11 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings – With Footnotes, #28

Pierre Bonnard , French, 1867 – 1947

The Port Of Cannes, Le Port de Cannes, c. 1926 – 1927

Oil, canvas

Private Collection

Cannes is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a commune of France located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, and host city of the annual Cannes Film Festival, Midem, and Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity. .

Pierre Bonnard , French, 1867 – 1947

The Port Of Cannes, Le Port de Cannes, c. 1920

Oil, canvas

Private Collection

In the 10th century, the town was known as Canua. The name may derive from “canna,” a reed. Canua was probably the site of a small Ligurian port, and later a Roman outpost on Le Suquet hill, suggested by Roman tombs discovered here. Le Suquet housed an 11th-century tower which overlooked swamps where the city now stands. Most of the ancient activity, especially protection, was on the Lérins Islands and the history of Cannes is closely tied to the history of the islands.

An attack by the Saracens in 891, who remained until the end of the 10th century, devastated the country around Canua. The insecurity of the Lérins islands forced the monks to settle on the mainland, at the Suquet. Construction of a castle in 1035 fortified the city by then known as Cannes, and at the end of the 11th century construction was started on two towers on the Lérins islands. One took a century to build.

Around 1530, Cannes detached from the monks who had controlled the city for hundreds of years and became independent.

During the 18th century, both the Spanish and British tried to gain control of the Lérins Islands but were chased away by the French. The islands were later controlled by many, such as Jean-Honoré Alziary, and the Bishop of Fréjus. They had many different purposes: at the end of the 19th century, one served as hospital for soldiers wounded in the Crimean War. More on Cannes

Pierre Bonnard, French, 1867 – 1947

The Port of Cannes, 1927

Oil on canvas

41 x 65 cm

National Gallery of Canada

Pierre Bonnard (3 October 1867 — 23 January 1947) was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis. Bonnard preferred to work from memory, using drawings as a reference, and his paintings are often characterized by a dreamlike quality. The intimate domestic scenes, for which he is perhaps best known, often include his wife Marthe de Meligny.

Bonnard has been described as “the most thoroughly idiosyncratic of all the great twentieth- century painters”, and the unusual vantage points of his compositions rely less on traditional modes of pictorial structure than voluptuous color, poetic allusions and visual wit. Identified as a late practitioner of Impressionism in the early 20th century, Bonnard has since been recognized for his unique use of color and his complex imagery. More


Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida – 1899

The Net, c. 1899

Oil on canvas

Height: 50 cm (19.69 in.), Width: 69 cm (27.17 in.)

Private collection

Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (27 February 1863 10 August 1923) was a Spanish painter. Sorolla excelled in the painting of portraits, landscapes, and monumental works of social and historical themes. His most typical works are characterized by a dexterous representation of the people and landscape under the sunlight of his native land. More

Charles Dixon, 1872 -1934

The Battle of Trafalgar, c. 1903

Watercolour and bodycolour

88.9 x 180.3cm (35 x 71in)

Private collection

The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).

Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson aboard HMS Victory defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships of the line under the French Admiral Villeneuve in the Atlantic off the southwest coast of Spain, just west of Cape Trafalgar, in Caños de Meca. The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost. It was the most decisive naval battle of the war, conclusively ending French plans to invade England.

The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established during the eighteenth century and was achieved in part through Nelson’s departure from the prevailing naval tactical orthodoxy. 

Nelson was shot by a French musketeer during the battle and died shortly after, becoming one of Britain’s greatest war heroes. Villeneuve was captured along with his ship Bucentaure. Admiral Federico Gravina, the senior Spanish flag officer, escaped with the remnant of the fleet and succumbed months later to wounds sustained during the battle. Villeneuve attended Nelson’s funeral while a captive on parole in Britain. The Battle of Trafalgar

Charles Edward Dixon (8 December 1872 – 12 September 1934) was a British maritime painter of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, whose work was highly successful and regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy. Several of his paintings are held by the National Maritime Museum and he was a regular contributing artist to magazines and periodicals. He lived at Itchenor in Sussex and died in 1934. More

William Lee Hankey, (1869–1952) RWS,RI,ROI,RE,NS


Oil on canvas

61.5 x 74cm

Private collection

Le Suquet, sometimes called Mont-Chevalier, is the oldest district of Cannes , its “old town”, situated on a hill west of the bay , Old Port. Lord Brougham played his part to speed up the creation of a port at the foot of the Suquet . For a hundred years, the fishermen demanded a dike to protect themselves from the labech, the south-west wind which can trigger fierce storms. Bewitched by the site, the benefactor intervened with King Louis-Philippe. The grateful city erected a statue in 1898 to this providential man.

But it was another Englishman, the Prince of Wales, Albert Edward, the eldest son of Queen Victoria and future Edward VII, who laid the first stone of the pier which bears his name in 1898. Before being crowned, the Prince of Wales had made Cannes his headquarters, More Suquet

William Lee Hankey (1869–1952) RWS,RI,ROI,RE,NS was a British painter and book illustrator. He specialised in landscapes, character studies and portraits of pastoral life, particularly in studies of mothers with young children.

He was born in Chester and worked as a designer after leaving school. He studied art in the evenings at the Chester School of Art, then at the Royal College of Art. Later in Paris he became influenced by the work of Jules Bastien-Lepage, who also favoured rustic scenes depicted in a realistic but sentimental style. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1896 and was President of the London Sketch Club from 1902 to 1904. He stayed in France in the early 1900s, painting many of his works in Brittany and Normandy. From 1904 until well after World War I he maintained a studio at the Etaples art colony.

It was Hankey’s black and white and coloured etchings of the people of Étaples, which gained him a reputation as ‘one of the most gifted of the figurative printmakers working in original drypoint during the first thirty years of the 20th century’. One that is particularly striking for its stylistic presentation was “The Refugees”, his contribution to raising awareness of the consequences for ordinary people of the German invasion of France and Belgium in 1914. He went on to serve with the Artists’ Rifles from 1915 to 1918.

In Britain he had been associated with the Newlyn School, a group of English artists based in the titular village in Cornwall who were themselves influenced by the romantic poets such as Wordsworth and Keats. More


Edward William Cooke, 1811 – 1880

French Sloop entering the harbour of Tréport, c. 1869

Oil on canvas

81.3 x 134.6cm (32 x 53in)

Private collection

Le Treport is a coastal port town on the English Channel in northern Seine-Maritime, normandy, and just a few kilometres from Eu and Mers-les-Bains, which falls on the Picardy side of the River Bresle.

A long standing port town, Le Tréport was established as a seaside resort in the 19th century, it was with the arrival of ‘paid holidays for all workers’ in France in 1936 that the town really started to grow in popularity – it is one of the most accessible seaside resorts from Paris. More Le Treport


Edward William Cooke, R.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. (27 March 1811 – 4 January 1880) was an English landscape and marine painter, and gardener. Cooke was born in Pentonville, London. He was raised in the company of artists. He was a precocious draughtsman and a skilled engraver from an early age, displayed an equal preference for marine subjects and published his “Shipping and Craft” a series of accomplished engravings when he was 18, in 1829. Cooke began painting in oils in 1833, and first exhibited at the Royal Academy and British Institution in 1835, by which time his style was essentially formed.

He went on to travel and paint with great industry at home and abroad, indulging his love of the 17th-century Dutch marine artists with a visit to the Netherlands in 1837. He returned regularly over the next 23 years, studying the effects of the coastal landscape and light, as well as the works of the country’s Old Masters, resulting in highly successful paintings. He went on to travel in Scandinavia, Spain, North Africa and, above all, to Venice. In 1858, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician. . More Edward William Cooke

George William Joy, 1844 – 1925

Ships moored in calm waters


17.8 x 26cm (7 x 10 1/4in)

Private collection

George William Joy (July 7, 1844 in Dublin, Ireland – October 28, 1925 in Purbrook, Hampshire) was an Irish painter in London.  He was initially destined for the military and was also an accomplished violin player. After a foot injury at a young age, his father declared him unfit for military service. Joy was then educated at Harrow School and eventually pursued a career as an artist. He studied in London’s South Kensington School of Art and later at the Royal Academy.

In 1868 Joy went to Paris where for two years he was a student of Charles-François Jalabert and Léon Bonnat. There he met masters like Gérôme, Cabanel, Jules Breton, Jules Lefebvre und Philippe Rousseau.

Going back to London, Joy established himself as a history and genre painter, and became a frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy, the Salon des artistes français and the Royal Hibernian Academy. He became a member of the Royal Institute of Oil Painters in 1895.

To satisfy his early military ambitions, Joy entered the Artists Rifles where he was known as a good shot, representing Ireland several times. He spent many winters in Swanage from 1896 and eventually retired to Purbrook. Both of his sons were killed in 1915 during World War I. More George William Joy


Jan Marti, (1958-) 

Automne sur Honfleur 

Oil on canvas 

50 x 61 cm 

Private collection

Honfleur is a commune in northwestern France. It is located on the southern bank of the estuary of the Seine across from le Havre and very close to the exit of the Pont de Normandie. Its inhabitants are called Honfleurais.

It is especially known for its old, beautiful picturesque port, characterized by its houses with slate-covered frontages, painted many times by artists, including in particular Gustave Courbet, Eugène Boudin, Claude Monet and Johan Jongkind, forming the école de Honfleur (Honfleur school) which contributed to the appearance of the Impressionist movement. More Honfleur

Jan Marti was born in 1958 in Savoy, after a few attempts at studying and various jobs that he quickly gives up, he then devotes himself to painting. He channels his connection to the abstract in hectic and elegant strokes. 

The exuberant blaze of colours and elements flatters both sensibility and eyes. His work depicts a naturally suggested beauty. Jan Marti’s works are part of numerous exhibitions and private collections in France and abroad. More Jan Marti

Chiharu Shiota

The key in the hand at Japanese Pavillon, 2015 

Chiharu Shiota is a Japanese installation artist born in 1972 in Osaka. She has been living and working in Berlin since 1996.

Shiota studied at the Seika University in Kyoto and at various schools in Germany. Shiota’s oeuvre links various aspects of art performances and installation practices. Mostly renown for her vast, room-spanning webs of threads or hoses, she links abstract networks with concrete everyday objects such as keys, windows, dresses, shoes, boats and suitcases. Besides installation works, she frequently collaborates with choreographers and composers. More Chiharu Shiota

JOHN SLOAN, (1871–1951)  

The Wake of the Ferry II, 1907

Oil on canvas

26 x 32 in.

Phillips Collection

John French Sloan began painting The Wake of the Ferry II in 1907, his second version of this scene. The subject may well have been suggested by Sloan’s ferry trips with his wife from Jersey City to Philadelphia for medical treatments.

The stylistic influence of Robert Henri, so pervasive in Sloan’s early work, is apparent here; the scene has been broadly conceived, spontaneously conveyed, and boldly brushed, in a limited palette of grays and near-blacks. The composition reinforces the mood; the ferry’s tilted angle, framing a view of the rough waters, is arresting, and the diagonal of the wake receding into the mist reinforces the sense of loneliness and distance. In this setting, the small figure on the right, understated and half lost in shadow, becomes the essential actor in this version of Sloan’s human comedy and brings into focus its melancholy expression.

