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11 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings – With Footnotes, #28

Pierre Bonnard , French, 1867 – 1947

The Port Of Cannes, Le Port de Cannes, c. 1926 – 1927

Oil, canvas

Private Collection

Cannes is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a commune of France located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, and host city of the annual Cannes Film Festival, Midem, and Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity. .

Pierre Bonnard , French, 1867 – 1947

The Port Of Cannes, Le Port de Cannes, c. 1920

Oil, canvas

Private Collection

In the 10th century, the town was known as Canua. The name may derive from “canna,” a reed. Canua was probably the site of a small Ligurian port, and later a Roman outpost on Le Suquet hill, suggested by Roman tombs discovered here. Le Suquet housed an 11th-century tower which overlooked swamps where the city now stands. Most of the ancient activity, especially protection, was on the Lérins Islands and the history of Cannes is closely tied to the history of the islands.

An attack by the Saracens in 891, who remained until the end of the 10th century, devastated the country around Canua. The insecurity of the Lérins islands forced the monks to settle on the mainland, at the Suquet. Construction of a castle in 1035 fortified the city by then known as Cannes, and at the end of the 11th century construction was started on two towers on the Lérins islands. One took a century to build.

Around 1530, Cannes detached from the monks who had controlled the city for hundreds of years and became independent.

During the 18th century, both the Spanish and British tried to gain control of the Lérins Islands but were chased away by the French. The islands were later controlled by many, such as Jean-Honoré Alziary, and the Bishop of Fréjus. They had many different purposes: at the end of the 19th century, one served as hospital for soldiers wounded in the Crimean War. More on Cannes

Pierre Bonnard, French, 1867 – 1947

The Port of Cannes, 1927

Oil on canvas

41 x 65 cm

National Gallery of Canada

Pierre Bonnard (3 October 1867 — 23 January 1947) was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis. Bonnard preferred to work from memory, using drawings as a reference, and his paintings are often characterized by a dreamlike quality. The intimate domestic scenes, for which he is perhaps best known, often include his wife Marthe de Meligny.

Bonnard has been described as “the most thoroughly idiosyncratic of all the great twentieth- century painters”, and the unusual vantage points of his compositions rely less on traditional modes of pictorial structure than voluptuous color, poetic allusions and visual wit. Identified as a late practitioner of Impressionism in the early 20th century, Bonnard has since been recognized for his unique use of color and his complex imagery. More

 

Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida – 1899

The Net, c. 1899

Oil on canvas

Height: 50 cm (19.69 in.), Width: 69 cm (27.17 in.)

Private collection

Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (27 February 1863 10 August 1923) was a Spanish painter. Sorolla excelled in the painting of portraits, landscapes, and monumental works of social and historical themes. His most typical works are characterized by a dexterous representation of the people and landscape under the sunlight of his native land. More

Charles Dixon, 1872 -1934

The Battle of Trafalgar, c. 1903

Watercolour and bodycolour

88.9 x 180.3cm (35 x 71in)

Private collection

The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).

Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson aboard HMS Victory defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships of the line under the French Admiral Villeneuve in the Atlantic off the southwest coast of Spain, just west of Cape Trafalgar, in Caños de Meca. The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost. It was the most decisive naval battle of the war, conclusively ending French plans to invade England.

The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established during the eighteenth century and was achieved in part through Nelson’s departure from the prevailing naval tactical orthodoxy. 

Nelson was shot by a French musketeer during the battle and died shortly after, becoming one of Britain’s greatest war heroes. Villeneuve was captured along with his ship Bucentaure. Admiral Federico Gravina, the senior Spanish flag officer, escaped with the remnant of the fleet and succumbed months later to wounds sustained during the battle. Villeneuve attended Nelson’s funeral while a captive on parole in Britain. The Battle of Trafalgar

Charles Edward Dixon (8 December 1872 – 12 September 1934) was a British maritime painter of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, whose work was highly successful and regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy. Several of his paintings are held by the National Maritime Museum and he was a regular contributing artist to magazines and periodicals. He lived at Itchenor in Sussex and died in 1934. More

William Lee Hankey, (1869–1952) RWS,RI,ROI,RE,NS

CANNES, PORT ET SUQUET

Oil on canvas

61.5 x 74cm

Private collection

Le Suquet, sometimes called Mont-Chevalier, is the oldest district of Cannes , its “old town”, situated on a hill west of the bay , Old Port. Lord Brougham played his part to speed up the creation of a port at the foot of the Suquet . For a hundred years, the fishermen demanded a dike to protect themselves from the labech, the south-west wind which can trigger fierce storms. Bewitched by the site, the benefactor intervened with King Louis-Philippe. The grateful city erected a statue in 1898 to this providential man.

But it was another Englishman, the Prince of Wales, Albert Edward, the eldest son of Queen Victoria and future Edward VII, who laid the first stone of the pier which bears his name in 1898. Before being crowned, the Prince of Wales had made Cannes his headquarters, More Suquet

William Lee Hankey (1869–1952) RWS,RI,ROI,RE,NS was a British painter and book illustrator. He specialised in landscapes, character studies and portraits of pastoral life, particularly in studies of mothers with young children.

He was born in Chester and worked as a designer after leaving school. He studied art in the evenings at the Chester School of Art, then at the Royal College of Art. Later in Paris he became influenced by the work of Jules Bastien-Lepage, who also favoured rustic scenes depicted in a realistic but sentimental style. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1896 and was President of the London Sketch Club from 1902 to 1904. He stayed in France in the early 1900s, painting many of his works in Brittany and Normandy. From 1904 until well after World War I he maintained a studio at the Etaples art colony.

It was Hankey’s black and white and coloured etchings of the people of Étaples, which gained him a reputation as ‘one of the most gifted of the figurative printmakers working in original drypoint during the first thirty years of the 20th century’. One that is particularly striking for its stylistic presentation was “The Refugees”, his contribution to raising awareness of the consequences for ordinary people of the German invasion of France and Belgium in 1914. He went on to serve with the Artists’ Rifles from 1915 to 1918.

In Britain he had been associated with the Newlyn School, a group of English artists based in the titular village in Cornwall who were themselves influenced by the romantic poets such as Wordsworth and Keats. More

 

Edward William Cooke, 1811 – 1880

French Sloop entering the harbour of Tréport, c. 1869

Oil on canvas

81.3 x 134.6cm (32 x 53in)

Private collection

Le Treport is a coastal port town on the English Channel in northern Seine-Maritime, normandy, and just a few kilometres from Eu and Mers-les-Bains, which falls on the Picardy side of the River Bresle.

A long standing port town, Le Tréport was established as a seaside resort in the 19th century, it was with the arrival of ‘paid holidays for all workers’ in France in 1936 that the town really started to grow in popularity – it is one of the most accessible seaside resorts from Paris. More Le Treport

 

Edward William Cooke, R.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. (27 March 1811 – 4 January 1880) was an English landscape and marine painter, and gardener. Cooke was born in Pentonville, London. He was raised in the company of artists. He was a precocious draughtsman and a skilled engraver from an early age, displayed an equal preference for marine subjects and published his “Shipping and Craft” a series of accomplished engravings when he was 18, in 1829. Cooke began painting in oils in 1833, and first exhibited at the Royal Academy and British Institution in 1835, by which time his style was essentially formed.

He went on to travel and paint with great industry at home and abroad, indulging his love of the 17th-century Dutch marine artists with a visit to the Netherlands in 1837. He returned regularly over the next 23 years, studying the effects of the coastal landscape and light, as well as the works of the country’s Old Masters, resulting in highly successful paintings. He went on to travel in Scandinavia, Spain, North Africa and, above all, to Venice. In 1858, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician. . More Edward William Cooke

George William Joy, 1844 – 1925

Ships moored in calm waters

Watercolour

17.8 x 26cm (7 x 10 1/4in)

Private collection

George William Joy (July 7, 1844 in Dublin, Ireland – October 28, 1925 in Purbrook, Hampshire) was an Irish painter in London.  He was initially destined for the military and was also an accomplished violin player. After a foot injury at a young age, his father declared him unfit for military service. Joy was then educated at Harrow School and eventually pursued a career as an artist. He studied in London’s South Kensington School of Art and later at the Royal Academy.

In 1868 Joy went to Paris where for two years he was a student of Charles-François Jalabert and Léon Bonnat. There he met masters like Gérôme, Cabanel, Jules Breton, Jules Lefebvre und Philippe Rousseau.

Going back to London, Joy established himself as a history and genre painter, and became a frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy, the Salon des artistes français and the Royal Hibernian Academy. He became a member of the Royal Institute of Oil Painters in 1895.

To satisfy his early military ambitions, Joy entered the Artists Rifles where he was known as a good shot, representing Ireland several times. He spent many winters in Swanage from 1896 and eventually retired to Purbrook. Both of his sons were killed in 1915 during World War I. More George William Joy

 

Jan Marti, (1958-) 

Automne sur Honfleur 

Oil on canvas 

50 x 61 cm 

Private collection

Honfleur is a commune in northwestern France. It is located on the southern bank of the estuary of the Seine across from le Havre and very close to the exit of the Pont de Normandie. Its inhabitants are called Honfleurais.

It is especially known for its old, beautiful picturesque port, characterized by its houses with slate-covered frontages, painted many times by artists, including in particular Gustave Courbet, Eugène Boudin, Claude Monet and Johan Jongkind, forming the école de Honfleur (Honfleur school) which contributed to the appearance of the Impressionist movement. More Honfleur

Jan Marti was born in 1958 in Savoy, after a few attempts at studying and various jobs that he quickly gives up, he then devotes himself to painting. He channels his connection to the abstract in hectic and elegant strokes. 

The exuberant blaze of colours and elements flatters both sensibility and eyes. His work depicts a naturally suggested beauty. Jan Marti’s works are part of numerous exhibitions and private collections in France and abroad. More Jan Marti

Chiharu Shiota

The key in the hand at Japanese Pavillon, 2015 

Chiharu Shiota is a Japanese installation artist born in 1972 in Osaka. She has been living and working in Berlin since 1996.

