastian

The name of the artist derives from a panel depicting Saint Eustace in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, formerly in the Figdor collection, which was considered to be by Melozzo da Forlí by some of the titans of twentieth-century Italian art history, including Roberto Longhi, Carlo Volpe and Federico Zeri.1 While recognising the distinct debt to Melozzo, more recent scholars such as Tambini (see Literature) have questioned this attribution, proposing instead that it could be an early work by Marco Palmezzano while still heavily dependent on Melozzo’s style. More on this painting

Marco Palmezzano,  (1459–1539)

Saint Sebastian, circa 1515-1520

Tempera and oil on wood

81 х 60 cm.

Christian Museum, Budapest

Saint Sebastian, see above

Marco Palmezzano (1460–1539) was an Italian painter and architect, belonging to the Forlì painting school, who painted in a style recalling earlier Northern Renaissance models. He was mostly active near Forlì.

After his initial training with the painter Melozzo da Forlì Palmezzano went to Rome in the early 1490s.

It is rumored that Palmezzano may have then traveled to Jerusalem to join the team painting frescoes at the Holy Cross church there, but no documentary evidence exists. He is, however, noted in property records as residing in Venice in 1495. Shortly thereafter, Palmezzano returned to Forlì, where he spent the rest of his long life—apparently with only brief excursions connected with commissions in other places in the region—until his death in 1539.

Palmezzano’s studio was prolific in producing altarpieces, most commonly featuring the iconic arrangement of an enthroned Virgin with child on her lap, while below, symmetrically sited in the foreground are flanking saints. Venetian painting, in general, and the work of Giovanni Bellini and Cima da Conegliano, in particular, were to remain the most powerful influences on Palmezzano’s output. Moreover, he remained faithful to the Venetian style of the later 15th and early 16th century. Mannerism entirely passed him by, and he seemed immune to subsequent developments in Venetian painting. One of the most attractive facets of Palmezzano’s oeuvre are the distinctive and suggestive landscapes that form the backdrops of many of his altarpieces. These are a blend of the ideal and lyrical, and of the observed reality of the Apennine foothills and mountains to the south of Forli for which Palmezzano clearly had a real affection. These landscapes are also employed to subtle and imaginative effect to convey the symbolic religious messages of the works. More on Marco Palmezzano

The Master of the Misericordia



Tempera and gold on panel, arched top, in an engaged frame

135.3 x 80.2 cm.; 53 1/4  x 31 5/8  in.

Private collection

This imposing painting once formed the centrepiece of a polyptych dedicated to Saint Catherine. It preserves in part its original frame with cusped arch. The lateral compartments remain untraced. 

The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine covers two different subjects in Christian art arising from visions received by either Saint Catherine of Alexandria or Saint Catherine of Siena (1347–1380), in which these virgin saints went through a mystical marriage wedding ceremony with Christ, in the presence of the Virgin Mary, consecrating themselves and their virginity to him.

The Catholic Encyclopaedia notes that such a wedding ceremony “is but the accompaniment and symbol of a purely spiritual grace”, and that “as a wife should share in the life of her husband, and as Christ suffered for the redemption of mankind, the mystical spouse enters into a more intimate participation in His sufferings.”  Catherine of Alexandria was martyred, while Catherine of Siena received the stigmata.

Both Saint Catherines are frequent subjects in Christian art; the scene usually includes one of the Saint Catherines and either the infant Jesus held by his mother or an adult Jesus. Very rarely both saints are shown in a double ceremony (as above). Saint Catherine of Alexandria is invariably dressed as a princess in rich clothes, often with a crown, and normally with loose long blonde hair and carrying a martyr’s palm, sometimes with her attribute of a wheel; Saint Catherine of Siena is shown as a Dominican nun in white with a black over-robe open at the front, so it is usually easy to tell which saint is depicted. More Saint Catherine

The Master of the Misericordia



Detail, Christ placing the wedding ring on St. Catherine’s finger

The Master of the Misericordia was Florentine painter active in the second half of the fourteenth century. His early works show the influence of Taddeo Gaddi and Bernardo Daddi, the dominant artists of the previous generation, but as he developed his style was to prefigure artistic tendencies prevalent towards the end of the Trecento. The artist’s name was coined by Richard Offner in 1958 after a devotional painting of the Madonna of Mercy (Madonna della Misericordia), formerly at the monastery of Santa Maria di Candeli and now in the collection of the Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence.2 He is also sometimes known as the Master of the Orcagnesque Misericordia. More on The Master of the Misericordia

Attributed to Ventura Salimbeni, SIENA 1568 – 1613


Oil on canvas

50 1/2  by 38 1/4  in.; 128.3 by 97.2 cm.

Private collection

The flight into Egypt is a biblical event described in the Gospel of Matthew in which Joseph fled to Egypt with Mary and infant son Jesus after a visit by Magi because they learned that King Herod intended to kill the infants of that area. The episode is frequently shown in art, as the final episode of the Nativity of Jesus in art, and was a common component in cycles of the Life of the Virgin as well as the Life of Christ.

When the Magi came in search of Jesus, they go to Herod the Great in Jerusalem and ask where to find the newborn “King of the Jews”. Herod becomes paranoid that the child will threaten his throne, and seeks to kill him. Herod initiates the Massacre of the Innocents in hopes of killing the child. But an angel appears to Joseph and warns him to take Jesus and his mother into Egypt.