In 1971 The Wake of the Ferry II was selected by the United States Postal Service for a stamp commemorating the centennial year of Sloan’s birth. More The Wake of the Ferry

John French Sloan (August 2, 1871 – September 7, 1951) was a twentieth-century painter and etcher and one of the founders of the Ashcan school of American art. He was also a member of the group known as The Eight. He is best known for his urban genre scenes and ability to capture the essence of neighborhood life in New York City, often observed through his Chelsea studio window. Sloan has been called “the premier artist of the Ashcan School who painted the inexhaustible energy and life of New York City during the first decades of the twentieth century” and an “early twentieth-century realist painter who embraced the principles of Socialism and placed his artistic talents at the service of those beliefs.” More  John Sloan



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12 Paintings of the Canals of Venice in the 18 & 19th Century, by the artists of the time, with foot notes. #5

Richard Price, (British, born 1962)

April Day in Venice

Oil on canvas

51 x 61cm (20 1/16 x 24in).

Private Collection

The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark, commonly known as Saint Mark’s Basilica, is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice, northern Italy. It is the most famous of the city’s churches and one of the best known examples of Italo-Byzantine architecture. It lies at the eastern end of the Piazza San Marco, adjacent and connected to the Doge’s Palace. Originally it was the chapel of the Doge, and has only been the city’s cathedral since 1807.

For its opulent design, gold ground mosaics, and its status as a symbol of Venetian wealth and power, from the 11th century on the building has been known by the nickname Chiesa d’Oro (Church of gold). More Saint Mark’s Basilica

Richard Price was born in 1962 in Upminster, Essex. At 11 years of age he started painting and drawing from observing the fishing fleet at Leigh-on-Sea, Essex. Encouraged to simply paint ‘anything’ he quickly was drawn to paint atmospheric conditions and light effects.

He later studied at Portsmouth. Price then moved to London and worked as a production design lecturer at the London International Film School. In 2001 he started to make his own images again. Encouraged by his new mentor Jon Bowen he soon resumed his painting.

Price’s work is concerned with light and atmosphere and falls within the traditions of artists such as Turner and Walter Sickert. While some of his work is done in the studio, Price is predominantly an ‘en plein air’ painter and most of his work is therefore painted immediately in front of his subject. The challenge of this type of work is in being able to rapidly analyze colour and tone at the same time as capturing the constantly moving drama of the environment. More Richard Price

Serge Mendjisky, B. 1929


Oil on canvas

73 by 100.2cm., 28 3/4 by 39 1/2 in.

Private Collection

The Grand Canal is a canal in Venice, Italy. It forms one of the major water-traffic corridors in the city. Public transport is provided by water buses and private water taxis Many tourists explore the canal by gondola.

One end of the canal leads into the lagoon near the Santa Lucia railway station and the other end leads into Saint Mark Basin; in between, it makes a large reverse-S shape through the central districts (sestieri) of Venice. More Grand Canal

Serge Mendjisky was born in 1929 in Paris. After completing his studies at the Beaux Arts in Paris, he soon became a recognized artist and exhibited in Europe, Japan and the United States. He uses photography to make his preliminary studies in painting.

In 2000, he decided to use photography as the only means of expression. He borrows the collage technique to alter photographic images and articulate its multidimensional worldview. The multiple perspectives, expressed in his collages evoke clearly the analytical phase of Cubism. After many years of technical exploration, he found a way to question not only the appearance of the world, but also our perceptual behavior.

By decomposing and recomposing the backgrounds of some of the most famous cities of the world like New York and Paris, Serge Mendjisky creates new urban landscapes which question our perceptive faculties. More Serge Mendjisky

Edward William Cooke

The Canale della Giudecca with Redentore beyond, c. 1863

Oil on paper laid on canvas

11 x 17 11/16 in

Private Collection

The Giudecca Canal is a body of water that flows into the San Marco basin in Venice, Italy. It is one of the major canals in the city, it bisects the sestieri of Dorsoduro, separating Giudecca island and district from Dorsoduro district. More Giudecca Canal

Edward William Cooke, R.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. (27 March 1811 – 4 January 1880) was an English landscape and marine painter, and gardener. Cooke was born in Pentonville, London. He was raised in the company of artists. He was a precocious draughtsman and a skilled engraver from an early age, displayed an equal preference for marine subjects and published his “Shipping and Craft” a series of accomplished engravings when he was 18, in 1829. Cooke began painting in oils in 1833, and first exhibited at the Royal Academy and British Institution in 1835, by which time his style was essentially formed.

He went on to travel and paint with great industry at home and abroad, indulging his love of the 17th-century Dutch marine artists with a visit to the Netherlands in 1837. He returned regularly over the next 23 years, studying the effects of the coastal landscape and light, as well as the works of the country’s Old Masters, resulting in highly successful paintings. He went on to travel in Scandinavia, Spain, North Africa and, above all, to Venice. In 1858, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician. . More Edward William Cooke

ANDREW FISHER BUNNER (American, 1841-1897)

Venetian canal scene

Oil on canvas

22 x 32 in.

Private Collection

ANDREW FISHER BUNNER (1841 – 1897). Born in New York in 1841.  From 1865 through 1868 he lived in New York and exhibited a number of works at the national Academy of Design.  These works included A Summer Afternoon in Pike County, PA. (1865) and The Potomac River below Harper’s Ferry (1868).  He spent the year of 1869 in New Jersey and then moved to Louisville, KY. in 1870.  He exhibited Study from Nature in West Virginia at the National Academy that same year.

During the 1870’s he traveled to Europe to study and spent time in Paris and Venice.  He concentrated on landscapes, often views by the riverside with a great deal of interest and detail.  In 1879 he returned to New York and was living at 33 East 17th Street.  Among the works he exhibited at the National Academy that year were The Riva, Venice and A Fisherman’s Cottage in the Tyrol.  He remained in New York till 1883 when he returned to Venice.  He lived there till 1885 and sent works each year to the National Academy for exhibition.

Bunner returned to New York in 1887 and remained there till his death in 1897.  In 1900 his wife donated a group of works that Bunner produced during his trips to Venice to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. More

Charles Oppenheimer RSA RSW (British, 1875-1961)

Ponte Di Cannaregio, Venice 

Oil on panel

34.5 x 45 cm. (13 3/16 x 17 1/8

Private Collection

The Ponte delle Guglie is one of two bridges in Venice, Italy, to span the Cannaregio Canal. It lies near the western end of the canal, by the Venezia Santa Lucia railway station.

An earlier wooden bridge was built in 1285. It was replaced by the current stone and brick bridge in 1580. It was restored in 1641 and 1677, and was totally rebuilt in 1823 at which time spires were added. The spires lie at each end of the bridge. A carved balustrade runs on either side of the walkway, and gargoyles decorate its arch. It is the only bridge in Venice adorned with spires from whence it takes its name (“Bridge of Spires”). More The Ponte delle Guglie 

Charles Oppenheimer RSA RSW, 1875 – 1961Few Scottish artists are so closely associated with a town or location as Charles Oppenheimer is with Kirkcudbright. He was however not a native Scot having been born in Manchester and only settling in the town when in his mid thirties. Other artists of the Kirkcudbright School, Hornel, MacGeorge and Mouncey found their subject matter in the surrounding Galloway landscape and paid little attention to the beautiful old town where they lived. Oppenheimer as a keen fisherman also spent many hours on the local rivers and lochs, but he produced his best and most memorable work painting in Kirkcudbright itself.More Charles Oppenheimer 

He was a prize-winning student at Manchester School of Art, and his first picture was exhibited at the Manchester Academy of Fine Arts in 1894. His studies also took him to Italy.

Ken Howard R.A. (British, born 1932)

From San Tomà, Venice 

Oil on canvas

12 x 16 inches

Private Collection

San Tomà is a church which is located in the sestiere of San Polo in Venice, Italy. It stands opposite the Scoletta dei Calegheri. More

Kenneth Howard OBE RA (born 26 December 1932) is an English artist and painter. He was President of the New English Art Club from 1998 to 2003.

Ken Howard was born in London. He studied at the Hornsey College of Art (1949–53) and the Royal College of Art (1955–58). In 1958 he won a British Council Scholarship to Florence. He spent his National Service in the Royal Marines (1953–55). In 1973 and 1978 he was the Official War Artist to Northern Ireland, and 1973–80 worked in various locations, including Hong Kong, Cyprus and Canada with the British Army. In 1983 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy (ARA). In 1998 he became President of the New English Art Club, a post he held until 2003. In 1991 he was elected a Royal Academician (RA).

He paints in a “traditional” manner, based on strong observation and a high degree of draughtsmanship combined with tonal precision. The depiction of light is a strong and recurrent element of his work. A notable theme is the nude model in his studio. Another theme is a city scene, such as Venice, with emphasis placed on the reflection of light from puddles after rain. He has said:

Howard was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 2010 Birthday Honours More


The Ospidale S. Giovanni & Paolo, Venice (2010)

Oil on canvas

45½ x 30½cm (18 x 12in)

Private Collection

The Basilica di San Giovanni e Paolo, known in Venetian as San Zanipolo, is a church in the Castello sestiere of Venice, Italy.

One of the largest churches in the city, it has the status of a minor basilica. After the 15th century the funeral services of all of Venice’s doges were held here, and twenty-five doges are buried in the church.

The huge brick edifice was designed in the Italian Gothic style, and completed in the 1430s. It is the principal Dominican church of Venice, and as such was built to hold large congregations. It is dedicated to John and Paul, not the Biblical Apostles of the same names, but two obscure martyrs of the Early Christian church in Rome, whose names were recorded in the 3rd century but whose legend is of a later date.

In 1246, Doge Jacopo Tiepolo donated some swampland to the Dominicans after dreaming of a flock of white doves flying over it. The first church was demolished in 1333, when the current church was begun. It was not completed until 1430. More

KEN HOWARD RA RWS ROI NEAC (B.1932), see above

Martín Rico y Ortega, 1833-1908


Oil on panel

8 5/8  by 6 1/4  in.; 22.1 by 15.9 cm

Private Collection

Martín Rico y Ortega (12 November 1833, El Escorial – 13 April 1908, Venice, Italy) was a Spanish painter of landscapes and cityscapes. Rico was one of the most important artists of the second half of the nineteenth century in his native country, and enjoyed wide international recognition.

Rico was born in Madrid and received his earliest formal training at the city’s Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, where he studied under Jenaro Pérez Villaamil, the Academy’s first professor of landscape painting. Under the tutelage of Pérez Villaamil, Rico’s earliest works show him influenced by Romanticism, the style for which his teacher was known. In 1860, having been awarded a government-sponsored scholarship, Rico moved to Paris to continue his studies.

His landscapes from this decade depict the French and Swiss countryside in a fully accomplished Realist style. Toward the end of 1870, due to political and social unrest caused by the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, Rico decided to leave France and return to his native Spain.

At the invitation of his good friend and colleague Marià Fortuny, Rico moved to the southern city of Granada, joining Fortuny and his wife Cecilia, as well as the painter Ricardo de Madrazo. The three artists worked closely during this period, with the styles of Rico and Fortuny overlapping so much that their watercolors—a specialty for both artists—were often confused for one another. It was during this time that, through Fortuny’s influence, Rico’s paintings began to reveal a newfound sense of luminosity and color. His time in Andalucía was, according to his memoirs, one of his happiest, and also one of his most artistically productive periods. More Ortega

Franz Richard Unterberger (Austrian, 1838-1902)

Canale San Barnaba, Venise 

Oil on canvas

92 x 71cm (36 1/4 x 27 15/16in)

Private Collection

The church of San Barnaba is a small Neoclassic-style church in district of Dorsoduro in Venice, It is located in Campo San Barnaba. It is dedicated to the Apostle Saint Barnabas.

A church at the site was built in the ninth century, but destroyed by fire in 1105. Rebuilt in 1350, it was reconstructed in present form in 1776. The 11th-century campanile, detached from the main body of the church, has a pine-cone shaped spire from the 1300s.