Shiota studied at the Seika University in Kyoto and at various schools in Germany. Shiota’s oeuvre links various aspects of art performances and installation practices. Mostly renown for her vast, room-spanning webs of threads or hoses, she links abstract networks with concrete everyday objects such as keys, windows, dresses, shoes, boats and suitcases. Besides installation works, she frequently collaborates with choreographers and composers. More Chiharu Shiota

JOHN SLOAN, (1871–1951)  

The Wake of the Ferry II, 1907

Oil on canvas

26 x 32 in.

Phillips Collection

John French Sloan began painting The Wake of the Ferry II in 1907, his second version of this scene. The subject may well have been suggested by Sloan’s ferry trips with his wife from Jersey City to Philadelphia for medical treatments.

The stylistic influence of Robert Henri, so pervasive in Sloan’s early work, is apparent here; the scene has been broadly conceived, spontaneously conveyed, and boldly brushed, in a limited palette of grays and near-blacks. The composition reinforces the mood; the ferry’s tilted angle, framing a view of the rough waters, is arresting, and the diagonal of the wake receding into the mist reinforces the sense of loneliness and distance. In this setting, the small figure on the right, understated and half lost in shadow, becomes the essential actor in this version of Sloan’s human comedy and brings into focus its melancholy expression.

In 1971 The Wake of the Ferry II was selected by the United States Postal Service for a stamp commemorating the centennial year of Sloan’s birth. More The Wake of the Ferry

John French Sloan (August 2, 1871 – September 7, 1951) was a twentieth-century painter and etcher and one of the founders of the Ashcan school of American art. He was also a member of the group known as The Eight. He is best known for his urban genre scenes and ability to capture the essence of neighborhood life in New York City, often observed through his Chelsea studio window. Sloan has been called “the premier artist of the Ashcan School who painted the inexhaustible energy and life of New York City during the first decades of the twentieth century” and an “early twentieth-century realist painter who embraced the principles of Socialism and placed his artistic talents at the service of those beliefs.” More  John Sloan

 

 

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12 Paintings of the Canals of Venice in the 18 & 19th Century, by the artists of the time, with foot notes. #5

Richard Price, (British, born 1962)

April Day in Venice

Oil on canvas

51 x 61cm (20 1/16 x 24in).

Private Collection

The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark, commonly known as Saint Mark’s Basilica, is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice, northern Italy. It is the most famous of the city’s churches and one of the best known examples of Italo-Byzantine architecture. It lies at the eastern end of the Piazza San Marco, adjacent and connected to the Doge’s Palace. Originally it was the chapel of the Doge, and has only been the city’s cathedral since 1807.

For its opulent design, gold ground mosaics, and its status as a symbol of Venetian wealth and power, from the 11th century on the building has been known by the nickname Chiesa d’Oro (Church of gold). More Saint Mark’s Basilica

Richard Price was born in 1962 in Upminster, Essex. At 11 years of age he started painting and drawing from observing the fishing fleet at Leigh-on-Sea, Essex. Encouraged to simply paint ‘anything’ he quickly was drawn to paint atmospheric conditions and light effects.

He later studied at Portsmouth. Price then moved to London and worked as a production design lecturer at the London International Film School. In 2001 he started to make his own images again. Encouraged by his new mentor Jon Bowen he soon resumed his painting.

Price’s work is concerned with light and atmosphere and falls within the traditions of artists such as Turner and Walter Sickert. While some of his work is done in the studio, Price is predominantly an ‘en plein air’ painter and most of his work is therefore painted immediately in front of his subject. The challenge of this type of work is in being able to rapidly analyze colour and tone at the same time as capturing the constantly moving drama of the environment. More Richard Price

Serge Mendjisky, B. 1929

VENISE, LE GRAND CANAL, c. 1989

Oil on canvas

73 by 100.2cm., 28 3/4 by 39 1/2 in.

Private Collection

The Grand Canal is a canal in Venice, Italy. It forms one of the major water-traffic corridors in the city. Public transport is provided by water buses and private water taxis Many tourists explore the canal by gondola.

One end of the canal leads into the lagoon near the Santa Lucia railway station and the other end leads into Saint Mark Basin; in between, it makes a large reverse-S shape through the central districts (sestieri) of Venice. More Grand Canal

Serge Mendjisky was born in 1929 in Paris. After completing his studies at the Beaux Arts in Paris, he soon became a recognized artist and exhibited in Europe, Japan and the United States. He uses photography to make his preliminary studies in painting.

In 2000, he decided to use photography as the only means of expression. He borrows the collage technique to alter photographic images and articulate its multidimensional worldview. The multiple perspectives, expressed in his collages evoke clearly the analytical phase of Cubism. After many years of technical exploration, he found a way to question not only the appearance of the world, but also our perceptual behavior.

By decomposing and recomposing the backgrounds of some of the most famous cities of the world like New York and Paris, Serge Mendjisky creates new urban landscapes which question our perceptive faculties. More Serge Mendjisky

Edward William Cooke

The Canale della Giudecca with Redentore beyond, c. 1863

Oil on paper laid on canvas

11 x 17 11/16 in

Private Collection

The Giudecca Canal is a body of water that flows into the San Marco basin in Venice, Italy. It is one of the major canals in the city, it bisects the sestieri of Dorsoduro, separating Giudecca island and district from Dorsoduro district. More Giudecca Canal

Edward William Cooke, R.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. (27 March 1811 – 4 January 1880) was an English landscape and marine painter, and gardener. Cooke was born in Pentonville, London. He was raised in the company of artists. He was a precocious draughtsman and a skilled engraver from an early age, displayed an equal preference for marine subjects and published his “Shipping and Craft” a series of accomplished engravings when he was 18, in 1829. Cooke began painting in oils in 1833, and first exhibited at the Royal Academy and British Institution in 1835, by which time his style was essentially formed.

He went on to travel and paint with great industry at home and abroad, indulging his love of the 17th-century Dutch marine artists with a visit to the Netherlands in 1837. He returned regularly over the next 23 years, studying the effects of the coastal landscape and light, as well as the works of the country’s Old Masters, resulting in highly successful paintings. He went on to travel in Scandinavia, Spain, North Africa and, above all, to Venice. In 1858, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician. . More Edward William Cooke

ANDREW FISHER BUNNER (American, 1841-1897)

Venetian canal scene

Oil on canvas

22 x 32 in.

Private Collection

ANDREW FISHER BUNNER (1841 – 1897). Born in New York in 1841.  From 1865 through 1868 he lived in New York and exhibited a number of works at the national Academy of Design.  These works included A Summer Afternoon in Pike County, PA. (1865) and The Potomac River below Harper’s Ferry (1868).  He spent the year of 1869 in New Jersey and then moved to Louisville, KY. in 1870.  He exhibited Study from Nature in West Virginia at the National Academy that same year.

During the 1870’s he traveled to Europe to study and spent time in Paris and Venice.  He concentrated on landscapes, often views by the riverside with a great deal of interest and detail.  In 1879 he returned to New York and was living at 33 East 17th Street.  Among the works he exhibited at the National Academy that year were The Riva, Venice and A Fisherman’s Cottage in the Tyrol.  He remained in New York till 1883 when he returned to Venice.  He lived there till 1885 and sent works each year to the National Academy for exhibition.

Bunner returned to New York in 1887 and remained there till his death in 1897.  In 1900 his wife donated a group of works that Bunner produced during his trips to Venice to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. More

Charles Oppenheimer RSA RSW (British, 1875-1961)

Ponte Di Cannaregio, Venice 

Oil on panel

34.5 x 45 cm. (13 3/16 x 17 1/8

Private Collection

The Ponte delle Guglie is one of two bridges in Venice, Italy, to span the Cannaregio Canal. It lies near the western end of the canal, by the Venezia Santa Lucia railway station.

An earlier wooden bridge was built in 1285. It was replaced by the current stone and brick bridge in 1580. It was restored in 1641 and 1677, and was totally rebuilt in 1823 at which time spires were added. The spires lie at each end of the bridge. A carved balustrade runs on either side of the walkway, and gargoyles decorate its arch. It is the only bridge in Venice adorned with spires from whence it takes its name (“Bridge of Spires”). More The Ponte delle Guglie 

Charles Oppenheimer RSA RSW, 1875 – 1961Few Scottish artists are so closely associated with a town or location as Charles Oppenheimer is with Kirkcudbright. He was however not a native Scot having been born in Manchester and only settling in the town when in his mid thirties. Other artists of the Kirkcudbright School, Hornel, MacGeorge and Mouncey found their subject matter in the surrounding Galloway landscape and paid little attention to the beautiful old town where they lived. Oppenheimer as a keen fisherman also spent many hours on the local rivers and lochs, but he produced his best and most memorable work painting in Kirkcudbright itself.More Charles Oppenheimer 

He was a prize-winning student at Manchester School of Art, and his first picture was exhibited at the Manchester Academy of Fine Arts in 1894. His studies also took him to Italy.

Ken Howard R.A. (British, born 1932)

From San Tomà, Venice 

Oil on canvas

12 x 16 inches

Private Collection

San Tomà is a church which is located in the sestiere of San Polo in Venice, Italy. It stands opposite the Scoletta dei Calegheri. More

Kenneth Howard OBE RA (born 26 December 1932) is an English artist and painter. He was President of the New English Art Club from 1998 to 2003.

Ken Howard was born in London. He studied at the Hornsey College of Art (1949–53) and the Royal College of Art (1955–58). In 1958 he won a British Council Scholarship to Florence. He spent his National Service in the Royal Marines (1953–55). In 1973 and 1978 he was the Official War Artist to Northern Ireland, and 1973–80 worked in various locations, including Hong Kong, Cyprus and Canada with the British Army. In 1983 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy (ARA). In 1998 he became President of the New English Art Club, a post he held until 2003. In 1991 he was elected a Royal Academician (RA).

He paints in a “traditional” manner, based on strong observation and a high degree of draughtsmanship combined with tonal precision. The depiction of light is a strong and recurrent element of his work. A notable theme is the nude model in his studio. Another theme is a city scene, such as Venice, with emphasis placed on the reflection of light from puddles after rain. He has said:

Howard was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 2010 Birthday Honours More

KEN HOWARD RA RWS ROI NEAC (B.1932)

The Ospidale S. Giovanni & Paolo, Venice (2010)

Oil on canvas

45½ x 30½cm (18 x 12in)

Private Collection

The Basilica di San Giovanni e Paolo, known in Venetian as San Zanipolo, is a church in the Castello sestiere of Venice, Italy.