Egypt was a logical place to find refuge, as it was outside the dominions of King Herod, but both Egypt and Israel were part of the Roman Empire, linked by a coastal road known as “the way of the sea”, making travel between them easy and relatively safe. More on The flight into Egypt


Ventura di Archangelo Salimbeni (later called Bevilacqua); (20 January 1568 – 1613) was an Italian Counter-Maniera painter and printmaker highly influenced by the vaghezza and sensual reform of Federico Barocci.

He possibly spent some time, in Northern Italy and then moved to Rome in 1588 to work, together with others, on the fresco painting of the Vatican Library under pope Sixtus V. During 1590-1591, he received a commission for paintings in the Roman Jesuit Church of the Gesù and the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. Salimbeni returned to Siena in 1595. Here he persisted in a Reformist or Counter-Maniera style.

He is known for detailed preparatory drawings, most of which are now in the Uffizi. He continued to create paintings for churches throughout Italy, including Florence. At the Basilica della Santissima Annunziata di Firenze, he frescoed lunettes (1605–1608) illustrating events in the history of the Servite Order. In the Duomo di San Salvatore, he executed a magnificent John the Baptist.

Around 1600, he got an assignment in Assisi for a fresco of the “Resurrection of Christ” and the “Dying Saint Clare is visited by the pope” in the vault of chapel of San Massimo in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli.

In 1603, Salimbeni was commissioned to paint frescoes for the church of Ss Quirico e Giulitta, one of the oldest churches in Siena. This period saw a proliferation of new assignments.  The papal legate, cardinal Bonifazio Bevilacqua (1571–1627), who had commissioned Salimbeni’s paintings, was so pleased that he invested Ventura Salimbeni with the Order of the Golden Spur, a very selective papal order. He was even authorized from now on to name himself Cavalieri Bevilacqua. More on Ventura di Archangelo Salimbeni

Paolo Caliari, called Paolo Veronese, VERONA 1528 – 1588 VENICE


Oil on canvas

154 x 166 cm.; 60 5/8  x 65 3/8  in.

Private collection

The interrelationship of the five figures is informal, as befits the rural setting: the Virgin, Her head turned to Her right, looks at the left-hand Angel who offers Her a silver plate of dates, while the youthful Christ looks up at Joseph while being watched by the second Angel. The figure group of the Virgin and Child is especially moving: She rests her right hand on His torso, fingers splayed, while He rests his right forearm over Hers, holding a knife between forefinger and thumb, while leaning towards Her so that Their heads almost touch. Joseph is pouring wine and bread sits on a stone table draped with a white cloth, intended to be recognized by the viewer as prefiguring Christ’s Passion. More on the rest on the return from Egypt

Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese (1528–1588), was an Italian Renaissance painter, based in Venice, known for large-format history paintings of religion and mythology, such as The Wedding at Cana (1563) and The Feast in the House of Levi (1573). Included with Titian, a generation older, and Tintoretto, a decade senior, Veronese is one of the “great trio that dominated Venetian painting of the cinquecento” and the Late Renaissance in the 16th century. Known as a supreme colorist, and after an early period with Mannerism, Paolo Veronese developed a naturalist style of painting, influenced by Titian.

His most famous works are elaborate narrative cycles, executed in a dramatic and colorful style, full of majestic architectural settings and glittering pageantry. His large paintings of biblical feasts, crowded with figures, painted for the refectories of monasteries in Venice and Verona are especially famous, and he was also the leading Venetian painter of ceilings. Most of these works remain in situ, or at least in Venice, and his representation in most museums is mainly composed of smaller works such as portraits that do not always show him at his best or most typical.

He has always been appreciated for “the chromatic brilliance of his palette, the splendor and sensibility of his brushwork, the aristocratic elegance of his figures, and the magnificence of his spectacle”, but his work has been felt “not to permit expression of the profound, the human, or the sublime”, and of the “great trio” he has often been the least appreciated by modern criticism. Nonetheless, “many of the greatest artists … may be counted among his admirers, including Rubens, Watteau, Tiepolo, Delacroix and Renoir.” More on Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese

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09 Contemporary Interpretations, Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion, with footnotes, 2

BRUSSELMANS Jean, (1884 – 1953)

Mount of Venus, c. 1947

Ink and watercolor on paper


Private Collection

“Mount of Venus,” simultaneously a mountain shrine and a figurative reference to female genitals. Medical terminology still calls the pubic area mons veneris. Medieval Europe had mountains of the same name. Pope Pius II said witches met by night on Mons Veneris. More on Mount of Venus

Jean Brusselmans , born in Brussels on 13 June 1884 and died in Dilbeek on 9 January 1953 (Aged 68) , was a Belgian painter .

Brusselmans began his career as an engraver and lithographer, but in 1904 he moved to painting after attending a training course at the Brussels Academy. His early works, from 1900 to 1912 , followed the current realistic that impressionist art of the time. Between 1912 and 1920 , he had a fauve period under the influence of his friends Auguste Oleffe , Rik Wouters and Ferdinand Schirren . Beginning in 1920 , Brusselmans developed his own geometric style.