The church was used as a library in the 1989 film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, acting as the entrance to the tomb of a Grail Knight. More San Barnaba Church

The canal is in a quiet area of Venice. On the banks of the canal are many architecturally beautiful and colorful houses. San Barnaba is a quiet place to monitor the gondolas that pass through the canal.

Barnabas, born Joseph and Akylah, was an early Christian, one of the prominent Christian disciples in Jerusalem. Barnabas was a Cypriot Jew. Named an apostle in Acts 14:14, he and Paul the Apostle undertook missionary journeys together and defended Gentile converts against the Judaizers. They traveled together making more converts, and participated in the Council of Jerusalem

Although the date, place, and circumstances of his death are historically unverifiable, Christian tradition holds that Barnabas was martyred at Salamis, Cyprus, in AD 61. He is traditionally identified as the founder of the Cypriot Orthodox Church. More Barnabas

Franz Richard Unterberger was born on August 15, 1838 in Innsbruck, Australia; Died May 25, 1902; Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. He was one of 11 children of an art dealer. Unterberger started his studies in 1853 at the Munich Academy, alongside Julius Lange and Albert Zimmerman. In 1860, Franz continued his studies at Düsseldorf, which was the favored academy for Scandinavian painters studying abroad. Here he produced several atmospheric mountainous scenes. By the 1870’s Unterberger was already exhibiting in major cities across Europe including: Paris, Boston, Munich, Brussels, Berlin and Vienna among others.

In the mid 1880’s, Franz exhibited in Venezuela and in London at the International Universal Exhibition. In the 1890’s, most of his paintings revolved around Venetian and South Italian scenes. More Franz Richard Unterberger

Benjamin Brown, 1865 – 1942


 Watercolor on paper under glass

13.25 x 10.5 in

Private Collection

Benjamin Chambers Brown (July 14, 1865 – January 19, 1942) was a California Impressionist landscape artist. He was one of their five children. He grew up in Little Rock, Arkansas. Brown was trained as a photographer. He studied at the University of Tennessee, and later at the St. Louis School of Fine Arts under Paul Harney and John Fry in 1884. He studied in Paris at the Académie Julian under Jean-Paul Laurens and Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant in 1890.

During his early career, Brown traveled and worked in St. Louis, Little Rock and Texas. In St. Louis, Brown taught at the St. Louis Art School. He went on to open his own school in Little Rock. He initially specialized in portraiture and still life. Upon moving to Pasadena in 1896, he began to paint landscapes. By 1905 he had become famous for his paintings. From 1909 to 1910, Brown had a studio in Mill Valley, California.

His first etchings were done in 1914. He co-founded the Print Makers of Los Angeles with his brother Howell in 1914, which later became the Los Angeles Society of Printmakers. His notable works include his impressionist landscapes of Sierra peaks and field poppies. 

Brown tried to sell his artwork in New York City; however, it did not sell as well as it had in California. Instead of opening a studio in the city, he began to sign California under his own signature to show how proud he was to be a Californian, in spite of potential stigmas. More Benjamin Chambers Brown

‘HENRY P. SMITH’, 1854 – 1907

Villa on a Venetian Canal

Oil on panel

24 by 20 inches (61 by 50.8 cm)

Private Collection

Henry Pember Smith (February 20, 1854 – October 16, 1907) was an American painter, best known for his depictions of country cottages and river scenes around Lyme and East Lyme, Connecticut, and paintings of the sea and shore in New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Cape Ann to Maine.

Smith was born in Waterford, Connecticut. During the 1880s, he studied the Old Masters in Paris, Brittany, Normandy, Venice and along the English Cornish coast. He was a member of the Artists’ Fund Society and the American Water Color Society, and exhibited at the National Academy of Design from 1877-1896, 1899, 1901, 1906; the Brooklyn Art Club (1878-1885, 1892); Boston Art Club (1880-1890); Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art (1881, 1888); and the Art Institute of Chicago. Smith died of heart disease in Asbury, New Jersey. More

Ken Howard R.A. (British, born 1932)

Venice scene 

Oil on canvas

15 x 60.5cm (5 7/8 x 23 13/16in).

Private Collection

Ken Howard R.A. (British, born 1932) studied at Hornsey School of Art from 1949 to 1953. He then did his National Service with the Royal Marines before returning to study at the Royal College of Art from 1955 to 1958. He went on to win a British Council Scholarship to Florence from 1958 to 1959.

Howard’s first solo show was held at the Plymouth Art Centre in 1955. Subsequent exhibitions were held in 1966 and 1968 at the John Whibley Gallery. From then on he exhibited extensively, both nationally and internationally, particularly with the New Grafton Gallery from the early 1970s. He was given a retrospective in 1972 at the Plymouth City Art Gallery and in 1973 and 1979 was appointed by the Imperial War Museum as official artist in Northern Ireland. He also worked with the British Army in Germany, Cyprus, Oman, Hong Kong, Nepal, Norway, Canada, Belize and Brunei from 1973 to 1982.

Howard was elected a member of the New English Art Club in 1962, the Royal Institute of Oil Painters in 1966, the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours in 1979, the Royal West of England Academy 1981, Honorary Member of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1988, Royal Academician in 1991 and President of the New English Art Club in 1998. Among his numerous awards are First Prize in the Lord Mayor’s Art Award in 1966, a Prize Winner in the John Moores Exhibition, Liverpool in 1978, first prize in the Hunting Group Awards and the Critics Prize at Sparkasse Karlsruhe in 1985. Ken Howard lives and works in London. More

Acknowledgement: Bonhams, and others

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12 Paintings, scenes from the Bible, by The Old Masters, with footnotes # 30

This is the post excerpt.

Egon Schiele’s painting Cardinal and Nun of 1912 is a paraphrase of Gustav Klimt’s Kiss, which had been created five years prior.Everything about Klimt’s painting that was positive, however, is transformed here into its darker manifestation:the gold background is turned black, the gentle embrace has given way the violent clutching of the two delicate, praying hands, and the sensual expression on the face of Klimt’s woman has become a nun’s distraught glance.Schiele called the painting of this strange embrace Liebkosung, or “The Caress”. More

Egon Schiele, (June 12, 1890 – October 31, 1918)
Cardinal And Nun (Caress), c. 1912
Oil, canvas
Height: 700 mm (27.56 in). Width: 805 mm (31.69 in).
Leopold Museum, Vienna, Austria

Egon Schiele (German: 12 June 1890 – 31 October 1918) was an Austrian painter. A protégé of Gustav Klimt, Schiele was a major figurative painter of the early 20th century. His work is noted for its intensity and its raw sexuality, and the many self-portraits the artist produced, including naked self-portraits. The twisted body shapes and the expressive line that characterize Schiele’s paintings and drawings mark the artist as an early exponent of Expressionism. More

12 Paintings, scenes from the Bible, by The Old Masters, with footnotes # 30


12 Paintings of the Canals of Venice by the artists of their time, with foot notes. #8

Vahe Yeremyan, United States


Oil on Canvas

Handmade Original Signed One of a kind

30 H x 55 W x 1.5 in

Private Collection

Vahe Yeremyan is an Armenian-born painter currently based in Los Angeles. He trained extensively to hone his craft, earning a Bachelor’s and a Master’s in Painting as well as a PhD in Fine Art Therapy. He speaks of painting as his lifeblood, and spends nearly all of his time with a paintbrush in hand. Vahe’s impressionist landscapes pay tribute to the 19th century masters while adding a contemporary perspective that speaks to the delicate and sublime beauty of the natural world. His paintings have been exhibited around the globe, from Russia to California, and he is an honorable member of The Artist’s Guild of Armenia and an active member of Oil Painters of America. More on Vahe Yeremyan

Vahe Yeremyan, United States

Santa Maria della Salute

Oil on Canvas

16 H x 20 W x 0.7 in

Private Collection

Santa Maria della Salute (English: Saint Mary of Health), commonly known simply as the Salute, is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica located at Punta della Dogana in the Dorsoduro sestiere of the city of Venice, Italy.

It stands on the narrow finger of Punta della Dogana, between the Grand Canal and the Giudecca Canal, at the Bacino di San Marco, making the church visible when entering the Piazza San Marco from the water. The Salute is part of the parish of the Gesuati and is the most recent of the so-called plague churches.

In 1630, Venice experienced an unusually devastating outbreak of the plague. As a votive offering for the city’s deliverance from the pestilence, the Republic of Venice vowed to build and dedicate a church to Our Lady of Health (or of Deliverance, Italian: Salute). The church was designed in the then fashionable baroque style by Baldassare Longhena. Construction began in 1631. Most of the objects of art housed in the church bear references to the Black Death.

The dome of the Salute was an important addition to the Venice skyline and soon became emblematic of the city, inspiring artists like Canaletto, J. M. W. Turner, John Singer Sargent, and the Venetian artist Francesco Guardi. More on Santa Maria della Salute

Vahe Yeremyan, see above

Antoine Bouvard, (French, 1870-1956)

La Riva Degli Schiavoni – Venice

Oil on canvas 

50.2 x 65.4cm (19 3/4 x 25 3/4in).

Private Collection

Much like Canaletto two hundred years prior, Bouvard built his career around the ever-increasing popularity of Venice as a holiday destination and almost exclusively painted scenes of the city. Here he has captured the Riva degli Schiavoni, literally translating to shore of the Slavs, named after the Dalmatian population which settled here. This view is punctuated by the Doge’s Palace, National Library of St Marks and the city gates, marked by the two pillars between the great buildings. These landmarks are symbolic of Venice’s great wealth and power whilst a Republic between 697-1797, the architectural style also highlights the city’s position as a meeting point between the East and the West. More on this painting

Antoine Bouvard, St. Jean-de-Bournay, 1870 – 1956 was a French landscape painter. He studied architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Constant-Dufeus and became director of a. government agency of architecture. In his paintings he specialized in views of Venice. More on Antoine Bouvard,

Antoine Bouvard, (French, 1870-1956)

Shipping activity in front of the Doge’s Palace 

Oil on canvas

 28 x 35.5cm (11 x 14in)

Private Collection

Antoine Bouvard (French, 1870-1956), see above

Antoine Bouvard, (French, 1870-1956)

A gondolier on a Venetian canal 

Oil on canvas

63.5 x 96.5cm (25 x 38in).

Private Collection

Antoine Bouvard (French, 1870-1956), see above

Noel Georges Bouvard, (French, 1912-1975)

A Venetian backwater 

Oil on canvas

50.8 x 64.2cm (20 x 25 1/4in)

Private Collection

Bouvard Noel George, 1912-1972was born on the 25 December, 1912 in Paris, the son of Eloi Noel Beraud, better known as Marc Aldine or Antoine Bouvard. He was a recognised artist of architectural and landscape paintings, however, like his father he became best known for his works of Venetian canals. After studying at Ecole des Beaux Artists he became very influenced by his father and they worked together for many years from 1935 to 1950. Like his father, he often went to Venice to prepare his sketches and drafts from which he was able to create the flowing landscapes and harmonious arrangements, which made his paintings highly sought after in France as well as the UK. Bouvard places the scene carefully on the canvas with surrounding buildings reflecting in the water, and portrays the heat of the sun in its reflection against the stone surfaces. More on Bouvard Noel George

Hermann Dudley Murphy, (1867-1945)

Rio del Paradiso, Venice, Italy, Circa 1908

Oil on canvas 

27 x 20 ¼ inches 

Frame Size: 35 1/2 x 28 1/2 inches 

Private Collection

Murphy first visited Venice while studying abroad in the 1890s and returned again in 1908 on an extended stay with his family, during which Rio del Paradiso was mostly likely painted. 