One of the largest churches in the city, it has the status of a minor basilica. After the 15th century the funeral services of all of Venice’s doges were held here, and twenty-five doges are buried in the church.

The huge brick edifice was designed in the Italian Gothic style, and completed in the 1430s. It is the principal Dominican church of Venice, and as such was built to hold large congregations. It is dedicated to John and Paul, not the Biblical Apostles of the same names, but two obscure martyrs of the Early Christian church in Rome, whose names were recorded in the 3rd century but whose legend is of a later date.

In 1246, Doge Jacopo Tiepolo donated some swampland to the Dominicans after dreaming of a flock of white doves flying over it. The first church was demolished in 1333, when the current church was begun. It was not completed until 1430. More

KEN HOWARD RA RWS ROI NEAC (B.1932), see above

Martín Rico y Ortega, 1833-1908

CANAL, VENICE

Oil on panel

8 5/8  by 6 1/4  in.; 22.1 by 15.9 cm

Private Collection

Martín Rico y Ortega (12 November 1833, El Escorial – 13 April 1908, Venice, Italy) was a Spanish painter of landscapes and cityscapes. Rico was one of the most important artists of the second half of the nineteenth century in his native country, and enjoyed wide international recognition.

Rico was born in Madrid and received his earliest formal training at the city’s Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, where he studied under Jenaro Pérez Villaamil, the Academy’s first professor of landscape painting. Under the tutelage of Pérez Villaamil, Rico’s earliest works show him influenced by Romanticism, the style for which his teacher was known. In 1860, having been awarded a government-sponsored scholarship, Rico moved to Paris to continue his studies.

His landscapes from this decade depict the French and Swiss countryside in a fully accomplished Realist style. Toward the end of 1870, due to political and social unrest caused by the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, Rico decided to leave France and return to his native Spain.

At the invitation of his good friend and colleague Marià Fortuny, Rico moved to the southern city of Granada, joining Fortuny and his wife Cecilia, as well as the painter Ricardo de Madrazo. The three artists worked closely during this period, with the styles of Rico and Fortuny overlapping so much that their watercolors—a specialty for both artists—were often confused for one another. It was during this time that, through Fortuny’s influence, Rico’s paintings began to reveal a newfound sense of luminosity and color. His time in Andalucía was, according to his memoirs, one of his happiest, and also one of his most artistically productive periods. More Ortega

Franz Richard Unterberger (Austrian, 1838-1902)

Canale San Barnaba, Venise 

Oil on canvas

92 x 71cm (36 1/4 x 27 15/16in)

Private Collection

The church of San Barnaba is a small Neoclassic-style church in district of Dorsoduro in Venice, It is located in Campo San Barnaba. It is dedicated to the Apostle Saint Barnabas.


A church at the site was built in the ninth century, but destroyed by fire in 1105. Rebuilt in 1350, it was reconstructed in present form in 1776. The 11th-century campanile, detached from the main body of the church, has a pine-cone shaped spire from the 1300s.

The church was used as a library in the 1989 film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, acting as the entrance to the tomb of a Grail Knight. More San Barnaba Church

The canal is in a quiet area of Venice. On the banks of the canal are many architecturally beautiful and colorful houses. San Barnaba is a quiet place to monitor the gondolas that pass through the canal.


Barnabas, born Joseph and Akylah, was an early Christian, one of the prominent Christian disciples in Jerusalem. Barnabas was a Cypriot Jew. Named an apostle in Acts 14:14, he and Paul the Apostle undertook missionary journeys together and defended Gentile converts against the Judaizers. They traveled together making more converts, and participated in the Council of Jerusalem

Although the date, place, and circumstances of his death are historically unverifiable, Christian tradition holds that Barnabas was martyred at Salamis, Cyprus, in AD 61. He is traditionally identified as the founder of the Cypriot Orthodox Church. More Barnabas


Franz Richard Unterberger was born on August 15, 1838 in Innsbruck, Australia; Died May 25, 1902; Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. He was one of 11 children of an art dealer. Unterberger started his studies in 1853 at the Munich Academy, alongside Julius Lange and Albert Zimmerman. In 1860, Franz continued his studies at Düsseldorf, which was the favored academy for Scandinavian painters studying abroad. Here he produced several atmospheric mountainous scenes. By the 1870’s Unterberger was already exhibiting in major cities across Europe including: Paris, Boston, Munich, Brussels, Berlin and Vienna among others.


In the mid 1880’s, Franz exhibited in Venezuela and in London at the International Universal Exhibition. In the 1890’s, most of his paintings revolved around Venetian and South Italian scenes. More Franz Richard Unterberger

Benjamin Brown, 1865 – 1942

Venice

 Watercolor on paper under glass

13.25 x 10.5 in

Private Collection

Benjamin Chambers Brown (July 14, 1865 – January 19, 1942) was a California Impressionist landscape artist. He was one of their five children. He grew up in Little Rock, Arkansas. Brown was trained as a photographer. He studied at the University of Tennessee, and later at the St. Louis School of Fine Arts under Paul Harney and John Fry in 1884. He studied in Paris at the Académie Julian under Jean-Paul Laurens and Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant in 1890.

During his early career, Brown traveled and worked in St. Louis, Little Rock and Texas. In St. Louis, Brown taught at the St. Louis Art School. He went on to open his own school in Little Rock. He initially specialized in portraiture and still life. Upon moving to Pasadena in 1896, he began to paint landscapes. By 1905 he had become famous for his paintings. From 1909 to 1910, Brown had a studio in Mill Valley, California.

His first etchings were done in 1914. He co-founded the Print Makers of Los Angeles with his brother Howell in 1914, which later became the Los Angeles Society of Printmakers. His notable works include his impressionist landscapes of Sierra peaks and field poppies. 

Brown tried to sell his artwork in New York City; however, it did not sell as well as it had in California. Instead of opening a studio in the city, he began to sign California under his own signature to show how proud he was to be a Californian, in spite of potential stigmas. More Benjamin Chambers Brown

‘HENRY P. SMITH’, 1854 – 1907

Villa on a Venetian Canal

Oil on panel

24 by 20 inches (61 by 50.8 cm)

Private Collection

Henry Pember Smith (February 20, 1854 – October 16, 1907) was an American painter, best known for his depictions of country cottages and river scenes around Lyme and East Lyme, Connecticut, and paintings of the sea and shore in New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Cape Ann to Maine.

Smith was born in Waterford, Connecticut. During the 1880s, he studied the Old Masters in Paris, Brittany, Normandy, Venice and along the English Cornish coast. He was a member of the Artists’ Fund Society and the American Water Color Society, and exhibited at the National Academy of Design from 1877-1896, 1899, 1901, 1906; the Brooklyn Art Club (1878-1885, 1892); Boston Art Club (1880-1890); Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art (1881, 1888); and the Art Institute of Chicago. Smith died of heart disease in Asbury, New Jersey. More

Ken Howard R.A. (British, born 1932)

Venice scene 

Oil on canvas

15 x 60.5cm (5 7/8 x 23 13/16in).

Private Collection

Ken Howard R.A. (British, born 1932) studied at Hornsey School of Art from 1949 to 1953. He then did his National Service with the Royal Marines before returning to study at the Royal College of Art from 1955 to 1958. He went on to win a British Council Scholarship to Florence from 1958 to 1959.

Howard’s first solo show was held at the Plymouth Art Centre in 1955. Subsequent exhibitions were held in 1966 and 1968 at the John Whibley Gallery. From then on he exhibited extensively, both nationally and internationally, particularly with the New Grafton Gallery from the early 1970s. He was given a retrospective in 1972 at the Plymouth City Art Gallery and in 1973 and 1979 was appointed by the Imperial War Museum as official artist in Northern Ireland. He also worked with the British Army in Germany, Cyprus, Oman, Hong Kong, Nepal, Norway, Canada, Belize and Brunei from 1973 to 1982.

Howard was elected a member of the New English Art Club in 1962, the Royal Institute of Oil Painters in 1966, the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours in 1979, the Royal West of England Academy 1981, Honorary Member of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1988, Royal Academician in 1991 and President of the New English Art Club in 1998. Among his numerous awards are First Prize in the Lord Mayor’s Art Award in 1966, a Prize Winner in the John Moores Exhibition, Liverpool in 1978, first prize in the Hunting Group Awards and the Critics Prize at Sparkasse Karlsruhe in 1985. Ken Howard lives and works in London. More

Acknowledgement: Bonhams, and others

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12 Paintings, scenes from the Bible, by The Old Masters, with footnotes # 30

This is the post excerpt.

Egon Schiele’s painting Cardinal and Nun of 1912 is a paraphrase of Gustav Klimt’s Kiss, which had been created five years prior.Everything about Klimt’s painting that was positive, however, is transformed here into its darker manifestation:the gold background is turned black, the gentle embrace has given way the violent clutching of the two delicate, praying hands, and the sensual expression on the face of Klimt’s woman has become a nun’s distraught glance.Schiele called the painting of this strange embrace Liebkosung, or “The Caress”. More

Egon Schiele, (June 12, 1890 – October 31, 1918)
Cardinal And Nun (Caress), c. 1912
Oil, canvas
Height: 700 mm (27.56 in). Width: 805 mm (31.69 in).
Leopold Museum, Vienna, Austria

Egon Schiele (German: 12 June 1890 – 31 October 1918) was an Austrian painter. A protégé of Gustav Klimt, Schiele was a major figurative painter of the early 20th century. His work is noted for its intensity and its raw sexuality, and the many self-portraits the artist produced, including naked self-portraits. The twisted body shapes and the expressive line that characterize Schiele’s paintings and drawings mark the artist as an early exponent of Expressionism. More

12 Paintings, scenes from the Bible, by The Old Masters, with footnotes # 30

 

06 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #18

JOHN SINGER SARGENT (FLORENCE, 1856 – 1925, LONDON)

MADAME GAUTREAU DRINKING A TOAST,  c. 1882-1883

Oil on panel

32 x 41 cm (12 5/8 x 16 1/8 in.)

Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum

Madame Pierre Gautreau, born Virginie Avegno (1859–1915), was Madame X, the statuesque sitter in Sargent’s most notorious portrait (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) (below). Critics considered the portrait in scandalously bad taste, and the sitter’s mother asked Sargent to withdraw the painting from the Salon of 1884, which he refused to do. This much smaller and more intimate painting was done a year earlier, and was given by Sargent to Madame Gautreau’s mother. More on this painting

John Singer Sargent, (American, Florence 1856–1925 London)

Madame X (Madame Pierre Gautreau), c. 1883–84

Oil on canvas

82 1/8 x 43 1/4in. (208.6 x 109.9cm)

The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Madame Pierre Gautreau (the Louisiana-born Virginie Amélie Avegno; 1859–1915) was known in Paris for her artful appearance. Sargent hoped to enhance his reputation by painting and exhibiting her portrait. Working without a commission but with his sitter’s complicity, he emphasized her daring personal style, showing the right strap of her gown slipping from her shoulder. At the Salon of 1884, the portrait received more ridicule than praise. Sargent repainted the shoulder strap and kept the work for over thirty years. When, eventually, he sold it to the Metropolitan, he commented, “I suppose it is the best thing I have done,” but asked that the Museum disguise the sitter’s name. More on this painting

Virginie Amélie Avegno Gautreau (née Avegno, 29 January 1859 – 25 July 1915) was born in New Orleans but grew up from the age of eight in France, where she became a Parisian socialite known for her beauty. She occasionally posed as a model for notable artists. She is most widely known as the subject of John Singer Sargent’s painting Portrait of Madame X (1884). It created a social scandal when shown at the Paris Salon.

Virginie Avegno became one of Paris’s conspicuous beauties. She attracted much admiration due to her elegance and style. She also attracted much amorous attention that she did not discourage, and her extramarital affairs were so well known that they became the subject of tabloid scandal sheets and gossip handbills. One of her lovers was a Dr. Pozzi. Sargent, anxious to popularize himself by capitalizing on Virginie’s notorious reputation, asked Dr. Pozzi to introduce him to Virginie, which the doctor did

Virginie married Pierre Gautreau, a French banker and shipping magnate. She had a daughter named Louise Gautreau (1879–1911).

John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the “leading portrait painter of his generation” for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.

His parents were American, but he was trained in Paris prior to moving to London. Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his “Portrait of Madame X”, was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. He lived most of his life in Europe. More John Singer Sargent

Gustave-Claude-Etienne Courtois, (1852–1923)

Portrait de Madame Gautreau, c. 1891

This work was painted seven years after Sargent’s portrait, and the falling strap and décolletage raised nary an eyebrow.

Gustave-Claude-Étienne Courtois ( 18 May 1852 in Pusey, Haute-Saône – 1923 in Paris) was a French painter, a representative of the academic style of art. Courtois was born to an unwed mother who was devoted to him. Early in life, Courtois revealed an interest in art and entered the École municipale de dessin in Vesoul.

He taught painting at Académie de la Grande Chaumière, Académie Colarossi, Paris. His paintings can be seen in the art galleries of Besançon, Marseille, Bordeaux, and Luxembourg. He was a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. More on Gustave-Claude-Étienne Courtois

José Cruz Herrera, (1890-1972) 

Desdemona, c. 1942

Oil on canvas

136 X 103cm (53 9/16 X 40 9/16 IN.)

Private collection

Desdemona is a character in William Shakespeare’s play Othello (c. 1601–1604). Shakespeare’s Desdemona is a Venetian beauty who enrages and disappoints her father, a Venetian senator, when she elopes with Othello, a black man several years her senior. When her husband is deployed to Cyprus in the service of the Republic of Venice, Desdemona accompanies him. There, her husband is manipulated by his ensign Iago into believing she is an adulteress, and, in the last act, she is murdered by her estranged spouse.

José Cruz Herrera (1 October 1890 – 11 August 1972) was a Spanish painter who concentrated principally on genre works and landscape art. He worked in Spain, Uruguay, Argentina, France and especially Morocco, where he lived for much of his life in Casablanca.

His talent was soon apparent and he began formal training in Cádiz. He continued his studies at the School of Fine Arts in Madrid before being awarded a grant to study in Paris and Rome in 1915. He subsequently received several more awards. He concentrated on genre works and landscapes, but he is best known as an orientalist painter, with a particular faculty for producing atmospheric depictions of scenes of everyday life in Morocco.

Cruz Herrera travelled to Montevideo in Uruguay and Buenos Aires in Argentina in 1922. He went to Morocco in 1929. He subsequently established a studio at Neuilly-sur-Seine, just outside Paris, and contributed to collective exhibitions in 1934, 1935 and 1936 at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. He also exhibited solo at various times in Madrid, Barcelona and London in 1912, Antwerp in 1931, Casablanca in 1933, and Paris in 1934.

 After the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939, he returned to Morocco. The following year Spain awarded Cruz Herrera a Knight’s Cross in the Order of Isabella the Catholic, followed by a knighthood in the Civil Order of Alfonso X, the Wise in 1958. He died on 11 August 1972 in Casablanca but his remains were transferred back to La Línea to be buried there. More on José Cruz Herrera

COLIN, Alexandre-Marie, (b. 1798, Paris, d. 1873, Paris)

Othello and Desdemona, 1829

Oil on canvas

51 x 61 cm

Private collection

Colin may first have become interested in depicting Shakespearean subjects when he visited London in 1824 in the company of Delacroix and Bonington. The Othello and Desdemona is a bravura work, faithful to the text, and full of energy and colour.

A student of Girodet and a great friend of Delacroix and Bonington, Alexandre-Marie Colin participated in the Paris Salon starting in 1819 until the end of his life, obtaining a second-class medal in 1824 and 1831, and a first-class medal in 1840.


Colin entered the École des Beaux Arts in 1814, first as a pupil of Girodet, but then joining Guérin’s studio in 1816, in which the young Delacroix had also enrolled. He and Delacroix both attracted the attention of their teachers, winning drawing and composition prizes.


Known as a great portraitist, he portrayed well-known figures and also depicted romantic subjects, views of Italy, and scenes illustrating the struggle for independence in Greece. His religious and historical paintings are characterised by a style based on a careful study of the old masters, while his genre pieces are vigorous and lifelike. More on Alexandre-Marie Colin

Antonio Mancini,  (1852–1930)

Resting, circa 1887

60.9 × 100 cm (24 × 39.4 in)

Art Institute of Chicago

Antonio Mancini (14 November 1852 – 28 December 1930) was an Italian painter born in Rome and showed precocious ability as an artist. At the age of twelve, he was admitted to the Institute of Fine Arts in Naples, where he studied under Domenico Morelli, a painter of historical scenes who favored dramatic chiaroscuro and vigorous brushwork, and Filippo Palizzi. Mancini developed quickly under their guidance, and in 1872, he exhibited two paintings at the Paris Salon.

Mancini worked at the forefront of the Verismo movement, an indigenous Italian response to 19th-century Realist aesthetics. His usual subjects included children of the poor, juvenile circus performers, and musicians he observed in the streets of Naples.

In 1881, Mancini suffered a disabling mental illness. He settled in Rome in 1883 for twenty years, then moved to Frascati where he lived until 1918. During this period of Mancini’s life, he was often destitute and relied on the help of friends and art buyers to survive. After the First World War, his living situation stabilized and he achieved a new level of serenity in his work. Mancini died in Rome in 1930 and buried in the Basilica Santi Bonifacio e Alessio on the Aventine Hill. More on Antonio Mancini

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07 CLASSIC WORKS OF ART, MARINE PAINTINGS – WITH FOOTNOTES, #45

Unknown artist

SS ‘Nottingham,’ c. 19th C

Oil on panel

25.5 x 31.5 cm

Hull Maritime Museum

SS Nottingham was a passenger and freight vessel built for the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway in 1891. The ship was built by Swan Hunter in Wallsend and launched on 13 March 1891. She was placed on the Grimsby to Hamburg route with her sister ships SS Lutterworth and SS Staveley, but in 1897 she was transferred to the Grimsby to Rotterdam service.

In 1897 she was acquired by the Great Central Railway. On 11 December 1912 she went ashore in thick fog on Scrooby Sands. Despite the efforts of the tug, she could not be got off. She was refloated later that day. A year later, on 26 December 1913, she was grounded again, this time on a mud bank near the Royal Dock in Grimsby.

In 1915 she was requisitioned by the Admiralty as a naval supply vessel and became HMS Notts. After the war she was refurbished and returned to the Great Central Railway as SS Nottingham. In 1923 she was acquired by the London and North Eastern Railway who kept her in service until she was scrapped in 1935. More on the SS Nottingham 

William Lionel Wyllie, (1851–1931)

The Portsmouth Fishing Fleet: The Breeze Falls Light, c. 1907

Oil on canvas

63.5 x 127.5 cm

Royal Academy of Arts

Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, 70 miles (110 km) south-west of London and 19 miles (31 km) south-east of Southampton. It is the United Kingdom’s only island city. the city has a dedicated fishing fleet consisting of 20 to 30 boats that operate out of the camber docks in Camber Quay, Old Portsmouth. They land fresh fish and shellfish daily, most of which is sold at the quayside fish market. More on Portsmouth

William Lionel Wyllie ((London 5 July 1851 – 6 April 1931 London) was a prolific English painter of maritime themes, in both oils and watercolours. He has been described as “the most distinguished marine artist of his day.”

From the early 1870s Wyllie worked as an illustrator of maritime subjects. In 1875 the Academy rejected two of his works, and in anger he declared his intention to give up art for a career at sea. Over the course of several sailing cruises as far afield as Europe he laid the foundations for a lifelong love of the sea and of maritime subjects.

Wyllie campaigned vigorously for the restoration of HMS Victory as a founder member of the Society for Nautical Research, and in 1930 his 42-foot (13 m) panorama of the Battle of Trafalgar was unveiled by King George V. The painting is seen by about 100,000 people every year where it still hangs in the Royal Naval Museum within the Historic Dockyard at Portsmouth.

In 1906, when he moved to Portsmouth, he became closely associated with the Royal Navy. So much so, indeed, that he was buried with full naval honours in 1931. In a moving ceremony, reminiscent of Nelson’s state funeral in 1806, his body was rowed up Portsmouth Harbour in a naval cutter past battleships with dipped colours and bugles calling and quaysides lined with dockyard worker. More on William Lionel Wyllie

William Lionel Wyllie (British, 1851–1931) Title:

The return of the fishing fleet, Portsmouth Harbour

Etching

19.5 x 24.5 cm. (7.7 x 9.6 in.)