From 1924 to his death in 1953 , he lived in Dilbeek . More on Jean Brusselmans

Tsanko Tsankov, Bulgaria

The kidnapping Hipodamiya – I


31.5 H x 35.4 W x 0.1 in

Private Collection

In Greek mythology, Hippodamia, “she who masters horses”, was the bride of King Pirithous of the Lapiths. At their wedding, Hippodamia, the other female guests, and the young boys were almost abducted by the Centaurs. Pirithous and his friend, Theseus, led the Lapiths to victory over the Centaurs in a battle known as the Centauromachy.

The abduction of Hippodamia was not an uncommon subject of Western art in the classical tradition, including the sculpture The Abduction of Hippodameia by French artist Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse and a painting by Rubens. More on Hipodamiya

Tsanko Tsankov, 1962, born in Sofia and working in Varna,Bulgaria. In 1988 he graduated from the National Academy of Arts, Sofia.

The energy store of the artistic paint, the use of the golden gilt as a marking credo to the ‘different’, as well as the uncountable and delicate colour shades, put a mark on the advance of the plastic art expression of the painter, emancipated from the excess of particular outlines in the subject. 

The depth achieved through the transparent chase of a multitude of pictorial coats is an expressive proof of the makings of the artist Tsanko Tsankov. This pulsating balanced melodiousness of the aesthete concentrates great part of the vigour of his works, engraving figures and pictures of the antiquity and of the modern times into the present. More on Tsanko Tsankov

William Bouguereau, (1825-1905)

The Oreads, c. 1902

Oil on Canvas

H. 236; W. 182 cm

Musée d’Orsay, Paris

The Oreads are the nymphs of mountains and grottoes (the most well known is Echo), who were said to come out in joyful, lively groups to hunt deer, chase wild boar and bring down birds of prey with their arrows. At Diana’s signal, they would come running to join her, forming a dazzling retinue behind her. More on the The Oreads

With this painting, Bouguereau shows himself to be firmly attached to his ideal of academic painting.This work demonstrate his outstanding drawing skills, capable of capturing all the attitudes and expressions of the human body. The mythological subject also enables him to introduce an erotic element without lapsing into bawdiness. More on this painting

William-Adolphe Bouguereau (November 30, 1825 – August 19, 1905) was a French academic painter and traditionalist. In his realistic genre paintings he used mythological themes, making modern interpretations of classical subjects, with an emphasis on the female human body. During his life he enjoyed significant popularity in France and the United States, was given numerous official honors, and received top prices for his work. As the quintessential salon painter of his generation, he was reviled by the Impressionist avant-garde. By the early twentieth century, Bouguereau and his art fell out of favor with the public, due in part to changing tastes. In the 1980s, a revival of interest in figure painting led to a rediscovery of Bouguereau and his work. Throughout the course of his life, Bouguereau executed 822 known finished paintings, although the whereabouts of many are still unknown. More William-Adolphe Bouguereau

Bart Peeters


Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation. She is identified with the planet Venus; her Roman equivalent is the goddess Venus. Myrtle, roses, doves, sparrows and swans were sacred to her.

Aphrodite was created from the sea foam produced by Uranus’s genitals, which had been severed by Cronus. In Homer’s Iliad, however, she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione. In Greek mythology, the other gods feared that Aphrodite’s beauty might lead to conflict and war, through rivalry for her favours; so Zeus married her off to Hephaestus. Despite this, Aphrodite followed her own inclinations, and had many lovers — both gods, such as Ares, and men, such as Anchises. She played a role in the Eros and Psyche legend, and was both lover and surrogate mother of Adonis. More on Aphrodite

Bart Peeters, has been a professional photographer for over 10 years, starting his career in publicity photography and quickly specializing in photography for the jewelry and watch industry. A student of the arts, he spent time in Brussels, Antwerp, Glasgow (Scotland), and Atlanta (USA), fostering his passion for the still image.

His photographs resulted in a professorship in photography at the American InterContinental University in Atlanta, at the photography department.

Peeters has worked for various clients, ranging from the consumer, goods, and services industries, to real estate, to high-end wholesale and the luxury industry. More on Bart Peeters

Bart Peeters


In Greek mythology Medusa was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with a hideous face and living venomous snakes in place of hair. Gazers on her face would turn to stone. She lived and died on an island named Sarpedon, somewhere near Cisthene. The 2nd-century BCE novelist Dionysios Skytobrachion puts her somewhere in Libya, where Herodotus had said the Berbers originated her myth, as part of their religion.

Medusa was beheaded by the hero Perseus, who thereafter used her head, which retained its ability to turn onlookers to stone, as a weapon until he gave it to the goddess Athena to place on her shield. In classical antiquity the image of the head of Medusa appeared in the evil-averting device known as the Gorgoneion. More on Medusa

Bart Peeters, see above

Bart Peeters


Artemis was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. Her Roman equivalent is Diana. Some scholars believe that the name, and indeed the goddess herself, was originally pre-Greek.

In the classical period of Greek mythology, Artemis was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister of Apollo. She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt, wild animals, wilderness, childbirth, virginity and protector of young girls, bringing and relieving disease in women; she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows. The deer and the cypress were sacred to her. More on Artemis

Bart Peeters, see above

Bart Peeters


Hebe in ancient Greek religion, is the goddess of youth. She is the daughter of Zeus and Hera. Hebe was the cupbearer for the gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus, serving their nectar and ambrosia, until she was married to Heracles (Roman equivalent: Hercules). 