Rio del Paradiso captures the historic Ponte Borgoloco spanning the canal (also known as the Rio del Pestrin) in the eastern Castello district of Venice. That the view and surrounding palazzos remain much the same today is a testament to the enduring beauty of the Floating City, and supports Murphy’s own assertion that “People go to Paris to study and to Venice to paint.” Boston Herald, November 1908. More on Rio del Paradiso

Hermann Dudley Murphy  (1867   1945) was a major figure in the Boston School style of painting and also as a painter in the Tonalist style emanating from Barbizon, France, Hermann Murphy did a variety of subject matter beginning with portraits and figure studies and later painting still lifes, seascapes and landscapes.  He was especially noted for his floral still lifes.

Murphy was born in Marlboro, Massachusetts and became a student of Edmund Tarbell and Frank Benson at the Boston Museum School.  In 1891, he traveled to Paris and enrolled at the Academy Julian as a student of Jean Paul Laurens.  In painting and also in designing and making of frames, he was the most influenced by James Whistler, whom he met in Europe. More on Hermann Dudley Murphy

William Logsdail, (British, 1859-1944)

Piazza San Marco, Venice 

Oil on canvas

44 x 54.5cm (17 5/16 x 21 7/16in).

Private Collection

Piazza San Marco or St. Mark’s Square is the main public square in Venice.  The Piazza is located in front of the great Byzantine church known as Basilica di San Marco. This Piazza is surrounded by shops, caffè’s and palazzi on three sides. According to local legend Napoleon called the Piazza San Marco “the drawing room of Europe.” More on Piazza San Marco


William Logsdail (25 May 1859 – 3 September 1944) was a prolific English landscape, portrait, and genre painter. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Royal Society of British Artists, the Grosvenor Gallery, the New Gallery (London), and others. He is notable for his realistic London and Venice scenes and his plein air style.

In the autumn of 1880, Logsdail visited Venice where he was to remain, with occasional visits to England, the Balkans, Egypt and the Middle East, until 1900. During this early period in his career, he gravitated towards architectural and subject paintings.

He also painted some sixty-nine small paintings for the Fine Art Society on the subject of the French and Italian Riviera. In 1893, Logsdail was awarded a medal for oil painting at the World’s Columbian Exposition (also known as the Chicago World’s Fair).

After spending two years in Taormina and Sicily, he and his family returned to England, settling in West Kensington, London. This marked the beginning of a period of portrait painting for Logsdail, who was offered so many commissions that he was able to pick and choose his sitter at will.

In 1912, he was elected as a member of the Royal Society of Portrait Painters. As his career progressed, he turned to flower studies. More on William Logsdail


Thomas Bush Hardy

The Grand Canal, Venice


43 x 68.5 cm

Private Collection

The Grand Canal in Venice, Italy forms one of the major water-traffic corridors in the city. Public transport is provided by water buses and private water taxis, and many tourists explore the canal by gondola.

One end of the canal leads into the lagoon near the Santa Lucia railway station and the other end leads into Saint Mark Basin; in between, it makes a large reverse-S shape through the central districts of Venice. More Grand Canal


Thomas Bush Hardy (1842, Sheffield – 1897, Maida Vale, London) was a British marine painter and watercolourist. As a young man he travelled in the Netherlands and Italy. In 1884 Hardy was elected a Member of the Royal Society of British Artists. He exhibited with the Society and also at the Royal Academy.


His paintings feature coastal scenes in England and the Netherlands, the French Channel ports and the Venetian Lagoon.


Hardy had nine children. His son Dudley Hardy was a painter, illustrator and poster designer. His daughter Dorothy received an MBE after working as a nurse in the First World War. He died on 15 December 1897 in Maida Vale, London. More on Thomas Bush Hardy


Clelia Bompiani-Battaglia, (Italian, 1847-1927)

Venetian flower sellers


53 x 35.5cm (20 7/8 x 14in)

Private Collection

Clelia Bompiani-Battaglia (5 August 1848, Rome – 23 February 1927, Rome) was an Italian painter. She was a pupil of her father, Roberto Bompiani, and of the professors in the Accademia di San Luca. The following paintings in watercolor established her reputation as an artist: Confidential Communication ( (1885); the Fortune-Teller (1887); A Public Copyist (1888); and The Wooing (1888). Along with Alceste Campriani, Ada Negri, Juana Romani, and Erminia de Sanctis, Bompiani is named as one of Italy’s best modern painters. More on Clelia Bompiani-Battaglia

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08 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART – Interpretations of the Bible! by The Old Masters, With Footnotes # 58

Domenico Ghirlandaio, (1449–1494)

Visitation, circa 1491

Tempera on wood

Height: 172 cm (67.7 in). Width: 165 cm (65 in).

Louvre Museum

This panel is a fine example of fifteenth-century Florentine painting. Artists of the time followed classical dictates: body proportions were idealised while faces left devoid of expression were expected to convey character. The model has been identified as Giovanna Tornabuoni on the basis of a medallion by Niccolò Fiorentino showing her likeness and her name. More on Florentine painting

This scene portrays the meeting of Mary with the aged Elizabeth. The complex composition includes in the centre the key episode, the relevance of which is strengthened by the converging lines of a wall in perspective and a ravine in the background. Behind Elizabeth are two maidens, while on the two extremities are other groups of women. The group on the right include portraits of contemporaries: the first, in profile, is Giovanna degli Albizzi, who had married Giovanni Tornabuoni’s son. Vasari wrongly identified her as Ginevra de’ Benci. More on this painting

The Visitation. Mary visits her relative Elizabeth; they are both pregnant. Mary is pregnant with Jesus and Elizabeth is pregnant with John the Baptist. Elizabeth was in the sixth month before Mary came. Mary stayed three months, and most scholars hold she stayed for the birth of John. The apparition of the angel, mentioned in Matthew, may have taken place then to end the tormenting doubts of Joseph regarding Mary’s maternity.

In Catholicism, it is held that the purpose of this visit was to bring divine grace to both Elizabeth and her unborn child. Even though he was still in his mother’s womb, John became aware of the presence of Christ, and leapt for joy as he was cleansed from original sin and filled with divine grace. Elizabeth also responded and recognised the presence of Jesus, and thus Mary exercised her function as mediatrix between God and man for the first time. More on The Visitation

Domenico Ghirlandaio (2 June 1448 – 11 January 1494) was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence. Ghirlandaio was part of the so-called “third generation” of the Florentine Renaissance, along with Verrocchio, the Pollaiolo brothers and Sandro Botticelli. Ghirlandaio led a large and efficient workshop that included his brothers Davide Ghirlandaio and Benedetto Ghirlandaio, his brother-in-law Bastiano Mainardi from San Gimignano, and later his son Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Many apprentices passed through Ghirlandaio’s workshop, including the famous Michelangelo. Ghirlandaio’s particular talent lay in his ability to posit depictions of contemporary life and portraits of contemporary people within the context of religious narratives, bringing him great popularity and many large commissions. More on Domenico Ghirlandaio

Jacques Blanchard, PARIS 1600 – 1638


Oil on canvas

82,5 x 69 cm ; 32 1/2  by 27 in

Private collection

The Madonna and Child or The Virgin and Child is often the name of a work of art which shows the Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus. The word Madonna means “My Lady” in Italian. Artworks of the Christ Child and his mother Mary are part of the Roman Catholic tradition in many parts of the world including Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, South America and the Philippines. Paintings known as icons are also an important tradition of the Orthodox Church and often show the Mary and the Christ Child. They are found particularly in Eastern Europe, Russia, Egypt, the Middle East and India. More on The Madonna and Child

Jacques Blanchard (1600–1638), also known as Jacques Blanchart, was a French baroque painter who was born in Paris. He was raised and taught by his uncle, the painter Nicolas Bollery (fr) (ca. 1560–1630). Jacques’s brother and son, Jean-Baptiste Blanchard (painter) (fr) (after 1602–1665) and Gabriel Blanchard (1630–1704), respectively were also painters.

Blanchard moved to Rome in 1624. He also worked in Venice and Turin where he was commissioned to paint by the Duke of Savoy. He returned to Paris in 1628 from which year most of his paintings are dated. He developed a style unique in France at the time and reminiscent of both Titian and Tintoretto. More on Blanchard


Ventura Salimbeni, (Italian, 1568-1613),

“Pitta with Two Angels,” circa 1604

Oil on canvas, canvas

21″h x 17″w

Private collection

The Pietà is a subject in Christian art depicting the dead body of Jesus, most often found in sculpture. As such, it is a particular form of the Lamentation of Christ, a scene from the Passion of Christ found in cycles of the Life of Christ. When Christ and the Virgin are surrounded by other figures from the New Testament, the subject is strictly called a Lamentation in English, although Pietà is often used for this as well, and is the normal term in Italian. More the Pietà

Ventura di Archangelo Salimbeni (later called Bevilacqua); (20 January 1568 – 1613) was an Italian Counter-Maniera painter and printmaker highly influenced by the vaghezza and sensual reform of Federico Barocci.

He possibly spent some time, in Northern Italy and then moved to Rome in 1588 to work, together with others, on the fresco painting of the Vatican Library under pope Sixtus V. During 1590-1591, he received a commission for paintings in the Roman Jesuit Church of the Gesù and the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. Salimbeni returned to Siena in 1595. Here he persisted in a Reformist or Counter-Maniera style. 

He is known for detailed preparatory drawings, most of which are now in the Uffizi. He continued to create paintings for churches throughout Italy, including Florence. At the Basilica della Santissima Annunziata di Firenze, he frescoed lunettes (1605–1608) illustrating events in the history of the Servite Order. In the Duomo di San Salvatore, he executed a magnificent John the Baptist.

Around 1600, he got an assignment in Assisi for a fresco of the “Resurrection of Christ” and the “Dying Saint Clare is visited by the pope” in the vault of chapel of San Massimo in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli.

In 1603, Salimbeni was commissioned to paint frescoes for the church of Ss Quirico e Giulitta, one of the oldest churches in Siena. This period saw a proliferation of new assignments.  The papal legate, cardinal Bonifazio Bevilacqua (1571–1627), who had commissioned Salimbeni’s paintings, was so pleased that he invested Ventura Salimbeni with the Order of the Golden Spur, a very selective papal order. He was even authorized from now on to name himself Cavalieri Bevilacqua. More on Ventura di Archangelo Salimbeni

Harmenszoon van Rijn q:en:Rembrandt, (1606–1669) 

The evangelist Matthew and the angel, c. 1661

Oil on canvas

Height: 96 cm (37.8 in). Width: 81 cm (31.9 in).

Louvre-Lens,  Pas-de-Calais, Northern France

St Matthew is often depicted with an angel-like boy. Contrary to the other evangelists his attribute is not an animal but a human being. That is because his gospel begins with a list of fathers and sons, Jesus’ family tree.

Rembrandt has the boy whisper something in Matthew’s ear. The boy resembles Rembrandt’s son Titus. More on this picture

Matthew the Apostle was, according to the Bible, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to Christian tradition, one of the four Evangelists. Among the early followers and apostles of Jesus, Matthew is mentioned in Matthew 9:9 and Matthew 10:3 as a publican who, while sitting at the “receipt of custom” in Capernaum, was called to follow Jesus. Matthew may have collected taxes from the Hebrew people for Herod Antipas. Matthew is also listed among the twelve, but without identification of his background

Later Church fathers claim that Matthew preached the Gospel to the Jewish community in Judea, before going to other countries. Ancient writers are not agreed as to what these other countries are. The Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church each hold the tradition that Matthew died as a martyr, although this was rejected by the gnostic heretic Heracleon as early as the second century. More on Matthew the Apostle


Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history. His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age when Dutch Golden Age painting dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative, and gave rise to important new genres in painting.

Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt’s later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity.

In his paintings and prints he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience; thus, the depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt’s knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of Amsterdam’s Jewish population. Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called “one of the great prophets of civilization. More on Rembrandt


Circle of Bernhard Strigel, (circa 1460 Memmingen 1528) 

The apostles Matthew, Judas Thaddäus and Philip. 

Tempera on panel. 

36 x 36 cm. 

Private collection

The apostles Matthew, holding his book. Judas Thaddäus’ special attribute is the ax, as a sign of his martyrdom. Philip the Apostle, holding a loaf of bread.

Bernhard Strigel (c. 1461 – May 4, 1528) was a German portrait and historical painter of the Swabian school, the most important of a family of artists established at Memmingen. He was born at Memmingen and was probably a pupil of Zeitblom at Ulm. He stood in high favor with the Emperor Maximilian I, in whose service he repeatedly journeyed to Augsburg, Innsbruck, and Vienna.

His religious paintings, which include four altar wings with scenes from the “Life of the Virgin,” in the Berlin Gallery, and 10 paintings illustrating the “Genealogy of Christ,” in the Germanic Museum, Nuremberg, are historically interesting, but of less artistic value than his portraits, which, though detailed, are ably handled and luminous in color. More on Bernhard Strigel


Lorenzo Sabatini, BOLOGNE VERS 1530-1576 ROME


Oil on panel

107 x 82,5 cm ; 42 1/4  by 32 1/2  in

Private collection


The bride of Christ, being Saint Catherine, was widespread during the 9th century and very common with Lorenzo Sabatini. The patron saint of young ladies unites herself here to Christ the child in His mother’s arms, and wears the crown of martyrdom, a testimony of her decapitation by the Emperor Maxentius. The Virgin Mary’s gentle face is typical of the Bolognese painter who worked for Pope Gregory XIII and alongside Vasari in Rome, and was the master of Denys Calvaert, who before Carracci, was one of the pioneers of the Bolognese school. More on this painting

Saint Catherine of Alexandria is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius. According to her hagiography, she was both a princess and a noted scholar, who became a Christian around the age of fourteen, and converted hundreds of people to Christianity. She was martyred around the age of 18. Over 1,100 years following her martyrdom, St. Joan of Arc identified Catherine as one of the Saints who appeared to her and counselled her.

The Eastern Orthodox Church venerates her as a Great Martyr, and celebrates her feast day on 24 or 25 November (depending on the local tradition). In the Catholic Church she is traditionally revered as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. In 1969 the Catholic Church removed her feast day from the General Roman Calendar;[4] however, she continued to be commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on 25 November. More on Saint Catherine of Alexandria

Lorenzo Sabbatini or Sabatini, Sabattini or Sabadini (c. 1530–1576), sometimes referred to as Lorenzino da Bologna, was an Italian painter of the Mannerist period from Bologna.  His style was also influenced by Giorgio Vasari and the Emilian mannerism of Parmigianino.

By 1565 he was working with the studio of Giorgio Vasari in Florence, where he was elected member of the Academy. Between 1566 and 1573 he was in Bologna, where he decorated the walls of several churches, including Santa Maria delle Grazie, Chiesa della Morte, San Martino Maggiore, and San Giacomo Maggiore.

In 1573 he moved to Rome to work under Vasari in the Cappella Paolina, where he adopted many of the stylistic traits of Raphael’s school and produced perhaps his most famous painting, The Triumph of Faith over Infidelity. After Vasari’s death in 1574, Gregory XIII appointed Sabatini superintendent of works in the Vatican, a post he retained until his own premature death.

Sabbatini died in Rome in 1577. His students included the engraver Giulio di Antonio Bonasone and the painter of Flemish origin, Denis Calvaert. More on Lorenzo Sabbatini 

Pieter Thijs, ANVERS 1624 – 1677


Oil on its original canvas

122 x 113,5 cm ; 48 by 44 3/4  in

Private collection

According to the Bible, God commands Abraham to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice. After Isaac is bound to an altar, the angel of God stops Abraham at the last minute, saying “now I know you fear God.” At this point, Abraham sees a ram caught in some nearby bushes and sacrifices the ram instead of Isaac. More on the sacrifice if Isaac

Pieter Thijs, Peter Thijs or Pieter Thys (Antwerp, 1624 – Antwerp, 1677) was a Flemish painter of portraits as well as religious and history paintings. He was a very successful artist who worked for the courts in Brussels and The Hague as well as for many religious institutions. His work was close to the courtly and elegant style of Anthony van Dyck and his followers. More on Pieter Thijs

François-Joseph Heim, BELFORT 1787 – 1865 PARIS


Oil on canvas

18,5 x 23,7 cm ; 7 1/4 by 9 1/4 in

Private collection

According to the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, the author relates that after the battle of Raphia Ptolemy Philopator visited Jerusalem and declared that he would enter the Temple. By divine interposition, however, he fell to the ground stunned. When he had returned to Alexandria he caused all the Jews of Alexandria and Egypt to be bound and dragged into the arena to be trampled by his elephants; but the beasts threw themselves upon the king’s troops instead. The Jews celebrated their escape by an annual feast-day. More from Jewish Encyclopedia

Ptolemy IV Philopator, (born c. 238 bce—died 205 bce), Macedonian king of Egypt (reigned 221–205 bc), under whose feeble rule, heavily influenced by favourites, much of Ptolemaic Syria was lost and native uprisings began to disturb the internal stability of Egypt.

Ptolemy as a drunken, debauched reveller, completely under the influence of his disreputable associates. At their instigation, Ptolemy arranged the murder of his mother, uncle, and brother.

In 219, Antiochus III, the Syrian Seleucid ruler, captured some of the coastal cities, Sosibius and the Ptolemaic court entered into delaying negotiations with the enemy, while the Ptolemaic army was reorganized and intensively drilled. In 218 Antiochus renewed his advance, overrunning Ptolemy’s forward defenses. In the spring of 217, however, Ptolemy’s army met the Seleucid forces near Raphia in southern Palestine, and was victorious. 

After Raphia, Ptolemy married his sister, Arsinoe, who bore him a successor in 210. The Egyptians, however, sensing their power, rose in a rebellion that Polybius, the Greek historian, describes as guerrilla warfare. By 205 the revolt had spread to Upper Egypt.

Ptolemy refused to become embroiled in the wars of the Greek states. In Syria, also, Ptolemy avoided involvement in local struggles. Ptolemy’s debauched and corrupt character, rather than his diplomatic acumen, kept him clear of foreign involvements. As his reign progressed, he fell increasingly under the influence of his favourites, and around November 205 he died. His clique of favourites kept Ptolemy’s death a secret and about a year later murdered Queen Arsinoe, leaving the young successor at their mercy. More on Ptolemy IV Philopator

François Joseph Heim, Dec 16, 1787 – Sep 29, 1865, was born at Belfort. He early distinguished himself at the École Centrale of Strassburg, and in 1803 entered the studio of Vincent at Paris. He was a fellow student of Horace Vernet. He won the second place in the 1806 Prix de Rome. In 1807 he obtained the first prize, and in 1812 his picture of “The Arrival of Jacob in Mesapotomia” won for him a gold medal of the first class, which he again obtained in 1817.

In 1819 the “Resurrection of Lazarus”, the “Martyrdom of St Cyr”, and two scenes from the life of Vespasian attracted attention. In 1823 the “Re-erection of the Royal Tombs at St Denis,” the “Martyrdom of St Laurence” and several full-length portraits increased the painter’s popularity; and in 1824, when he exhibited his great canvas, the “Massacre of the Jews”, Heim was rewarded with the Legion of Honour. More on François Joseph Heim

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12 Paintings, Streets of Paris, by its Artists , – Part 10 – With Footnotes

Paris, France’s capital, is a major European city and a global center for art, fashion, gastronomy and culture. Its 19th-century cityscape is crisscrossed by wide boulevards and the River Seine. Beyond such landmarks as the Eiffel Tower and the 12th-century, Gothic Notre-Dame cathedral, the city is known for its cafe culture and designer boutiques along the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. More on Paris

Charles-Victor Guilloux,  (1866–1946)

Vue du Pont des Arts, Paris, c. 1905

Oil on canvas pasted on cardboard 

26 x 35 cm

Private Collection

The Pont des Arts or Passerelle des Arts is a pedestrian bridge in Paris which crosses the River Seine. It links the Institut de France and the central square of the Palais du Louvre, (which had been termed the “Palais des Arts” under the First French Empire). More on The Pont des Arts

Charles-Victor Guilloux (1866–1946) was a French symbolist artist, born in Paris in 1866 and died in Lormes, Nièvre, in 1946.

An employee of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, Guilloux was a self-taught artist who critics liken to the time of the Symbolist movement. From 1891, his works were successfully received at the exhibitions of the Société des artistes indépendants, and then at the “Impressionists and Symbolists” exhibitions at the gallery of Le Barc de Boutteville.

This structuring of space and the distribution of forms and colors are found in many works painted by Guilloux: He exhibited at the Salon de la Société nationale des Beaux-Arts in 1905, and at the Salon des Indépendants between 1911 and 1914.[1] In 2007, the Musée d’Orsay bought his painting Crépuscule’ More on Charles-Victor Guilloux



Oil on canvas

65,5 x 73,7 cm ; 25 3/4 by 29 in

Private collection

Frank Myers Boggs (* 6. December 1855 in Springfield , Ohio ; † August 8, 1926 in Meudon , Hauts-de-Seine )  was active, and naturalized in France .  He was a painter of urban landscapes, marine. Watercolorist , engraver , draftsman.

Mixing tonalist and impressionist elements, Frank Myers Boggs forged a novel artistic style at the juncture of fin-de-siècle American and European traditions. Born in Ohio, Boggs trained at the École des Beaux-Arts under Jean Léon Gerôme and spent the majority of his life in Paris. There, he accomplished the rare feat of gaining prominence in both the French and American art worlds. By the end of his life, Boggs had essentially transformed himself into a French impressionist: he became a French citizen in 1923 and earned the French Legion of Honor three years later. 

Boggs won a prize from the American Art Association in 1884 and silver medals from the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889 and the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893. His paintings are now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum of Art, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, as well as the Réunion des Musées Nationaux of Paris, Luxembourg Museum, and Museum of Nantes in France. More on Frank Myers Boggs


Leonardi Manuel, France

Rue de la Roquette

Oil on Canvas

27.6 H x 39.4 W x 1.2 in

Private collection

In the past the La Roquette district, next to the Marais and Place de la Bastille, was known for containing two prisons: the “petite Roquette” for young delinquents and women, and the “Grande Roquette” for major criminals. The guillotine was brought out at night to bring the lives of the imprisoned to a fateful end…

Today, evenings in the Roquette district are significantly happier: trendy art galleries, countless bars and restaurants. More on Rue de la Roquette

Leonardi Manuel, is a self-taught painter working in mainly in Paris. He mainly paints urban landscapes and people. Oil is his prefered medium, but also works with ink. More on Leonardi Manuel

M O, France

Left Bank Rooftops

Acrylic on Canvas

19.7 H x 7.9 W x 1.6 in

Private Collection

La Rive Gauche/ The Left Bank is the southern bank of the river Seine in Paris. Here the river flows roughly westward, cutting the city in two: looking downstream, the southern bank is to the left, and the northern bank (or Rive Droite) is to the right.