Private collection

Edward William Cooke

French Sloop entering the harbour of Tréport

Oil on canvas

81.3 x 134.6cm (32 x 53in)

Private collection

Le Tréport is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-eastern France. A small fishing port and light industrial town situated in the Pays de Caux, some 21 miles (34 km) northeast of Dieppe. The mouth of the Bresle river meets the English Channel here, in between the high (110 metres) chalk cliffs and the pebbly beach. More on Le Tréport

Edward William Cooke, R.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. (27 March 1811 – 4 January 1880) was an English landscape and marine painter, and gardener. Cooke was born in Pentonville, London. He was raised in the company of artists. He was a precocious draughtsman and a skilled engraver from an early age, displayed an equal preference for marine subjects and published his “Shipping and Craft”  a series of accomplished engravings  when he was 18, in 1829. Cooke began painting in oils in 1833, and first exhibited at the Royal Academy and British Institution in 1835, by which time his style was essentially formed.

He went on to travel and paint with great industry at home and abroad, indulging his love of the 17th-century Dutch marine artists with a visit to the Netherlands in 1837. He returned regularly over the next 23 years, studying the effects of the coastal landscape and light, as well as the works of the country’s Old Masters, resulting in highly successful paintings. He went on to travel in Scandinavia, Spain, North Africa and, above all, to Venice. In 1858, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician. . More Edward William Cooke

Robert Kelsey, (British, born 1949)

Across the Sound of Iona 

Oil on canvas

 42 x 71 cm. (16 9/16 x 27 15/16 in.)

Private collection

The Sound of Iona is a sound between the Inner Hebridean islands of Mull and Iona in western Scotland. It forms part of the Atlantic Ocean. The tidal island of Erraid is at the southern end of the sound. There are also a number of smaller islands and skerries in the sound, including Eilean nam Bàn, Eilean Dubh na Ciste and Eilean Ghòmhain. More on The Sound of Iona

The Sound of Iona is crossed by a passenger ferry, sailing from Fionnphort on Mull to Baile Mòr on Iona.

 Robert Kelsey was born in Glasgow in 1949, He studied Painting at Glasgow School of Art from 1966 -1970. In 1995 he decided to paint full time since when he has exhibited widely in a number of the annual exhibitions, including the Royal Institute of Oil Painters, The Royal Scottish Society of Painters in Watercolours and Paisley Arts Institute . He has also served as an artist member on the councils of The Glasgow Art Club and Paisley Art Institute. An extensive traveller in the UK, Europe and the Caribbean, Robert exhibits regularly in Glasgow, Edinburgh and London, and has successfully sold his paintings at art fairs and exhibitions in New York, Miami, London, the Continent and Budapest. His work can also be found in a number of corporate collections in the UK, Europe and Asia. In 1998 he was awarded a diploma from Paisley Art Institute. He is currently President of the Glasgow Art Club. More on Robert Kelsey

Donald McIntyre, (British, 1923-2009)

The Red Boat’

Acrylic on card

29 x 38.5cm (11 7/16 x 15 3/16in)

Private collection

Donald McIntyre (1923-2009) was born in Leeds, Yorkshire. He spent his early childhood in north west Scotland. McIntyre painted as a youth and developed a style in the Scottish Colourist tradition.


At the age of 40, McIntyre decided to pursue a full time career as an artist. He regularly returned to the coastal landscapes of Scotland and North Wales where he was now living and also spent many Summers on Iona.

McIntrye painted most of his sketches en plein air, finishing larger works in his studio. He was a member of The Royal Cambrian Academy and exhibited regularly with the Thackerary Gallery, the Howard Roberts Gallery and the Albany Gallery. More on Donald McIntyre

Basil Ivan Rákóczi,  (Irish, 1908-1979)

Fisherman Resting 

Ink and watercolour 

53 x 74 cm. (20 7/8 x 29 1/8 in.)

Private collection

Basil Ivan Rákóczi (1908–1979) was an artist born in London. He was a prominent and leading member of the Irish art group, the White Stag, along with Kenneth Hall.

Rákóczi was born on 31 May 1908 in Chelsea. Throughout his life he was proud of both his Irish heritage from his mother’s side and his Hungarian heritage from his father’s. He also held high regard for gypsy practices as his parents had been married in accordance to gypsy rites. Later in his life, he also rediscovered his Celtic roots.

His style varies greatly as he believed to explore psychological aspects of his work. A great many of his friends and contemporaries relied on psychology as a means of art and a number of his friends were members of the Society of Creative Psychology. As a result, his painting have a very modernist yet unique style that is only repeated within the group he formed and ran. He primarily used oil and gouache as a medium but frequently worked with monotype and watercolour and ceramics for tile designs. More on Basil Ivan Rákóczi 

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07 CLASSIC WORKS OF ART, MARINE PAINTINGS – WITH FOOTNOTES, #44

Charles Edward Dixon, (British, 1872–1934) Title:

The white star liner “Cymric” steaming off the south coast of Ireland , 1918

Watercolor htnd w/ white

7.5 x 15 in. (19 x 38.1 cm.)

Private collection

White Star Line Cymric  was built by Harland and Wolff in Belfast in 1898. She saw “on and off” service as a passenger vessel and troop transport. She served as a troop transport during the Boer War in 1900 and then again in WWI. On May 8th 1916, she was sunk after being torpedoed three times by U-20, the same submarine that had sunk Lusitania a year earlier. Even after being hit by 3 torpedoes, it took Cymric 28 hours to sink. More on the White Star Line Cymric

Montague Dawson, British, 1890-1973 

In Pursuit 

Oil on canvas 

24 x 36 1/8 inches (61 x 91.8 cm)

Private collection

Montague Dawson, British, 1890-1973 

Silver Clouds: The J. N. Cushing of Newburyport, 671 Tons Built in 1853 

Oil on canvas laid to panel 

24 x 35 7/8 inches (61 x 91 cm)

Private collection

Nicholas Pocock

Early views of Bristol

Ink and watercolour over a printed base

each 24.1 x 36.9cm

Private collection

Nicholas Pocock (2 March 1740 – 9 March 1821) was a British artist known for his many detailed paintings of naval battles during the age of sail. Pocock was born in Bristol in 1740, the son of a seaman. He followed his father’s profession and was master of a merchant ship by the age of 26. During his time at sea, he became a skilled artist by making ink and wash sketches of ships and coastal scenes for his log books.

In 1778, Pocock’s employer, Richard Champion, became financially insolvent due to the effects of the American Revolutionary War on transatlantic trade. As a result, Pocock gave up the sea and devoted himself to painting. The first of his works were exhibited by the Royal Academy in 1782. Later that year, Pocock was commissioned to produce a series of paintings illustrating George Rodney’s victory at the Battle of the Saintes. In 1789, he moved to London, where his reputation and contacts continued to grow. He was a favourite of Samuel Hood and was appointed Marine Painter to King George.

In addition to his large-scale oil paintings depicting naval battles, Pocock also produced many watercolours of coastal and ship scenes. More on Nicholas Pocock

Thomas Bush Hardy

Off Scarborough , 1891

Watercolour

64.2 x 105.4cm

Private collection

 

Thomas Bush Hardy (1842, Sheffield – 1897, Maida Vale, London) was a British marine painter and watercolourist. As a young man he travelled in the Netherlands and Italy. In 1884 Hardy was elected a Member of the Royal Society of British Artists. He exhibited with the Society and also at the Royal Academy.

His paintings feature coastal scenes in England and the Netherlands, the French Channel ports and the Venetian Lagoon.

Hardy had nine children. His son Dudley Hardy was a painter, illustrator and poster designer. His daughter Dorothy received an MBE after working as a nurse in the First World War. He died on 15 December 1897 in Maida Vale, London. More on Thomas Bush Hardy

Prof. Fritz Kempe,  (1898 Leipzig to 1971 Dresden),

Curonian fishermen

Oil on canvas

79 x 90.5 cm

Private collection

The Curonians or Kurs were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes. They gave their name to the region of Courland, and spoke the Old Curonian language. Curonian lands were conquered by the Livonian Order in 1266 and they eventually merged with other Baltic tribes. More on The Curonians

Fritz Kempe (born December 30, 1898 in Leipzig , † November 18, 1971 in Dresden ) was a German painter and graphic artist.


From 1919 he took a degree at the Academy of Graphic Arts and Book Trade in Leipzig , including in the etching class of Alois Kolb . He then worked as an art teacher and bookbinder. In 1942 he received an appointment as a professor. During the war, much of his work was destroyed. From 1952 he settled in Dresden. He was a member of the Association of Visual Artists of the GDR .

Kempe participated in GDR art exhibitions in Dresden in 1953 and 1962. His drawings, etchings and lithographs often show fishermen and coastal landscapes. More on Fritz Kempe

Clarence A. Gagnon, R.C.A. (1881-1942)

“Plage de St. Enogat, Bretagne, France”, c. 1908

Oil on panel

4.3/4″ x 7.1/8″

Private collection


Clarence A. Gagnon, R.C.A. (1881-1942) was a painter, draughtsman, engraver and illustrator who was born in Montreal on November 8, 1881. From 1897 to 1900, Gagnon studied drawing and painting at the Art Association of Montreal. In 1904, Gagnon left for Paris to work in the studio of Jean-Paul Laurens at the Académie Julian. He was able to distinguished himself early in his career by the fine quality of his engravings. Gagnon won a gold medal at the St. Louis Exhibition in 1904 and an honourable mention at the Salon des artistes français in Paris in 1905. From 1909 to 1914, Gagnon moved between Canada, France, and Norway; always working up the sketches he had made in Quebec.