Hebe was supposed to have the power to give eternal youth, and in art is typically seen with her father in the guise of an eagle, often offering a cup to him. This depiction is seen in classical engraved gems as well as later art and seems to relate to a belief that the eagle (like the phoenix) had the ability to renew itself to a youthful state. More on Hebe

Bart Peeters, see above

Inge Prader

Recreation of Danaë

Setting was recreated from Gustav Klimt, Danae (1907), below

Disappointed by his lack of male heirs, King Acrisius asked the oracle of Delphi if this would change. The oracle announced to him that he would never have a son, but his daughter would, and that he would be killed by his daughter’s son. At the time, Danae was childless and, meaning to keep her so, she was imprisoned in a tall brass tower with a single richly adorned chamber, but with no doors or windows, just a sky-light as the source of light and air). However, Zeus, the king of the gods, desired her, and came to her in the form of golden rain which streamed in through the roof of the subterranean chamber and down into her womb. Soon after, their child Perseus was born.

Unwilling to provoke the wrath of the gods or the Furies by killing his offspring and grandchild, King Acrisius cast Danaë and Perseus into the sea in a wooden chest. The sea was calmed by Poseidon and, at the request of Zeus, the pair survived. They were washed ashore on the island of Seriphos, where they were taken in by Dictys – the brother of King Polydectes – who raised Perseus to manhood. The King was charmed by Danaë, but she had no interest in him. Consequently, he agreed not to marry her only if her son would bring him the head of the Gorgon Medusa. Using Athena’s shield, Hermes’s winged sandals and Hades’ helmet of invisibility, Perseus was able to evade Medusa’s gaze and decapitate her.

Later, after Perseus brought back Medusa’s head and rescued Andromeda, the oracle’s prophecy came true. He started for Argos, but learning of the prophecy, instead went to Larissa, where athletic games were being held. By chance, an aging Acrisius was there and Perseus accidentally struck him on the head with his javelin (or discus), fulfilling the prophecy. More on Danaë

INGE PRADER is an Austrian photographer who recently recreated Gustav Klimt’s masterworks for Style Bible, a part of the Life Ball Charity Event in Vienna, Austria.  

Gustav Klimt, 1862 – 1918

Danae (1907) 

Galerie Würthle

Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objets d’art. Klimt’s primary subject was the female body, and his works are marked by a frank eroticism. In addition to his figurative works, which include allegories and portraits, he painted landscapes. Among the artists of the Vienna Secession, Klimt was the most influenced by Japanese art and its methods.

Early in his artistic career, he was a successful painter of architectural decorations in a conventional manner. As he developed a more personal style, his work was the subject of controversy that culminated when the paintings he completed around 1900 for the ceiling of the Great Hall of the University of Vienna were criticized as pornographic. He subsequently accepted no more public commissions, but achieved a new success with the paintings of his “golden phase,” many of which include gold leaf. More Gustav Klimt

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05 Painting, Streets of Paris, by the artists of the time, Part 16 – With Footnotes

Manfred Lindemann-Frommel, 1852 – 1939, GERMAN


Oil on canvas

59 by 73.5cm., 23 by 29in.

Private collection

The Porte Saint-Martin is a Parisian monument located at the site of one of the gates of the now-destroyed fortifications of Paris. It is located at the crossing of Rue Saint-Martin, Rue du Faubourg Saint-Martin and the grands boulevards Boulevard Saint-Martin and Boulevard Saint-Denis.

The Porte Saint-Martin was designed by architect Pierre Bullet at the order of Louis XIV in honor of his victories on the Rhine and in Franche-Comté. Built in 1674, it replaced a medieval gate in the city walls built by Charles V. It was restored in 1988. More on The Porte Saint-Martin 

Eugène Galien-Laloue, (1854-1941)

Quais de Paris, Oil, c. 1920

Oil on canvas

44 x 65.5 cm

Private collection

The painting shows a part of the Seine dockside with fishermen, merchants, ships and the cityscape in the background

Eugène Galien-Laloue (1854–1941) was a French artist of French-Italian parents and was born in Paris on December 11, 1854. He was a populariser of street scenes, usually painted in autumn or winter. His paintings of the early 1900s accurately represent the era in which he lived: a happy, bustling Paris, la Belle Époque, with horse-drawn carriages, trolley cars and its first omnibuses. Galien-Laloue’s works are valued not only for their contribution to 20th-century art, but for the actual history, which they document. His work can be seen at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Louvier; Musée des Beaux-Arts, La Rochelle; Mulhouse, France.

A typical Galien-Laloue painting depicts sidewalks and avenues crowded with people or tourists mingling before the capital’s monuments. He also painted the landscapes of Normandy and Seine-et-Marne, as well as military scenes he was commissioned to produce in 1914. The Republic of France selected Galien-Laloue to work as a ‘war artist,’ both during the Franco-Prussian War and World War I, chiefly in watercolor. More on Eugène Galien-Laloue

Eugene Galien-Laloue, (French, 1854-1941)

Au Bord de la Seine

Oil on canvas

19 x 25 inches.

Private collection

From the Louvre to the Eiffel Tower, from the Place de la Concorde to the Grand and Petit Palais, the evolution of Paris and its history can be seen from the River Seine. The Cathedral of Notre-Dame and the Sainte Chapelle are architectural masterpieces while Haussmann’s wide squares and boulevards influenced late 19th- and 20th-century town planning the world over. More on Banks of the Seine

Eugene Galien-Laloue, (French, 1854-1941), see above

Pascale Taurua, France, b. 1961

du côté de Paris

Oil on canvas

 47.2 H x 47.2 W x 1.2 in

 A french girl taking a break on a “haussmannien” balcony.