“Rive Gauche” or “Left Bank” generally refers to the Paris of an earlier era: the Paris of artists, writers and philosophers, including Colette, Margaret Anderson, Djuna Barnes, Natalie Barney, Sylvia Beach, Erik Satie, Kay Boyle, Bryher, Caresse Crosby, Nancy Cunard, Hilda Doolittle, Janet Flanner, Jane Heap, Maria Jolas, Mina Loy, Henry Miller, Adrienne Monnier, Anaïs Nin, Jean Rhys, Gertrude Stein, Alice B. Toklas, Renee Vivien, Edith Wharton, Pablo Picasso, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Verlaine, Henri Matisse, Jean-Paul Sartre, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, James Baldwin  and dozens of other members of the great artistic community at Montparnasse. The phrase implies a sense of bohemianism, counterculture and creativity. More on La Rive Gauche/ The Left Bank 

Mo is a Singaporean artist based in Paris, but he wanders the world’s cities interpreting modern urban landscapes in his dispassionate, architectural style. His works are based on his impressions of cities ranging from Paris to Hong Kong, Barcelona to Tokyo. After he graduated with a diploma in graphic design, he took a trip to Europe to visit art museums and ended up staying for several years, painting and selling his works on the streets of Paris, Florence and London. More on Mo

Stanislas Lépine, CAEN 1835 – 1892 PARIS


Oil on canvas

26,5 x 36 cm ; 10 1/2 by 14 1/4 in

Private Collection

Stanislas Victor Edouard Lépine (October 3, 1835 – September 28, 1892) was a French painter who specialized in landscapes, especially views of the Seine. Lépine was born in Caen. An important influence in his artistic formation was Corot, whom he met in Normandy in 1859, becoming his student the following year.

Lépine’s favorite subject was the Seine, which he was to paint in all its aspects for the rest of his life. He participated in the first Impressionist exhibition, held at Nadar’s in 1874, although he is generally not considered an Impressionist. His paintings are placid in mood and are usually small in scale. Lépine was awarded the First Prize medal at the Exposition of 1889. He died suddenly in Paris in 1892. More Stanislas Victor Edouard Lépine


Clotilde Nadel, France


Oil on Canvas

31.5 H x 31.5 W x 1.2 in

Private Collection

The Hôtel du Nord was built around 1912, and at that time belonged to a Mr and Mrs Dabit. The building still consists of three floors, with eight windows. Written in blue, tiled mosaics on its front façade are the words “Hôtel du Nord”. In 1938, the humble hotel consisted of 40 clean but modest rooms, and a narrow staircase. It was frequented during the week by workers, unemployed people and sailors. The canal could be seen out the windows, and from the attic, which was typically piled high with bric-a-brac. The panorama of Parisian rooftops seen from this window today has not changed since before the war. The Hôtel du Nord also had a picturesque courtyard with a little stable, chickens and a laundry. These days the restaurant has the same zinc floors, black and white tiles, and cozy tables. More on The Hôtel du Nord

Clotilde Nadel. From the graphic art school of the rue d’Ulm in Paris, she created her illustrating studio in the 1980s. After 25 years as an illustrator for advertising and publishing, she retained a precise and realistic touch. But this concrete aspect, almost photographic, both in the making and framing, is at the service of a sensitive reverie and a real poetry. “My imagination works on the places I cross, the images I meet, such as the manga drawings. From this I recompose my own reality. I like to make situations blending the secular tradition of certain cultures, like Japan, and the reality of the contemporary world. I start with images, memories, photographs or lived feelings. More on Clotilde Nadel

Victor Guerrier,  (French, 1893-1968)

Couple au restaurant 

Oil on canvas

73 x 100cm (28 3/4 x 39 3/8in)

Private Collection

Victor Guerrier, (French, 1893-1968)  was born and trained in Lyon living much of his life at Saint Cyr au Mont d’Or. He began his career as an illustrator but made his name painting Belle Epoque subjects and Parisian life between the wars. 

Clearly inspired by the work of Impressionist masters such Manet and Toulouse-Lautrec his work captures and celebrates the diversity of life in Paris at the turn of the century; from the nightclubs of Montmartre to the cafés of the Champ-Elysses, Guerrier depicts French high society in its pomp. There is often a subtle narrative to the work, where a stolen glance speaks volumes. Further evidence of Manet’s work is evident in his figures, who often stare directly at the viewer, creating images that are, at once, engaging and arresting, while the fashions of the age are beautifully rendered with a vivid palette and deftly applied impasto. 

Guerrier also worked in the Alps and Algeria producing a number of Orientalist subjects along with a series of paintings in St Paul de Vence. He exhibited at the Salon de Printemps. More on Victor Guerrier,

Victor Guerrier, (French, 1893-1968)

Couple marchant devant l’opera/ Couple walking in front of the opera

Oil on canvas

100 x 73cm (39 3/8 x 28 3/4in).

Private Collection

The Place de l’Opéra is a square in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, at the junction of boulevard des Italiens, boulevard des Capucines, avenue de l’Opéra, rue Auber, rue Halévy, rue de la Paix and rue du Quatre-Septembre. It was built at the same time as the Opéra Garnier (designed by Charles Garnier), which is sited on it and after which it is named. Both structures were part of the Haussmannian redesign of Paris under Napoleon III of France. More on The Place de l’Opéra 


Victor Guerrier (French, 1893-1968), see above


Doris Clare Zinkeisen, (British, 1898-1991)

Pavillion Dallphine, Champs Elysee

Oil on canvas 

61 x 50.8cm (24 x 20in).

Private Collection

Pavillon Dauphine Saint Clair offers an exceptional setting, close to the Champs-Elysées. Prestigious and emblematic venue of Paris, the Belle Epoque architecture blends decorative art in classic style.

Doris Clare Zinkeisen (31 July 1898 – 3 January 1991) was a Scottish theatrical stage and costume designer, painter, commercial artist and writer. She was best known for her work in theatrical design.

Zinkeisen attended the Harrow School of Art for four years and won a scholarship to the Royal Academy Schools in 1917 together with her sister Anna. They then shared a studio in London during the 1920s and ’30s from where she embarked on her career.

Zinkeisen’s realist style made her popular as a portraitist and she became a well-known society painter. The subject matter of her paintings, society portraiture, equestrian portraiture and scenes from the parks of London and Paris reflect the lifestyle of the upper class at the time. She also worked widely in other media as an illustrator and commercial artist.

During World War II, Zinkeisen joined the St John Ambulance Brigade. She worked in the casualty department in St Mary’s Hospital, Paddington the mornings and painted in the afternoons, recording the events of the day. Following the liberation of Europe in 1945, Zinkeisen was commissioned by the War Artists’ Advisory Committee as a war artist for the North West Europe. 

Zinkeisen married Edward Grahame Johnstone, a naval officer in 1927. More on Doris Clare Zinkeisen

Arne Reynaert, Belgium

Je m’appelle Jane et je t’emmerde/ My name is Jane and you are buggered by me

Acrylic on Canvas and Wood

Size: 11.8 H x 19.7 W x 2 in

Private Collection

The abstract background is present and plays an important role in the composition. It might, at the same time, stimulate the spectator towards a story, or at least towards questioning why the forms are there. The abstract forms eliminate all reference to the geographical situation of the scene. It might be at the Djemaa el Fna square, in a Brussels suburb or downtown Paris. And maybe in a few hundred years, there won’t be much difference anymore (between these places). More on this painting

Arne Reynaert examines personal and sensitive positions people adopt naturally towards each other, in relation to their environment and themselves. The figures seem somehow or other to be lost in the present, in the indefinable moment between a (the) past and a (the) future. His work represents captivity in the present which, scientifically, does not even exist. Because the artist detests gimmicks, none of the above is a rule: in some of the recent works, the depicted people as a landscape, or the manipulated canvas becomes the landscape, or the people are simply missing (or missed by the spectator). On top, or underneath, the artist questions, philosophically, seemingly ordinary concepts which are part of our daily consciousness, a consciousness that is limited by the resolution of our senses, the capacity of our brain, the limited understanding of our environment and our instinct driven behaviour. 

One often finds Reynaert reflections in scribblings directly in the painting, in writings hitched on or near by the paintings, and in titles. In his questions, thoughts and ideas he takes a distance that is so immense they become universal and often affect deeply. Besides his philosophical approach, Arne Reynaert longs for a purge in his painting(s). He is obsessed by the poetical essence of the image. More on Arne Reynaert

Eugene Galien-Laloue, (French, 1854-1941)

Street Scene with Figures by the Park

Oil on canvas

18″h x 24″w

Eugène Galien-Laloue (1854–1941) was a French artist of French-Italian parents and was born in Paris on December 11, 1854. He was a populariser of street scenes, usually painted in autumn or winter. His paintings of the early 1900s accurately represent the era in which he lived: a happy, bustling Paris, la Belle Époque, with horse-drawn carriages, trolley cars and its first omnibuses. Galien-Laloue’s works are valued not only for their contribution to 20th-century art, but for the actual history, which they document. His work can be seen at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Louvier; Musée des Beaux-Arts, La Rochelle; Mulhouse, France.

A typical Galien-Laloue painting depicts sidewalks and avenues crowded with people or tourists mingling before the capital’s monuments. He also painted the landscapes of Normandy and Seine-et-Marne, as well as military scenes he was commissioned to produce in 1914. The Republic of France selected Galien-Laloue to work as a ‘war artist,’ both during the Franco-Prussian War and World War I, chiefly in watercolor. More on Eugène Galien-Laloue

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08 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings – With Footnotes, #37

Thomas Somerscales, 1842-1927


Oil on canvas

70 by 106cm., 27½ by 42in.

Private collection

The author Alex Hurst commented, the ship’s hull paint suggests she is a little earlier than 1800, however she has double dolphin strikers which were not introduced into the British Navy until around 1900. Somerscales depicts the ship hove to with her main yards backed as whalers approach. In the distance, another ship can be seen with her ‘stun’-sails’ – the additional sails seen extended outside the normal sail plan – set. These were almost obsolete by the twentieth century. More on this painting

Thomas Jacques Somerscales (born in Kingston upon Hull on 29 October 1842; died 27 June 1927) was an English marine painter. He is also considered a Chilean painter as he began his career there and many of his landscapes evoke the region.

His father was a shipmaster, who sketched, and his uncle was an amateur painter. However he had no formal training as an artist and originally became a teacher in the Royal Navy. He also traveled around the Pacific and while teaching in Valparaíso he started working as a professional painter. By 1893 he was still referred to as a “little known artist” but had gained some praise. More on Thomas Jacques Somerscales


Thomas Bush Hardy

Blake and Von Tromp in the Straits of Dover, May 1652 , 1873


72 x 125cm; 28¼ x 49in

Private collection

Relations with England became increasingly strained after the Navigation Act (1651), which was passed to restrict Dutch trade with British possessions, while much resentment was also caused by the English claim to sovereignty over the seas.

A skirmish with Adm. Robert Blake off Dover in May 1652 resulted in the First Anglo-Dutch War, which marked a crisis in the rivalry between England and the Netherlands as carriers of world trade. Although Von Tromp was unable to stir the English admirals to action later in the year—for which he was censured by the Dutch authorities, who even kept him from his command for some months—he defeated Blake off Dungeness in December. But the English fleet was superior to the Dutch; Tromp was unable to continue his successes and lost the three-day battle between Portland and Calais (March 1653), as well as the Battle of Gabbard in June. Tromp was killed in the battle off Terheijde near Scheveningen. More on this battle


Thomas Bush Hardy (1842, Sheffield – 1897, Maida Vale, London) was a British marine painter and watercolourist. As a young man he travelled in the Netherlands and Italy. In 1884 Hardy was elected a Member of the Royal Society of British Artists. He exhibited with the Society and also at the Royal Academy.

His paintings feature coastal scenes in England and the Netherlands, the French Channel ports and the Venetian Lagoon.