Gagnon became a member of the Royal Society of Canada and in 1910, became an associate member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and a full member in 1922. In 1923, he received the Trevor Prize of the Salmagundi Club of New York. Between 1924 and 1936, Gagnon spent time in Paris and traveled throughout Europe. It was during this period that he illustrated a number of books. Upon his return to Quebec in 1936, the Université de Montréal awarded him an honorary doctorate. More on Clarence A. Gagnon

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08 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART – Interpretations of the Bible! by The Old Masters, With Footnotes # 63

School of Sir Anthony van Dyck

Madonna and Child 

Oil on canvas 

34 3/4 x 28 1/2 inches (88.3 x 72.5 cm) 

Private collection

The Nursing Madonna, Virgo Lactans, or Madonna Lactans, is an iconography of the Madonna and Child in which the Virgin Mary is shown breastfeeding the infant Jesus.

The depiction is mentioned by Pope Gregory the Great, and a mosaic depiction probably of the 12th century is on the facade of Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome, though few other examples survive from before the late Middle Ages. It continued to be found in Orthodox icons, especially in Russia.

In the Middle Ages, the middle and upper classes usually contracted breastfeeding out to wetnurses, and the depiction of the Nursing Madonna was linked with the Madonna of Humility, a depiction that showed the Virgin in more ordinary clothes than the royal robes shown, for instance, in images of the Coronation of the Virgin, and often seated on the ground. The appearance of a large number of such depictions in Tuscany in the early 14th century was something of a visual revolution for the theology of the time, compared to the Queen of Heaven depictions. After the Council of Trent in the mid-16th century, clerical writers discouraged nudity in religious subjects, and the use of the Madonna Lactans iconography began to fade away. More on the nursing Madonna

Sir Anthony van Dyck, ( 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching. The Van Dyke beard is named after him. More Sir Anthony van Dyck

William-Adolphe Bouguereau, (1825–1905)

Berceuse (Le coucher), c. 1873

Oil on canvas

112 x 86.5 cm

Private collection

Starting in 1865, Bouguereau became enamored with the theme of mothers and children and began a series of paintings dedicated to this subject matter. 

Berceuse (Le coucher) was painted in the artist’s Paris studio in 1873. In the present painting, a young Roman mother holds a naked infant and is gently moving him into his cradle. The central group is framed by the draped cradle to the left of the composition and the large stone fireplace that dominates the background. The figures, clearly a secularized interpretation of a Virgin and ChildMore on this painting

William-Adolphe Bouguereau (November 30, 1825 – August 19, 1905) was a French academic painter and traditionalist. In his realistic genre paintings he used mythological themes, making modern interpretations of classical subjects, with an emphasis on the female human body. During his life he enjoyed significant popularity in France and the United States, was given numerous official honors, and received top prices for his work. As the quintessential salon painter of his generation, he was reviled by the Impressionist avant-garde. By the early twentieth century, Bouguereau and his art fell out of favor with the public, due in part to changing tastes. In the 1980s, a revival of interest in figure painting led to a rediscovery of Bouguereau and his work. Throughout the course of his life, Bouguereau executed 822 known finished paintings, although the whereabouts of many are still unknown. More William-Adolphe Bouguereau

Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida, Valencia, 1863 – Cercedilla, Madrid, 1923

Saint in Prayer, 1888

Oil on canvas

78 x 61 cm

Museo Nacional del Prado

For Sorolla and his wife, the time spent in Italy formed part of the years at the beginning of their relationship when they confronted their first difficulties together. As late as 1915, nearly thirty years after this trip, Sorolla noted in a letter to his wife that he had ‘ordered a little frame for the Virgin you gave me when I left Spain to study in Rome. I think it looks good on it and will make me less likely to lose an object which I keep with me at all times.’ Known as Praying Saint, this picture also bears the evocative title of Figure of an Italian Saint for its obvious connections with that period, and it must have been one of the memories the couple treasured from that time. This would explain why they always kept it in a special place in their house, as revealed by many of the photographs of the artist’s various studios and dwellings. More on this painting

Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (27 February 1863 – 10 August 1923) was a Spanish painter. Sorolla excelled in the painting of portraits, landscapes, and monumental works of social and historical themes. His most typical works are characterized by a dexterous representation of the people and landscape under the sunlight of his native land. More on Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida

Peter Paul Rubens, (1577–1640)

Daniel in the Lions’ Den, between circa 1614 and circa 1616

Oil on canvas

224.2 × 330.5 cm (88.3 × 130.1 in)

National Gallery of Art

The Old Testament recounts how the Persian king Darius I “The Great” (550–486 BC) condemned the devout and steadfast Daniel to spend the night in a lions’ den for worshipping God rather than him. The following morning, after the stone sealing the entrance was rolled away, the astonished Persians saw Daniel, very much alive, giving thanks to God for keeping him safe overnight: “Then said Daniel unto the king, O king, live for ever. My God hath sent his angel, and hath shut the lions’ mouths, that they have not hurt me: forasmuch as before him innocency was found in me; and also before thee, O king, have I done no hurt.” (Daniel 6:21–22) For theologians, Daniel’s miraculous survival in the cave symbolized the resurrection of Christ from his tomb, and the promise of God’s protection to those of unwavering faith. More on this painting

Flemish School, 17th Century, Follower Peter Paul Rubens

Daniel in the lion’s den

Oak panel

9 5/8 x 12 in

Private collection

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.

In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England.  More Sir Peter Paul Rubens

Attributed to Marco Pino Siena, 1521 – Naples, 1583 

Holy Family with St. John the Baptist 

Oil on panel 

h: 65.50 w: 57 cm

Private collection


Marco Pino or Marco da Siena (1521–1583) was an Italian painter of the Renaissance and Mannerist period. Born and first trained in Siena, he later worked in Rome and in Naples, where he died. He was putatively a pupil of the painters Beccafumi and Daniele da Volterra. 


Among his pupils in Messina was his son-in-law, Antonio Spanò . Fabrizio Santafede was his pupil in Naples. More on Marco Pino

Tuscan school of the sixteenth century 

Maria Madgalena, Tuscany, 16th Century 

Oil on panel 

h: 97 w: 71 cm 

Private collection

Mary Magdalene was a Jewish woman who, according to texts included in the New Testament, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers. She is said to have witnessed Jesus’ crucifixion and resurrection. Based on texts of the early Christian era in the third century, it seems that her status as an “apostle” rivals even Peter’s.

She is most prominent in the narrative of the crucifixion of Jesus, at which she was present. She was also present two days later, either alone or as a member of a group of women, the first to testify to the resurrection of Jesus.

Ideas that go beyond the gospel presentation of Mary Magdalene as a prominent representative of the women who followed Jesus have been put forward over the centuries.

During the Middle Ages, Mary Magdalene was regarded in Western Christianity as a repentant prostitute or promiscuous woman, claims not found in any of the four canonical gospels. More Mary Magdalene

Arts of the late 15th century and early 16th century were dominated by three men. They were Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci.

Michelangelo excelled as a painter, architect, and poet. In addition, he has been called the greatest sculptor in history. Raphael’s paintings are softer in outline and more poetic than those of Michelangelo. Raphael was skilled in creating perspective and in the delicate use of color. Leonardo da Vinci painted two of the most famous works of Renaissance art, the wallpainting The Last Supper and the portrait Mona Lisa. Due to his inquiring mind, Leonardo has become a symbol of the Renaissance spirit of learning and intellectual curiosity. More on Italian art

Seventeenth century Spanish school 

The martyrdom of San Sebastian 

Oil on canvas 

h: 160 w: 106 cm 

Private collection

Saint Sebastian (died c. 288 AD) was an early Christian saint and martyr. Sebastian had prudently concealed his faith, but in 286 was detected. Diocletian reproached him for his betrayal, and he commanded him to be led to a field and there to be bound to a stake so that archers from Mauritania would shoot arrows at him. “And the archers shot at him till he was as full of arrows as an urchin is full of pricks, and thus left him there for dead.” Miraculously, the arrows did not kill him.

Sebastian later stood by a staircase where the emperor was to pass and harangued Diocletian for his cruelties against Christians. This freedom of speech, and from a person whom he supposed to have been dead, greatly astonished the emperor; but, recovering from his surprise, he gave orders for his being seized and beat to death with cudgels, and his body thrown into the common sewer. A pious lady, called Lucina, admonished by the martyr in a vision, got it privately removed, and buried it in the catacombs at the entrance of the cemetery of Calixtus, where now stands the Basilica of St. Sebastian. More St. Sebastian

The Spanish Golden Age is a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. El Siglo de Oro does not imply precise dates and is usually considered to have lasted longer than an actual century. It begins no earlier than 1492, with the end of the Reconquista (Reconquest), the sea voyages of Christopher Columbus to the New World. Politically, it ends no later than 1659, with the Treaty of the Pyrenees, ratified between France and Habsburg Spain. The last great writer of the period, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, died in 1681, and his death usually is considered the end of El Siglo de Oro in the arts and literature. More on Seventeenth century Spanish school 

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05 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, of the 18th & 19th C., with Footnotes. #17

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn,  (1606–1669)

Portrait of a Young Woman (Magdalena van Loo?), 1665

Oil on canvas

Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

Titus van Rijn was born in Amsterdam on September 22, 1641, the fourth child of the famed artist Rembrandt van Rijn and his wife Saskia van Uylenburgh.

In 1668, Titus married Magdalena van Loo (1641-1669). The couple lived at Magdalena’s mother’s house on the Singel. They had one daughter. Titus van Rijn died in 1668 and was buried in the Westerkerk in Amsterdam. His wife, mother-in-law, and father all died a year later. More on Titus van Rijn

By the end of his long and productive career. This portrait, executed in the last years of the artist’s life, provides an example of his masterful economy. Restricted to a rich range of blacks, loosely applied flesh tones and rough strokes of white, the light is carefully manipulated in the undefined strokes of white. The painting has been reduced in scale at an earlier period in its history, and probably was closer to a half-length portrait with a pendant of the sitter’s husband: a possible candidate that has been proposed by scholars is the portrait of Titus, Rembrandt’s son, at the Louvre. In that case, the woman portrayed in our painting is Magdalena van Loo, and the painting should be dated to 1668, when they married, which is consistent with the style of this fine late portrait by the master. More on this painting

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history. His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age when Dutch Golden Age painting dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative, and gave rise to important new genres in painting.

Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt’s later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity.