Haussmann’s renovation of Paris was a vast public works program commissioned by Emperor Napoléon III and directed by his prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, between 1853 and 1870. It included the demolition of medieval neighborhoods that were deemed overcrowded and unhealthy by officials at the time; the building of wide avenues; new parks and squares; the annexation of the suburbs surrounding Paris; and the construction of new sewers, fountains and aqueducts. Haussmann’s work was met with fierce opposition, and he was finally dismissed by Napoleon III in 1870; but work on his projects continued until 1927. The street plan and distinctive appearance of the center of Paris today is largely the result of Haussmann’s renovation. More on “haussmannien” architecture

Pascale Taurua is a painter born in 1961, in the French Polynesia. Her father was a carpenter, so she had access from an early age to different materials, which influenced her to start making her first creations. But it was her grandmother and her passion for fabrics, which taught Pascale everything about colors.

After studying at the Conservatory of Art in Papeete,Tahiti, Pascale decided to travel a lot in order to discover new sources of inspiration, colors and patterns, it was as well an opportunity for her to turn definitively to the field of design and painting.

It was also during her trips that Pascale experimented with a new technique that consisted in taking off posters and then modified them by adding paint, following the dripping technique inspired by Jackson Pollock.

Between paintings and collages, Pascale Taurua’s pieces are a combination of street art and a more academic art, the artist loves the balance between softness and vitality, tenderness and strength which can be appreciated in all her pieces. More on Pascale Taurua

FRANCOIS GEROME, French (b. 1895) 

Portrait of Woman with Dog at Les Champs Elysee Paris

Oil on canvas

24 x 30 inches 

Private collection

The Avenue des Champs-Élysées is an avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, running between the Place de la Concorde and the Place Charles de Gaulle, where the Arc de Triomphe is located. It is known for its theatres, cafés, and luxury shops, for the annual Bastille Day military parade, and as the finish of the Tour de France cycle race. The name is French for the Elysian Fields, the paradise for dead heroes in Greek mythology. It is one of the most famous streets in the world. More on the Champs-Élysées

François Gérôme (born 1895 in Paris) was a French painter. He is best known for his paintings of women depicted at picturesque spots throughout Paris including the Place de la Concorde and in front of the Opéra. In these representations, the women usually engage the viewer with their frontal pose and direct gaze outward. Gerome used oils, typically on canvas or on board. He signed his paintings with his first initial and last name, but was also known to sign in his alias B. Kovacs. More on François Gérôme

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05 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART – Interpretations of the Bible! by The Old Masters, With Footnotes # 69

Claude Vignon, TOURS 1593 – 1670 PARIS


Oil on canvas

53 7/8  by 74 in.; 136 by 188 cm.

Private collection

Claude Vignon (19 May 1593 – 10 May 1670) was a leading French painter and engraver working in the Baroque manner. He was born at Tours and received early training in Paris. About 1610 he travelled to Rome where his mature style was formed in the circle of French painters there that included Simon Vouet and Valentin de Boulogne, a prominent member of the Caravaggisti working, like Bartolomeo Manfredi, in the manner established by Caravaggio.

He returned from Italy, after a tour in Spain, in 1623. His paintings are represented in most of the major museums. More on Claude Vignon

John Henry Amshewitz, R.B.A., 1882 – 1942


oil on canvas

75 by 55 in., 190.5 by 139.7 cm

Private collection

The subject of this large and theatrical canvas shows a young troubadour pursued by the figure of Death. Accompanying him and oblivious to the singer’s plight are a court jester, Cupid, and a beautiful maiden in fantastic costume who appears to glide mysteriously along the bottom of the canvas. The setting is the garden of an imaginary coastal villa. 

John Henry Amshewitz, R.B.A., 1882 – 1942



John Henry Amshewitz, R.B.A., 1882 – 1942 was a precocious talent and in 1902 won a scholarship to the Royal Academy schools, where he studied under John Singer Sargent, Sir George Clausen and Solomon J. Solomon (see lot 14). Like his contemporaries, John Byam Shaw and Frank Cadogan Cowper, Amshewitz won a number of important civic commissions, including four fresco murals for the Centenary Memorial at the Liverpool City Hall in 1907, and a large mural for the Royal Exchange, London in 1910. He exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy.

John Henry Amshewitz, R.B.A., 1882 – 1942



In 1917, he was elected a member of the South African Society of Artists. He was also a founding member of the Johannesburg Sketch Club, subsequently becoming its President, and served as a mentor and critic to other Johannesburg artists. Although Amshewitz only lived in South Africa from 1916 to 1922), he is perhaps best known as a South African artist, where his works can be found in numerous public collections. More on John Henry Amshewitz

Solomon Joseph Solomon, R.A., P.R.B.A., 1860-1927


Oil on canvas

122 by 56 in., 310 by 142.2 cm

Private collection

Solomon Joseph Solomon’s Eve was first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1908, when the artist was at the height of his powers. His subject, the first woman, was a popular source of inspiration for Victorian artists, and gallery walls had displayed countless interpretations of her creation. Yet, when encountering Solomon’s monumental composition with its life-size Eve held aloft by great-winged angels against a sky of swirling clouds, exhibition-goers and critics alike were little prepared for its dynamic impact. More on Eve

Solomon Joseph Solomon, R.A., P.R.B.A., 1860-1927



Solomon Joseph Solomon RA (16 September 1860 – 27 July 1927) was a British painter, a founding member of the New English Art Club and member of the Royal Academy. He made an important contribution to the development of camouflage in the First World War, working in particular on tree observation posts and arguing tirelessly for camouflage netting.