Hardy had nine children. His son Dudley Hardy was a painter, illustrator and poster designer. His daughter Dorothy received an MBE after working as a nurse in the First World War. He died on 15 December 1897 in Maida Vale, London. More on Thomas Bush Hardy


Albert Goodwin, RWS (British, 1845-1932)

‘We were the first that ever did burst into that silent sea’, c. 1917/18′

Watercolour with scratching out 

36.5 x 53.3cm (14 3/8 x 21in).

Private collection

The title and subject of this work seem to have been inspired by an excerpt from The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. More on this painting

Albert Goodwin RWS (1845–1932) was a notable English landscape painter specialising in watercolours. His work shows the influences of Turner and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.

Goodwin was born in Maidstone in Kent. After leaving school he became an apprentice draper. His exceptional artistic ability was recognised at an early age and he went on to study with the Pre-Raphaelite artists Arthur Hughes and Ford Madox Brown.

At the age of 15 his first painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy. He became an associate member of the Royal Watercolour Society (RWS) in 1876. He was championed by famed art critic John Ruskin who took him on a tour of Europe, where he made many sketches from nature which were later turned into watercolours. 

Goodwin was a prolific artist, producing over 800 works and continuing to paint well into his eighties. His wide variety of landscape subjects reflected his love of travel and show the influence of Turner. In later works he developed experimental techniques such as using ink over water color to achieve atmospheric lighting effects. His works are also an important record of social history. More on Albert Goodwin 

A. Felgate, (British 19th Century) 

The U.S. Frigate Sabine 

Watercolor on paper

10-1/4 x 14 in (26 x 35.5 cm)

Private collection


The first USS Sabine was a sailing frigate built by the United States Navy in 1855. The ship was among the first ships to see action in the American Civil War. In 1862, a large portion of the USS Monitor crew were volunteers from the Sabine.

She was built at the New York Navy Yard. Her keel was laid in 1822, but she was not launched until 3 February 1855. During this period, she underwent various alterations, the most extensive being a lengthening of her hull by twenty feet. Built essentially from Brandywine plans, she was commissioned on 23 August 1858, Capt. Henry A. Adams in command. More on the USS Sabine

Terrick Williams, 1860-1936


Oil on canvas

35.5 by 61cm., 14 by 24in.

Private collection

Concarneau (meaning Bay of Cornwall) is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France.

The town has two distinct areas: the modern town on the mainland and the medieval Ville Close, a walled town on a long island in the centre of the harbour. Historically, the old town was a centre of shipbuilding. The Ville Close is connected to the town by a bridge and at the other end a ferry to the village of Lanriec on the other side of the harbour. More on Concarneau

John Terrick Williams RA (20 July 1860 – 20 July 1936). Williams was born in Liverpool, England, the son of a businessman. He was educated at Kings College School, London. Determination to become an artist he move to Europe and studied under Charles Verlat in Antwerp and later at the Académie Julian and Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant, William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Tony Robert-Fleury in Paris.

Williams focussed on landscape and marine subjects and painted in oil, pastel and watercolour. He travelled extensively and his impressionistic, luminous paintings sought the transient effects of light and reflections in Venice, St. Tropez, Paris, Brittany and St. Ives.

He was elected a member of the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours in 1904. His work was regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1891. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy (A.R.A.) on 18 November 1924, a Royal Academician (R.A.) on 14 February 1933, and a Senior R.A. on 1 January 1936. In 1933 he was also elected President of the RI. He died on his birthday in 1936 aged 76. After his death a memorial exhibition was held at the Fine Art Society in 1937. More on John Terrick Williams

Edward Seago, R.W.S., 1910-1974


Oil on board

36 by 51cm., 14 by 20in.

Private collection

The River Orwell flows through the county of Suffolk in England. Its source river, above the tidal limit at Stoke Bridge, is known as the River Gipping. It broadens into an estuary at Ipswich where the Ipswich dock has operated since the 7th century and then flows into the North Sea at Felixstowe after joining with the River Stour at Shotley. The large Orwell Bridge carries the A14 trunk road over the estuary to the south of Ipswich. More on The River Orwell

Edward Brian Seago, 1910–1974; was a British painter, writer, and illustrator, born in Norwich. He was confined to bed for much of his childhood, had little formal education, and was mainly self-taught as an artist. From 1928 to 1933 he travelled with circuses in Britain and abroad, and he wrote three illustrated books on the circus in the 1930s. However, he became best known for landscapes and portraits.

During the Second World War he served as a camouflage officer and after being invalided from the army in 1944 he was invited by Field Marshal Alexander to paint scenes of the Italian campaign in 1945. In 1953 he was appointed an official Coronation artist and in 1956–7 he accompanied the Duke of Edinburgh on a world tour.  More Seago

Frank Duveneck, 1848 – 1919

The Wharf at Gloucester Harbor , 1917

oil on canvas

 28″ x 36″

Private collection

Some of the first settlers in Gloucester used the Seven Seas Wharf for the processing of fish to be shipped to England, and South America in exchange for salt, clothing and other essentials of daily life. Gloucester men had exchanged salt fish for molasses in the West Indies. They then made rum on this wharf from the molasses. Much of the rum was then shipped to England for finished manufactured goods that the early colonists needed. Some of the supporting beams of this wharf were once main masts of old fishing schooners and clipper ships joined together by treenails (oaken pegs) ten inches long. More on The Wharf at Gloucester Harbor


Frank Duveneck, (born October 9, 1848, Covington, Kentucky, U.S.—died January 3, 1919, Cincinnati, Ohio), American painter, sculptor, and art teacher who helped awaken American interest in European naturalism. At age 21 Duveneck studied in Germany with Wilhelm Dietz at the Munich Academy and was greatly influenced by the works of Frans Hals, Rembrandt, and Peter Paul Rubens. His success was immediate, and in 1871 he won a medal from the Bavarian Royal Academy. Fellow artists and critics responded to his bold, vital brushstrokes and strong contrasts of light and dark. Two years later, he arranged his first solo exhibition in Munich, further establishing his international reputation.

After returning to the United States in 1873 and settling in Cincinnati, Ohio, Duveneck burst upon the American scene with an exhibition in Boston in 1875. His work was characterized by dark, earthy colours and broad, painterly brushwork clearly reminiscent of the European masters Duveneck admired. Both the writer Henry James and the artist William Morris Hunt championed Duveneck’s art. Although emboldened by this response, Duveneck returned to Munich and sent works to exhibitions in the United States. More Frank Duveneck


GEZA/GORDON MARICH ( Canadian 1913 – 1982 )

 Fishing Hut on Rocky Coast

Oil on canvas

16″ x 20″ (40.64 x 50.8 cm.)

Private collection

Gordon Geza Marich was born in Hungary in 1913. He studied art in Budapest and emigrated to Canada in 1957. It is generally accepted that his death occurred in 1975, although some conflicting reports indicate that he died in 1985.  Widely collected, Marich painted many different subjects, including the city center of Montreal, Quebec. Its tables are displayed in the National Museum of Art in Budapest galleries in Ottawa and Toronto, and in private collections around the world. His work evolved towards abstraction, including the extensive use of a palette knife. More on Gordon Geza Marich

Bernardus Johannes Blommers, (Dutch, 1845-1914)

Bringing in the catch 

Watercolour and bodycolour

35.3 x 53.0cm (13 7/8 x 20 7/8in)

Private collection

Bernardus Johannes (Bernard) Blommers (30 January 1845 in The Hague – 12 December 1914 in The Hague) was a Dutch etcher and painter of the Hague School.

He learned lithography early in his career, and then studied at the Hague Akademie under Johan Philip Koelman until 1868. His early paintings were mostly genre works depicting fishermen and their wives, heavily influenced by Jozef Israëls. The later works (from about 1890) are more loosely painted, although maritime and genre scenes remained the primary subject matter. His work was critically successful during his lifetime, being sought after by English, Scottish and American collectors. Blommers was also active as a teacher; among his pupils was the American painter Caroline van Hook Bean, who became his daughter-in-law in 1913. More on Bernardus Johannes


Henri Matisse, 1869 – 1954

The Bay of Nice, c.  1918

Oil on canvas

71 x 90 cm

Private Collection

The Promenade des Anglais is a promenade along the Mediterranean at Nice, France. It extends from the airport on the west to the Quai des États-Unis on the east, a distance of approximately 7 km. 

Starting in the second half of the 18th century, the English aristocracy took to spending the winter in Nice, enjoying the panorama along the coast. In 1820, when a particularly harsh winter up north brought an influx of beggars to Nice, some of the English proposed a useful project for them: the construction of a walkway along the sea.

The city of Nice, intrigued by the prospect of a pleasant promenade, greatly increased the scope of the work. The Promenade was first called the Camin deis Anglés. After the annexation of Nice by France in 1860 it was rechristened La Promenade des Anglais. More on Nice

Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter.

Matisse is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso, as one of the artists who best helped to define the revolutionary developments in the visual arts throughout the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture. Along with Picasso, Matisse helped to define and influence radical contemporary art in the 20th century. Although he was initially labelled a Fauve, by the 1920s he was increasingly hailed as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting. His mastery of the expressive language of colour and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century, won him recognition as a leading figure in modern art. More on Henri Matisse

Sara Roberts, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Into The Void, c. 2017

Oil on Canvas.

33.9 H x 25.2 W x 1 in

Private Collection

Sara Roberts graduated with a Bachelor of Visual Arts  in Printmedia in 2011 and recently finished her Masters of Fine Arts in Painting at Sydney College of the Arts. She is an Australian visual artist who works primarily in oil paint. Often meditating on specific locations, her work reflects memories of places that she has been, interwoven with more idyllic and imagined elements of the environment. Born in Sydney and having grown up in Mexico, France, Sweden and Poland, the feeling of being foreign in an unfamiliar land was an influential one. Her oil paintings come to life through a constant process of accumulation and reduction: thoughtful yet fluid in her approach, she may patiently revisit the same painting again and again, adding and removing layers over time. More on Sara Roberts

Acknowledgement: Sotheby’sSaatchi Art, and others

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12 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, including Madame Mottewith Footnotes. # 12



Oil on canvas

126.9 x 103 cm.; 50 x 40 1/2  in.

Private Collection

Mary “Moll” Davis (1648 – 1708) was a seventeenth-century entertainer and courtesan, singer, and actress who became one of the many mistresses of King Charles II of England.

Davis was born around 1648 in Westminster and was said to be “a bastard of Collonell Howard, my Lord Barkeshire” – probably meaning Thomas Howard, third Earl of Berkshire, although her parentage has also been attributed to Robert’s older brother Charles, the second Earl.

During the early 1660s she was an actress in the ‘Duke’s Theatre Company’ and boarded with the company’s manager, Sir William Davenant. She became a popular singer, dancer and comedian. She flaunted the wealth she acquired from her association with Charles, and gained a reputation for vulgarity and greed. 

Davis gave up the stage in 1668 and in 1669 had a daughter by Charles, Lady Mary Tudor, who became famous in her own right. Later, Charles dismissed Davis. Charles awarded her an annual pension for life of £1,000, and furnished a house fon Suffolke Street. At the time this street belonged to James Howard, Moll’s natural father. 