In his paintings and prints he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience; thus, the depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt’s knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of Amsterdam’s Jewish population. Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called “one of the great prophets of civilization. More on Rembrandt

Jan Frederik Pieter Portielje, (1829-1895) 

JEUNE FEMME À LA RICHE COIFFE ROUGE 

YOUNG LADY WITH A RICH RED SCARF 

Oil on panel

60 X 48cm (23 5/8 x 18 7/8 IN.)

Private collection

Jan Frederik Pieter Portielje (Amsterdam, 1829 – 1908) was a Dutch-Belgian painter. He was the tenth child by Gerrit Portielje, bookseller and publisher in Amsterdam, and Jacoba Zeegers. He studied at the Academy of Amsterdam from 1842 to 1849 with, among others, Valentine Bing and Jan von Braet Uberfeldt. Between 1851 and 1853 he stayed several times for extended periods of time in Paris, possibly during the summer months when the Academy was closed due to holidays. He also worked as a portraitist and as such had a growing clientele in Brussels and Antwerp.

His oeuvre includes portraits, scenes of elegant ladies in gardens, parks, or luxurious interiors. The interiors are either heavy or elegant neo-Baroque Napoleon III. He painted Western and Southern or Oriental women, often adorned with jewels. His painting are realistic, with an eye for detail and texture, intended as an elegant genre painting without much depth.

On some paintings he collaborated with another artist. There are paintings known, together with Frans Lebret (1820-1909) and Eugène Remy Maes (1849-1931).

After his studies Portielje remained in Antwerp. He married there in 1853. More on Jan Frederik Pieter Portielje

 

William-Adolphe Bouguereau, (1825–1905)

Berceuse (Le coucher), c. 1873

oil on canvas

112 x 86.5 cm

Private collection

Starting in 1865, Bouguereau became enamored with the theme of mothers and children and began a series of paintings dedicated to this subject matter. 

Berceuse (Le coucher) was painted in the artist’s Paris studio in 1873. In the present painting, a young Roman mother holds a naked infant and is gently moving him into his cradle. The central group is framed by the draped cradle to the left of the composition and the large stone fireplace that dominates the background. The figures, clearly a secularized interpretation of a Virgin and Child. More on this painting

William-Adolphe Bouguereau (November 30, 1825 – August 19, 1905) was a French academic painter and traditionalist. In his realistic genre paintings he used mythological themes, making modern interpretations of classical subjects, with an emphasis on the female human body. During his life he enjoyed significant popularity in France and the United States, was given numerous official honors, and received top prices for his work. As the quintessential salon painter of his generation, he was reviled by the Impressionist avant-garde. By the early twentieth century, Bouguereau and his art fell out of favor with the public, due in part to changing tastes. In the 1980s, a revival of interest in figure painting led to a rediscovery of Bouguereau and his work. Throughout the course of his life, Bouguereau executed 822 known finished paintings, although the whereabouts of many are still unknown. More William-Adolphe Bouguereau

Roberto Manetta, Italy

Mother nature

Photography

39.4 H x 27.6 W x 15.7 in

Private collection

Mother Nature (sometimes known as Mother Earth or the Earth-Mother) is a common personification of nature that focuses on the life-giving and nurturing aspects of nature by embodying it, in the form of the mother.

The earliest written usage is in Mycenaean Greek, “Mother Gaia”,  (13th or 12th century BC). The various myths of nature goddesses such as Inanna/Ishtar show that the personification of the creative and nurturing sides of nature as female deities. Later medieval Christian thinkers did not see nature as inclusive of everything, but thought that she had been created by God; her place lay on earth, below the unchanging heavens and moon. Nature lay somewhere in the center, with agents above her (angels), and below her (demons and hell). For the medieval mind she was only a personification, not a goddess. More on Mother nature

Roberto Manetta is a traveling freelance photographer, Film and digital photography, since 1999. “No digital manipulation,only photography My passion comes from nature, adventure stories, fantasy films that have contributed phenomenally to my project ideas and the major part of my photographs. I am always very attentive, in all of my movements, in everything surrounding me. I often dream about adventures, fairy tales and mythological women. I look around at the objects surrounding me, with attention, searching for a link between a nude body more than a face. Geometric lines and original compositions are always at the centre of my attention when I launch upon a new project. I don’t really like the classic approach to nude photography. During the years I tried to maintain in all my productions a quality that re-conducted to classical photography, the one which is created without the need of much digital elaboration” More on Roberto Manetta

Eugène Delacroix,  (1798–1863)

Mademoiselle Rose, c. 1817-1824

Oil on canvas

81 × 65 cm (31.9 × 25.6 in)

Louvre Museum

Mademoiselle Rose, an artists’ model who according to Delacroix’s biographer, posed several times for him and for Richard Parkes Bonington, and who perhaps distributed her favours impartially between the two artists.

The upward trend of his work, clearly seen in this painting, brings its date to the period 1820-1822, but cannot be fixed precisely. However, the nude has not only a pictorial interest: Delacroix brings to the painting an emotion which is firmly rooted in Romanticism. Moreover, the slight timidity of the attitude, the somewhat anxious expression of the face, give to this life-class painting a quality of humanity that is purely French Romantic. More on Mademoiselle Rose

Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.

As a painter and muralist, Delacroix’s use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of colour profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the artists of the Symbolist movement. A fine lithographer, Delacroix illustrated various works of William Shakespeare, the Scottish author Walter Scott and the German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

Delacroix took for his inspiration the art of Rubens and painters of the Venetian Renaissance, with an attendant emphasis on colour and movement rather than clarity of outline and carefully modelled form. Dramatic and romantic content characterized the central themes of his maturity, and led him not to the classical models of Greek and Roman art, but to travel in North Africa, in search of the exotic. Friend and spiritual heir to Théodore Géricault, Delacroix was also inspired by Lord Byron, with whom he shared a strong identification with the “forces of the sublime”, of nature in often violent action.

However, Delacroix was given to neither sentimentality nor bombast, and his Romanticism was that of an individualist. In the words of Baudelaire, “Delacroix was passionately in love with passion, but coldly determined to express passion as clearly as possible.” MoreFerdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix

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02 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART – Interpretations of the Bible! by The Old Masters, With Footnotes # 62

Pellegrino di Mariano, (Siena active circa 1442–1492)

Madonna and Child with Saints 

Tempera on panel, gold ground

61 x 41.8 cm, integral frame 

Private collection

In the present painting, the Madonna and Child are flanked by six figures that seem to form a celestial court round them. The two patron saints of Siena are represented: Saint Catherine and Saint Bernardino, while on the right are Saint Dorothea and Saint Jerome. Representations of Saint Dorothea are rare in Sienese Quattrocento art and her presence in this painting would have had a special meaning. More on the present painting

The Madonna and Child or The Virgin and Child is often the name of a work of art which shows the Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus. The word Madonna means “My Lady” in Italian. Artworks of the Christ Child and his mother Mary are part of the Roman Catholic tradition in many parts of the world. More on The Madonna and Child

Pellegrino di Mariano, (Siena active circa 1442–1492)

Madonna and Child with Saints 

Detail of Saint Catherine

Saint Catherine of Alexandria is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius. According to her hagiography, she was both a princess and a noted scholar, who became a Christian around the age of fourteen, and converted hundreds of people to Christianity. More on Saint Catherine of Alexandria

Pellegrino di Mariano, (Siena active circa 1442–1492)

Madonna and Child with Saints 

Detail of Bernardino of Siena

Bernardino of Siena, (8 September 1380 – 20 May 1444) was an Italian priest and Franciscan missionary. He was a systematizer of Scholastic economics. His popular preaching made him famous during his own lifetime, although it was frequently directed against sorcery, gambling, infanticide, witchcraft, sodomy, Jews, and usury. More on Bernardino

Pellegrino di Mariano, (Siena active circa 1442–1492)

Madonna and Child with Saints 

Detail of Dorothea of Caesarea

Dorothea of Caesarea  (died ca. 311) is a 4th-century virgin martyr who was executed at Caesarea Mazaca. Evidence for her actual historical existence or acta is very sparse. She is called a martyr of the Diocletianic Persecution, although her death occurred after the resignation of Diocletian himself. More on Dorothea of Caesarea

Pellegrino di Mariano, (Siena active circa 1442–1492)

Madonna and Child with Saints 

Detail of Jerome

Jerome (c.  347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian and historian. He is best known for his translation of most of the Bible into Latin, and his commentaries on the Gospels. His list of writings is extensive. More on Jerome

 

Pellegrino di Mariano worked for Pope Pius II Piccolomini (1405-1464), as well as important institutions in Siena. He probably received formative training with Giovanni di Paolo (1398–1482) and subsequently he entered the circle of Sano di Pietro (1405–1481), the most popular artist in Sienat. Usually the iconography of his paintings was personalised through the selection of the saints by the patron and the works were conserved in private houses or in the cells of members of religious orders. 

He frequently turned to traditional images as model, but he created his own compositional solutions, which while reusing the same primary cartoon, show significant variations in many examples. More on Pellegrino di Mariano

Master of the Johnson Tabernacle, Florence active in the first half of the 15th C.

Christ as Man of Sorrows with Symbols of the Passion

Tempera and gold on panel

31 x 22.5 cm

Private collection

At the centre of the painting Christ is represented as the Man of Sorrows as he emerges from the marble sarcophagus to reveal the marks of the Crucifixion. In the lower part of the composition, the Virgin, Mary Magdalene and Saint John the Evangelist are shown mourning him.

Master of the Johnson Tabernacle, Florence active in the first half of the 15th C.

Christ as Man of Sorrows with Symbols of the Passion

Upper section

From the upper left down, the mocking of Christ by the soldiers, the column of the Flagellation, the denial of Peter, the spear of Longinus, the cut ear of Malco and, on the extreme left, the ladder used for the Crucifixion and Deposition. Represented respectively on the right are the kiss of Judas, the torch, which alludes to the Capture, the spear with the sponge soaked in vinegar, the thirty gold coins of Judas, an unidentified male figure and the washed hands of Pilate. Seen on the cross are hammers, whips, the crown of thorns as well as the cockerel that alludes to the denial of Peter. More on this painting

This artist whose identity remains unknown is conventionally referred to as the ‘Master of the Johnson Tabernacle’, named after a tabernacle conserved in the Philadelphia Museum of Art

He was active in Florence in the mid-15th Century. More on Master of the Johnson Tabernacle

Acknowledgement: Dorotheum, and others


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09 Works, RELIGIOUS ART – Contemporary & 20th Century Interpretation of the Bible! With Footnotes – 11

Andrew Wyeth, American, 1917–2009

Pentecost,  c. 1989

Tempera with pencil on hardboard panel

20 ¾ x 20 ⅝ in.