Born in London in 1860, Solomon studied at various art schools, sequentially, Heatherley School of Fine Art, the Royal Academy Schools, the Munich Academy, and École des Beaux-Arts (under Alexandre Cabanel). Solomon also studied separately under Rev. S. Singer. He exhibited his first works as early as 1881, and showed at the Royal Academy, the New Gallery, and the Society of British Artists. In 1886, he became one of the founding members of the New English Art Club. In 1896, he became an associate of the Royal Academy, with full membership following in 1906. He joined, and became president of, the Royal Society of British Artists in 1919. More Solomon Joseph Solomon

Alfred Dehodencq, 1822 – 1882


Oil on canvas

65 1/2 by 86 in., 166.4 by 218.4 cm

Private collection

The Book of Ruth is included in the third division, or the Writings  of the Hebrew Bible; in most Christian canons it is treated as a history book and placed between Judges and 1 Samuel, although the Syriac Christian tradition places it later, between Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs. It is named after its central figure, Ruth the Moabitess, the great-grandmother of David.

Elimelech, his wife Naomi and their two sons moved to a place called Moab. as there was more food there than where they used to live.  After a while Elimelech died but Naomi wasn’t alone she still had two sons.

Her sons got married but after about ten years they died too.  At least Naomi still had her sons wives to keep her company, their names were Orpah and Ruth.

Naomi called Orpah and Ruth and told them, “I am going to go back to where I used to live and I would like you also to go back to your family where you used to live.  May God show you kindness as you have showed me.” 

Orpah didn’t want to leave Naomi but Naomi told her not to worry, she would be fine.  So Orpah left to go back to her family.  But no matter what Naomi said to Ruth, Ruth would not leave.  “Don’t ask me to leave.  Where you go I will go, and where you stay I will stay.  Your friends will be my friends and your God will be my God.”

So Ruth and Naomi returned to Bethlehem together.  It was a good thing Ruth went with Naomi because Bethlehem was very far away and Naomi couldn’t have traveled all that way by herself. More on Ruth and Naomi

Alfred Dehodencq (23 April 1822 – 2 January 1882) was a mid-19th-century French Orientalist painter born in Paris. He was known for his vivid oil paintings, especially of Andalusian and North African scenes. Dehodencq was born in Paris. During his early years, he studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. During the French Revolution of 1848 he was wounded in the arm and was sent to convalesce in the Pyrenees before moving to Madrid. He spent five years in Spain where he became acquainted with the works of Spanish painters Diego Velázquez and Francisco Goya which had a strong influence on his approach to painting.

In 1853 he travelled to Morocco, where for the following ten years he produced many of his most famous paintings depicting scenes of the world he encountered. Dehodencq was the first foreign artist known to have lived in Morocco for an extended number of years.

Dehodencq married Maria Amelia Calderon in 1857 in Cadiz, Spain, and they had three children. Dehodencq returned to Paris in 1863 with his wife, and was decorated with the Legion of Honour in 1870. He committed suicide on 2 January 1882 having been sick for a long time and is buried in the Montmartre Cemetery. More Alfred Dehodencq

Abraham Janssens the Elder, ANTWERP 1567 – 1632


oil on canvas

74 5/8  by 58 5/8  in.; 189.5 by 149 cm.

Private collection

Jerome (c.  347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian and historian. He was the son of Eusebius, born at Stridon, a village near Emona on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia, then part of northeastern Italy. He is best known for his translation of most of the Bible into Latin (the translation that became known as the Vulgate), and his commentaries on the Gospels. His list of writings is extensive.


The protégé of Pope Damasus I, who died in December of 384, Jerome was known for his teachings on Christian moral life, especially to those living in cosmopolitan centers such as Rome. In many cases, he focused his attention to the lives of women and identified how a woman devoted to Jesus should live her life. This focus stemmed from his close patron relationships with several prominent female ascetics who were members of affluent senatorial families.

He is recognised as a Saint and Doctor of the Church by the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Lutheran Church, and the Anglican Communion.[6] His feast day is 30 September. More on Jerome


Abraham Janssens I, Abraham Janssen I or Abraham Janssens van Nuyssen (1575–1632) was a Flemish painter, who is known principally for his large religious and mythological works, which show the influence of Caravaggio. He was the leading history painter in Flanders prior to the return of Rubens from Italy.

Abraham Janssens was born in Antwerp as the son of Jan Janssens and Roelofken van Huysen or Nuyssen.[2] There is some uncertainty regarding his year of birth. He was previously thought to have been born in the year 1567, but it is now more generally assumed that his date of birth was 1575.

Janssens studied under Jan Snellinck and was registered as a pupil in the local Guild of Saint Luke in 1585. He travelled to Italy where he resided mainly in Rome between 1597 and 1602. After returning to his home country he became a master in the Antwerp Guild in the guild year 1601-1602.

In 1607 he became the dean of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke. This is also the time when he received his first major commissions, which initiated the most important period of his career. Until the return of Rubens to Antwerp in 1608, Janssens was considered perhaps the best history painter of his time. After Rubens became the dominant force for large altarpieces in the Antwerp market, Janssens had to find commissions for large monumental works from provincial patrons.

Janssens joined in 1610 the Confrerie of Romanists, a society of Antwerp humanists and artists who had travelled to Rome. The diversity and high positions held by the Confrerie’s membership offered him a good opportunity to meet with potential patrons. More onAbraham Janssens the Elder

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05 Paintings, Olympian deities, by the Old Masters, with footnotes # 12

Follower of Michelangelo Merisi called Caravaggio


oil on canvas

29 7/8  by 39 5/8  in.; 75.5 by 100.5 cm.

Private collection

This is a depiction of the craftsman and father adhering ink black shining feathered wings the back of his adolescent son; wings that would ultimately result in the boy’s demise.

The theme, as told by Ovid in his Metamorphoses (VIII:183–235), was a rare one in Caravaggesque painting the seventeenth century.

Icarus. In Greek mythology, Icarus is the son of the master craftsman Daedalus, the creator of the Labyrinth. Often depicted in art, Icarus and his father attempt to escape from Crete by means of wings that his father constructed from feathers and wax. Icarus’ father warns him first of complacency and then of hubris, asking that he fly neither too low nor too high, so the sea’s dampness would not clog his wings or the sun’s heat melt them. Icarus ignored his father’s instructions not to fly too close to the sun; when the wax in his wings melted he tumbled out of the sky and fell into the sea where he drowned. More on Icarus


Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (29 September 1571 in Caravaggio – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1592 and 1610. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting.


Caravaggio trained as a painter in Milan under Simone Peterzano who had himself trained under Titian. In his twenties Caravaggio moved to Rome where there was a demand for paintings to fill the many huge new churches and palazzos being built at the time. It was also a period when the Church was searching for a stylistic alternative to Mannerism in religious. Caravaggio’s innovation was a radical naturalism that combined close physical observation with a dramatic use of chiaroscuro which came to be known as tenebrism (the shift from light to dark with little intermediate value).


He gained attention in the art scene of Rome in 1600 with the success of his first public commissions, the Martyrdom of Saint Matthew and Calling of Saint Matthew. Thereafter he never lacked commissions or patrons, yet he handled his success poorly. He was jailed on several occasions, vandalized his own apartment, and ultimately had a death sentence pronounced against him by the Pope after killing a young man, possibly unintentionally, on May 29, 1606. He fled from Rome with a price on his head. He was involved in a brawl in Malta in 1608, and another in Naples in 1609. This encounter left him severely injured. A year later, at the age of 38, he died under mysterious circumstances in Porto Ercole in Tuscany, reportedly from a fever while on his way to Rome to receive a pardon.


Famous while he lived, Caravaggio was forgotten almost immediately after his death, and it was only in the 20th century that his importance to the development of Western art was rediscovered. More on Caravaggio

Gustave Moreau, 1826 – 1898, FRENCH


Gouache and watercolor on paper

52 by 25cm., 20½ by 9¾in.

Private collection

Helen was the daughter of Zeus and Leda, and considered in Greek myth to be the most beautiful woman in the world. She was married to Menelaus, King of Sparta. When the Trojan prince Paris abducted Helen and carried her off to the city of Troy, the Greeks responded by mounting an attack on the city, thus beginning the Trojan War. Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and the brother of Menelaus, led an expedition of Greek troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years because of Paris’s insult. After the deaths of many heroes, including the Greeks Achilles and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector and Paris, the city fell to the ruse of the Trojan Horse. The Greeks slaughtered the Trojans and desecrated the temples More on Helen

Gustave Moreau, 1826 – 1898, FRENCH


Detail at bottom

Gustave Moreau (6 April 1826 – 18 April 1898) was a French Symbolist painter whose main emphasis was the illustration of biblical and mythological figures. Moreau was born in Paris. His father, Louis Jean Marie Moreau, was an architect, who recognized his talent. His first painting was a Pietà which is now located in the cathedral at Angoulême. He showed A Scene from the Song of Songs and The Death of Darius in the Salon of 1853. In 1853 he contributed Athenians with the Minotaur and Moses Putting Off his Sandals within Sight of the Promised Land to the Great Exhibition.

Moreau became a professor at Paris’ École des Beaux-Arts in 1891 and among his many students were fauvist painters Henri Matisse and Georges Rouault. Jules Flandrin, Theodor Pallady and Léon Printemps also studied with Moreau.

During his lifetime, Moreau produced more than 8,000 paintings, watercolors and drawings, many of which are on display in Paris’ Musée national Gustave Moreau at 14 rue de la Rochefoucauld (9th arrondissement). The museum is in his former workshop, and began operation in 1903. André Breton famously used to “haunt” the museum and regarded Moreau as a precursor of Surrealism. More on Gustave Moreau

Agnolo di Cosimo, 1503 – 1572

Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time (Allegory of the Triumph of Venus), c. 1540s

Oil on panel

57 1/2 × 45 7/10 in, 146 × 116 cm

National Gallery, London

Bronzino made a picture of singular beauty, which was sent to King Francis in France; in which was a nude Venus with Cupid kissing her, and on one side Pleasure and Play with other Loves; and on the other, Fraud, Jealousy, and other passions of love. Venus and Cupid are identifiable by their attributes, as is the old man with wings and an hourglass who must be Time. The identity of the other figures, and the meaning of the picture remain uncertain.