The Andrew and Betsy Wyeth Collection, Seattle Art Museum

The Christian Pentecost is based on the New Testament, where it refers to the occasion of the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ, as described in the Acts of the Apostles. According to Luke, the Descent of the Holy Spirit took place while the Apostles were celebrating the Jewish day of Shavuot, the Feast of Weeks, a prominent feast in the calendar of ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law to Moses at Sinai. Subsequently, the term Pentecost may refer to the Pentecost of the New Testament and Shavuot of the Old Testament. The Shavuot of the Old Testament is a significant event shared by Jewish and Christian traditions but is not commonly celebrated as a separate holiday by Christians. More on the Pentecost

Andrew Newell Wyeth (July 12, 1917 – January 16, 2009) was a visual artist, primarily a realist painter, working predominantly in a regionalist style. He was one of the best-known U.S. artists of the middle 20th century.

In his art, Wyeth’s favorite subjects were the land and people around him, both in his hometown of Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, and at his summer home in Cushing, Maine. Wyeth often noted: “I paint my life.” One of the best-known images in 20th-century American art is his painting Christina’s World (below), currently in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. This tempera was painted in 1948, when Wyeth was 31 years old. More on Andrew Newell Wyeth

Andrew Wyeth, American, 1917–2009

Christina’s World, 1948

Oil on canvas

Museum of Modern Art in New York City

Rafael Coronel, Mexican, b. 1932 

Untitled (Head of St. John the Baptist) 

Acrylic and graphite on paper 

19 3/4 x 25 1/2 inches 

Private collection

John the Baptist (sometimes called John in the Wilderness; also referred to as the Angel of the Desert) was the subject of at least eight paintings by the Italian Baroque artist Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571–1610).

The story of John the Baptist is told in the Gospels. John was the cousin of Jesus, and his calling was to prepare the way for the coming of the Messiah. He lived in the wilderness of Judea between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea, “his raiment of camel’s hair, and a leather girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey.” He baptised Jesus in the Jordan.

According to the Bible, King Herod’s daughter Salome requested Saint John the Baptist’s beheading. She was prompted by her mother, Herodias, who sought revenge, because the prophet had condemned her incestuous marriage to HerodMore John the Baptist

 

Rafael Coronel (born 24 October 1931 in Zacatecas, Zac.) is a painter from Mexico. He was the son-in-law of Diego Rivera. His representational paintings have a melancholic sobriety, and include faces from the past great masters, often floating in a diffuse haze. There are some paintings of his own in Mexico and in other countries. In what was the convent of San Francisco De Almoloyan y De Asis, located in Zacatecas, there is a museum named after him; in this museum, his vast mask collection is shown. More on Rafael Coronel

Arina Sleutsker

Adam to Eve

Oil on canvas

24×30 inches

Private collection

Arian Sloutsker’s artwork and rock ‘n’ roll record album covers are composed of her favorite subjects: figures in movement, nature in extreme, portraits, and biblical legend.  Classically trained at one of the most prestigious art school in Russia during Prestroika and Russian avant-garde art movements, she combines traditional and contemporary methods. 

She received her Masters degree in Fine Art from St. Petersburg State University.  While a student, Arina participated in many avant-garde movements, and was a member of the “ Fellowship of Independent Artist.”  She worked as a set and costume designer.  Her works were initially displayed in sidewalk shows in Kiji, St. Petersburg, Sochi and Prague, before she graduated into many European galleries and private collections. 

In 1990, Arina immigrated to the United States and to Los Angeles.  She worked in the film industry and television, and for Disney.  While working in the “Rock ‘n’ roll industry,” she created record album covers for Tom Petty, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, and Outfield.  She participated in the Lollapalooza rock Festival in Canada. 

In 1995, during the Firebird festival of Russian Culture in Los Angeles, she exhibited her highly original oil paintings at Universal Studios’ City Walk. More on Arian Sloutsker

Maqbool Fida Husain, 1913 – 2011

UNTITLED (MOTHER TERESA I), c. 1980

Acrylic on canvas, Diptych

76 x 121 cm. (30 x 47 ⅝ in.) overall

Private collection

Mother Teresa, exemplifies the power with which the artist imbued the female form. In a single frame Husain is able to portray a multitude of thematic connotations of resilience, vulnerability, strength, stoicism, and compassion. Husain depicts a young, barely clad, faceless, pregnant woman, her arms outstretched beseeching Mother Teresa, depicted here in triplicate in her trademark white and blue bordered sari, to help her out of her misery and care for her and her unborn child. More about this Painting

Maqbool Fida Husain (17 September 1915 – 9 June 2011) was a modern Indian painter of international acclaim, and a founding member of Bombay Progressive Artists’ Group.

Husain was associated with Indian modernism in the 1940s. His early association with the Bombay Progressive Artists’ Group used modern technique, and was inspired by the “new” India after The Partition of 1947. His themes include topics as diverse as Mohandas K. Gandhi, Mother Teresa, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the British raj, and motifs of Indian urban and rural life. Early in his painting career, and until his death, he enjoyed depicting the lively and free spirit of horses in many of his works. Husain is the most celebrated and internationally recognized Indian artist of the 20th century. Husain is also known for his drawings and his work as a printmaker, photographer, and filmmaker. Some of his later works stirred controversy, as they depicted traditional deities of India in non-traditional ways.

He also directed a few movies. In 1967, he received the National Film Award for Best Experimental Film for Through the Eyes of a Painter. In 2004, he directed Meenaxi: A Tale of Three Cities, a film he worked on with his artist son Owais Husain, which was screened in the Marché du Film section of the 2004 Cannes Film Festival. More on Maqbool Fida Husain

Siegfried Zademack

In the heart of the void

Private collection

Siegfried Zademack (born December 24, 1952 in Bremen ) is a German painter born in 1952 in Bremen, where he still lives and works today. After training as a commercial designer, commercial artist and screen printer , he worked full-time as a commercial artist until 1980. Since attending an academy did not satisfy him, he deepened his self-study in the techniques and compositions of the old masters and developed expertise on colors, pigments , transitions, solvents , etc

In 1975 he had his first exhibition participation in Bremen City Hall. Since 1980 he works as a freelance artist and devoted himself entirely to painting, 1981 was the first major exhibition with more than 50 paintings.

His work is characterized by bonds of the works and painting of important painters in European art history, above all, he leans against the masters of the Italian early and high Renaissance to those of Mannerism on. He calls his style “fantastic-surreal”. More on Siegfried Zademack

TONY GUM

Milked in Africa – Milk someone, 2016

C-type print on fuji crystal archival print, Dibond mounted Ed M/10

59 1/10 × 39 2/5 in, 150 × 100 cm

Private collection

TONY GUM. In less than a year the South African instagrammarian-turned-artist has exploded onto the world stage. Poster girl for the Johannesburg Art Fair, Cape Town’s ‘it’ girl according to Vogue, shortlisted for the jury prize awarded ‘to an artist of distinction featured in a solo exhibition’ at Pulse in New York, Gum has indisputably captured the popular imagination. More on Tony Gum

CHRISTY LEE ROGERS

Rapture, 2011

Archival pigment print on Canson

39 × 48 in, 99.1 × 121.9 cm

In Christian eschatology the rapture refers to the controversial “predicted” end time event when all Christian believers—living and resurrected dead—will rise into the sky and join Christ for eternity. Some Christians believe this event is predicted and described, using the Greek word “harpazo”, “rapio” in Latin, meaning to snatch away or seize. The term “rapture” has come especially to distinguish this event from the event of the “Second Coming” of Jesus Christ to Earth, as some think is predicted elsewhere in the Bible. More on the rapture

Christy Lee Rogers evokes Baroque painting in her luscious color photographs of people submerged in water. Born in Hawaii and now working in Los Angeles, Rogers began working with underwater photography as a reprieve from her film work. Self-taught, she begins her shoots around sunset, using natural light to create chromatic relations that defy conventions of photography. The drama of figures submerged in water creates a dual sense of struggle and purification in the work. “I think at the basic core is that search for freedom and that common bond between all of us,” Rogers has said. More on Christy Lee Rogers

William Eugene Smith, (December 30, 1918 – October 15, 1978)

A Sleep of Prisoners, 1951

Gelatin silver

8 3/8 × 13 1/2 in

21.3 × 34.3 cm

Private collection

William Eugene Smith (December 30, 1918 – October 15, 1978) was an American photojournalist, renowned for the dedication he devoted to his projects and his uncompromising professional and ethical standards. Smith developed the photo essay into a sophisticated visual form. His most famous studies included brutally vivid World War II photographs, the clinic of Dr Schweitzer in French Equatorial Africa, the city of Pittsburgh, the dedication of an American country doctor and a nurse midwife, and the pollution which damaged the health of the residents of Minamata in Japan. More on William Eugene Smith

Ralph Gibson, (born January 16, 1939) 

Smoking Jacket, Priest, and Ducktail (from Quadrants), c. 1975

Gelatin silver

12 3/4 × 8 3/8 in

32.4 × 21.3 cm

Private collection

Ralph Gibson (born January 16, 1939) is an American art photographer best known for his photographic books. His images often incorporate fragments with erotic and mysterious undertones. Gibson enlisted in the United States Navy in 1956 and became a Photographers Mate studying photography until 1960. Gibson then continued his photography studies at the San Francisco Art Institute between 1960 – 1962. He began his professional career as an assistant to Dorothea Lange from 1961 to 1962 and went on to work with Robert Frank on two films.

Gibson has maintained a lifelong fascination with books and book-making. Since the appearance in 1970 of THE SOMNAMBULIST, his work has been steadily impelled towards the printed page. In 1969 Gibson moved to New York, where he formed Lustrum Press in order to exert control over the reproduction of his work. To date he has produced over 40 monographs, current projects being State of the Axe published by Yale University Press in Fall of 2008 and NUDE by Taschen (2009). His photographs are included in over one hundred and fifty museum collections around the world, and have appeared in hundreds of exhibitions. More Ralph Gibson

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