The howling figure on the left has been variously interpreted as Jealousy, Despair and the effects of syphilis; the boy scattering roses and stepping on a thorn as Jest, Folly and Pleasure; the hybrid creature with the face of a girl, as Pleasure and Fraud; and the figure in the top left corner as Fraud and Oblivion. The erotic yet erudite subject matter of the painting was well suited to the tastes of King Francis I of France. It was probably sent to him as a gift from Cosimo I de’ Medici, ruler of Florence, by whom Bronzino was employed as court painter. Bronzino was also an accomplished poet. The picture reflects his interest in conventional Petrarchan love lyrics as well as more bawdy poetic genres.  National Gallery, London

Agnolo di Cosimo (November 17, 1503 – November 23, 1572), usually known as Bronzino was a Florentine Mannerist painter. 
He lived all his life in Florence, and from his late 30s was kept busy as the court painter of Cosimo I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. He was mainly a portraitist but also painted many religious subjects, and a few allegorical subjects, which include what is probably his best known work, Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, c. 1544–45, now in London (Above). Many portraits of the Medicis exist in several versions with varying degrees of participation by Bronzino himself, as Cosimo was a pioneer of the copied portrait sent as a diplomatic gift.

He trained with Pontormo, the leading Florentine painter of the first generation of Mannerism, and his style was greatly influenced by him, but his elegant and somewhat elongated figures always appear calm and somewhat reserved, lacking the agitation and emotion of those by his teacher. They have often been found cold and artificial, and his reputation suffered from the general critical disfavour attached to Mannerism in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Recent decades have been more appreciative of his art. More on Agnolo di Cosimo 

Louise d’Aussy-Pintaud, 1900-1990 

“CHANSON D’AMOUR”, c. 1944


38 X 51.5 INCHES

Private collection

Louise d’Aussy-Pintaud, 1900-1990 was a painter and sculptor. She was born in Bordeaux, France in 1900. Her primary areas of focus were nudes, landscapes, and busts. She exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français in Paris from 1934.

D’Aussy-Pintaud began painting under the influence of her grandfather, an avid – albeit amateur – painter. She becam a student of sculptor M. A. Seysse, also in Bordeaux. Later, she would study under painter and mentor Biloul while attending the Gustave Moreau School in Paris.

Her earlier work is her best known, for her ability to observe the naked form in a refined and what has been described as an even chaste manner. D’Aussy-Pintaud’s painting of figures is classic and purist, while the very expressive backgrounds and landscapes are handled with expressionistic vigor.

Her work was exhibited in the Salon des Artistes Français between 1934 and 1942. In 1944, D’Aussy-Pintaud would ultimatlely settle with her husband in the city of Ciboure (Lapurdi) until the time of her death in 1990. More on Louise d’Aussy-Pintaud

Hans Rottenhammer the Elder, MUNICH 1564 – 1625 AUGSBURG


Oil on canvas

57 1/2  by 81 3/8  in.; 146.1 by 206.7.

Private collection

Johann Rottenhammer, or Hans Rottenhammer (1564 – 14 August 1625), was a German painter. He specialized in highly finished paintings on a small scale.

He was born in Munich, where he studied until 1588 under Hans Donauer the Elder. In 1593-4 he was in Rome, and he then settled in Venice from 1595-6 to 1606, before returning to Germany and settling in Augsburg, working also in Munich. He died in Augsburg, apparently in some poverty, and according to some sources an alcoholic. More on Johann Rottenhammer

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03 Paintings by self-taught Algerian artist in the U.S. for the first time

Baya Mahieddine (1931–1998)

Femme attablées (Women at table), 1947

Gouache on board

19 1/2 x 25 3/8 in

Collection Adrien Maeght, Saint-Paulde-Vence, France 

© Photo Galerie Maeght, Paris.

Baya: Woman of Algiers is the first North American exhibition of works by the self-taught Algerian artist Baya Mahieddine (1931–1998). Known as Baya, she was born in Bordj el-Kiffan and orphaned at age five. Encouraged by her adoptive French mother to pursue art, she began as an adolescent to paint gouaches and make ceramics. Her work was soon discovered by fabled gallerist Aimé Maeght who, along with André Breton, organized an exhibition in Paris in 1947. Baya’s colorful depictions of women, rhythmic patterns, and bright palette drew the attention of Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso, with whom she later collaborated in the renowned Madoura pottery studio in Vallauris. Celebrated in both Algeria and France, Baya has yet to gain international recognition. Woman of Algiers reexamines Baya’s career within contemporary, Surrealist, “outsider,” and Maghreb post-colonial art contexts.  The exhibition features works drawn from the Maeght Family Collection, Paris, as well as several Madoura ceramics by Picasso and a video by London-based French-Algerian artist Zineb Sedira. Baya is curated by Natasha Boas and will be accompanied by an illustrated catalogue with essays by  Boas, André Breton, Assia Djebar, and Menna Ekram. More on this exposition at New York University’s Grey Art Gallery 


Mother and children, 1969 

Gouache and watercolor on paper, signed lower right 

99 x 148 cm at sight – 39 x 58 1/4 in. 

Baya MAHIEDDINE known as BAYA (1931-1998)

Basket of fruits and birds, c. 1979

Gouache on black canson,

51 x 101 cm 

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