In October 1673, Davis bought a new house in St James’s Square, paying £1800. In December 1686, Davis married the French musician and composer James Paisible (c. 1656-1721). The Paisibles joined James’s court in exile at St Germain-en-Laye, but in 1693 returned to England, where Paisible became composer to Prince George of Denmark, the husband of Princess Anne, heir to the throne. More on Mary “Moll” Davis

Henri Gascars, (1634–1701)

Louise de Querouaille (1649–1734), Duchess of Portsmouth, c. 1673

Oil on canvas

96 x 81 cm

Madingley Hall, University of Cambridge

Louise de Querouaille (Kérouaille),Duchess of Portsmouth, (September 1649 – 14 November 1734), an ancestress of Princess Diana, was born into a noble but relatively poor Breton family. The name Kérouaille derived from an heiress whom Louise’s ancestor François de Penhoët had married in 1330.

Louise was placed in the household of Henrietta Anne Stuart, Duchess of Orléans, the favourite youngest sister of Charles II. In 1670 Louise accompanied Henrietta on a visit to Dover to negotiate a treaty with her brother Charles II, by the terms of the treaty, Charles was to convert to Catholicism when the time was ripe in return for a lucrative French pension.

The Duchess of Orleans died suddenly soon after this meeting. Louise was left unprovided for, but Charles II wrote to the French king requesting that Louise should come to England to serve as a maid of honour to his wife Catherine of Braganza.

It was claimed that she had been planted by the French court to lure the king of England. The support she received from France was certainly provided on the understanding that she should serve the interests of her native country. This deal was confirmed by gifts and honours from Louis XIV. However, she became highly unpopular with the English people. Louise yielded to Charles’ advances only after she had established a strong hold in his affections. 

Henri Gascars, (1634–1701)

Louise de Querouaille (1649–1734), Duchess of Portsmouth, c. 1670

Oil on canvas

42 x 32 inches 106.7 x 81.3 cm

Private Collection

Her only child, a son Charles, was born in 1672 and was created Duke of Richmond, Earl of Darnley and Lord of Torbolton, by his father the king in 1675. He was given the surname Lennox, after Charles’ Stuart ancestors, the Dukes of Lennox.

Louise herself was granted the titles of Baroness Petersfield, Countess of Fareham and Duchess of Portsmouth in 19 August 1673. In December 1673 she was appointed Duchess of Aubigny in the Peerage of France at the request of Charles II. Nell Gwynne, Charles’ Cockney mistress, and Louise would prove rivals for many years.

Louise was strong enough to maintain her position during a long illness in 1677 retained her hold on Charles right to the end. In February 1685 she assisted in ensuring the king did not die without a Catholic confession and absolution. Soon after the king’s death, Louise returned to France with her son the Duke of Richmond

During her last years Louise became more religious and resided at Aubigny, deeply in debt. The French king, Louis XIV, and after his death the regent Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, provided a pension, Louise died in Paris on 14 November 1734, at the age of 85. More Louise de Querouaille

Henri Gascars, (1634–1701)

Louise de Querouaille (1649–1734), Duchess of Portsmouth, c. 1675

Oil on canvas

Henri Gascar (1635 – 1 Jan 1701) was a French-born portrait painter who achieved artistic success in England during the reign of Charles II. He painted many leading ladies at court, including several of the King’s mistresses, before returning to Paris. He subsequently relocated to Rome, where he died in 1701.

Gascar was born in Paris, the son a minor painter and sculptor. Gascar came to England about 1674, probably at the behest of Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth, Charles II’s favourite mistress. Gascar was already known as a skillful portrait-painter.

The patronage of the Duchess of Portsmouth ensured Gascar a rapid success in England. His flamboyant style, contrasting with the stolid English approach, seemed to suit the frivolity of the time and he painted many of the ladies of Charles II’s court. His lack of attention to detail in the likeness he made up for by the sumptuous draperies and tawdry adornments around the subject. 

Some time before 1680 he was shrewd enough to see that his success was merely due to a fashionable craze, and he retired to Paris before this had entirely ceased. On his return to Paris, Gascar was elected a member of the Académie Royale. He subsequently went to Rome, where he enjoyed a high reputation, and died there on 1 January 1701, aged 66. More on Henri Gascar

Elisabeth-Louise Vigée Le Brun, PARIS 1755 – 1842


Oil on canvas

74,5 x 60 cm ; 29 1/4  by 29 1/4  in

Private Collection

Jeanne de Valois-Saint-Rémy, “Comtesse de la Motte” (22 July 1756[1] – 23 August 1791) was a highly placed confidence woman whose greatest scam, the “Affair of the Diamond Necklace,” sped the fall of the French monarchy.

Jeanne de Valois was born to a very poor family. Her father, Jacques de Valois de Saint-Rémy (1717–1762), was a direct male-line descendant of Henry de Saint-Rémy (1557–1621), an illegitimate son of King Henry II; despite having royal Valois blood, Jacques was known as a drunkard. Jeanne’s mother was a debauched servant girl.

Jeanne was the third of six children. According to Count Beugnot they were rescued by his father and the abbot of Langres. According to another source, the family moved to Boulogne near Paris where a priest and one of his rich parishioners, Madame de Boulainvilliers, took care of them.

Their Valois ancestry was ascertained by a genealogist at Versailles, and as a result of legal dispositions set up to help children from poor nobility.  On 6 June 1780,[3] Jeanne married Marc-Antoine-Nicolas de la Motte, Mr Surmont’s nephew and an officer of the gendarmes. At the time of her wedding, Jeanne was heavily pregnant at the time

While the de la Motte family’s claim to nobility was dubious, both husband and wife assumed the title comte and comtesse de La Motte Valois.


The French jewelry firm Boehmer and Bassenge had invested a great deal of money into the stones needed to make a great necklace of diamonds, which they attempted unsuccessfully to sell, first to Madame du Barry, the mistress of Louis XV, and then to Louis XVI’s wife, Marie Antoinette.   This necklace became an incredibly expensive prop in a convoluted intrigue:  Louis René Édouard, Cardinal de Rohan, was out of favor with the queen, and wished to regain her good graces.  The Comtesse de la Motte claimed to him that she was a favorite of the queen and could effect reconciliation.  She then encouraged the cardinal to correspond with the queen, but she herself provided the answers, which were inscribed by a confederate and signed with the queen’s name.  She even arranged a meeting with a Marie Antoinette impersonator, and after a while the cardinal became persuaded that not only was the queen no longer angry with him, she was in love with him. The comtesse then convinced him that the queen wanted to buy the great diamond necklace – and that he should negotiate the purchase for 1,600,000 louis d’or, which he did, apparently in good faith.  He then handed the necklace over to the comtesse for delivery. The deception came to light when the jewelers asked to be paid.

This was the beginning of the most incredible swindle in the history of France. In 1784. Jeanne de la Motte was found guilty and sentenced to be whipped, branded and imprisoned. The public sympathized with her. She was condemned to prison for life in the Salpêtrière, but soon escaped disguised as a boy and made her way to London where, in 1789, she published her memoirs, which attempted to justify her actions while casting blame upon her chief victim, Marie Antoinette. More at Bryn Mawr College

Engraved by Meyer-Heine after De La Charlerie’ From “Histoire de la Revolution Francaise” by Louis Blanc

The Torture of Madame de la Motte. Jeanne de Saint-Remy de Valois, Comtesse de la Motte. 

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (Marie Élisabeth Louise; 16 April 1755 – 30 March 1842), also known as Madame Lebrun, was a prominent French painter.

Her artistic style is generally considered part of the aftermath of Rococo, while she often adopts a neoclassical style. Vigée Le Brun cannot be considered a pure Neoclassicist, however, in that she creates mostly portraits in Neoclassical dress rather than the History painting. While serving as the portrait painter to Marie Antoinette, Vigée Le Brun works purely in Rococo in both her color and style choices.

Vigée Le Brun left a legacy of 660 portraits and 200 landscapes. In addition to private collections, her works may be found at major museums, such as the Hermitage Museum, London’s National Gallery, and museums in continental Europe and the United States. More on Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun


Gustav Gaul, (German, 1836-1888)

A woman in folk dress, 1886

Oil on canvas laid down on masonite

50 x 34-1/4 inches (127 x 87.0 cm)

Private Collection

Gustav Gaul (born 6 February 1836 in Vienna , 7 September 1888 in Vorderbrühl, Stadt Mödling ) was an Austrian portraiteur and historian. Gustav was the older son of the painter Franz Gaul ; His younger brother was the later painter Franz Xaver Gaul . Gaul received his first lessons from his father; Sponsored by this, Gaul became a pupil at the art academy of his hometown. 

After five years, Gaul left the academy nd undertook a study trip to Upper Italy, and later spent several weeks in Dresden studying the Venetians. In 1855, Gaul was invited to present some of his paintings at the world exhibition in Paris. There followed a few study journeys through France and the Netherlands, from which he brought with him many landscaped sketches, which now and then reappeared in his histories.

One of his major commissioned works was the decoration of a hall at the Palais Todesco in Vienna. On behalf of the banker Edward von Todesco, Gaul designed a ceiling painting in Tempera with the train of Bacchus and scenes from the myth of Amor , Psyche and Venus .

At the age of 52, Gustav Gaul died on 7 September 1888 in Vorderbrühl, Stadt Mödling. More on Gustav Gaul

Alexandre-Jean Dubois-Drahonet, PARIS 1791 – 1834 VERSAILLES


Oil on canvas

69 x 54,5 cm ; 27 1/4 by 21 1/2 in.

Private Collection

Maria Malibran (24 March 1808 – 23 September 1836) entered the world in 1808 with an uncommonly interesting backstory and set of genes. Her father, the famous tenor Manuel Garcia; her Spanish mother was a more minor opera singer. Garcia was a spectacular singer, a brilliant teacher, and a manic brute. Determined to make his daughter into one of the planet’s most brilliant vocalists, he battered and terrorized her regularly in service to this aim. She had a miraculous voice by the time she made her debut at a London concert at 16. 

Having made a strong start on fame, Maria began working her way toward notoriety. Her first taste of fame and her experiences with Garcia combined to make the attentions of a mild, middle-aged French businessman, Eugène Malibran, seem very acceptable. In 1826 she married him. Dissatisfaction followed soon enough.

She resumed her career in Paris in 1828, which brought her the frantic adulation that would follow her for the rest of her flamelike life, and the sobriquet La Malibran. When not performing or rehearsing, she was partying or thrilling onlookers with her skills as a dashing equestrienne. She created many of her iconic Rossini, Bellini, and Donizetti roles during this period. 

La Malibran’s conduct would not qualify her as a Shady Lady but for one event: In 1829, scandalously separated from her husband, she fell in love with Charles de Bériot, a violinist. Love led to pregnancy and a son, born well before she managed to obtain an annulment and marry de Bériot in 1836. Despite the abundant publicity around these events, she did not lose her public’s love and was widely mourned when her premature death came that same year, the result of a riding accident and probable head injury. More on Maria Malibran

DUBOIS-DRAHONET, Alexandre-Jean, (b. 1791, Paris, d. 1829, Versailles) was a French painter. Born and raised in Paris, Alexandre Dubois-Drahonet was a student and disciple of Neo-classical French master, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and first exhibited at the Salon in 1822. The young artist painted the future Queen of England (Queen Victoria) when a girl, commissioned by William IV in 1832 as part of a much larger commission of some ninety portraits of officers and soldiers in uniform (now in the Royal Collection, Windsor). It was part of the commission to paint a series of pictures illustrating recent changes in the uniforms and weapons of the British Army.

The artist also worked for Charles X, painting a portrait of his grandson, Henri, duke of Bordeaux (now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux) and also worked for Louis-Philippe when duke of Orléans and after his accession. More on DUBOIS-DRAHONET

François Bouchot, (1800–1842)

Title Portrait de la Malibran en Desdémone, c. 1831

Oil on canvas

Musée de la vie romantique

Portrait by François Bouchot (1800-1842) of the famous singer Maria Malibran, known as “La Malibran” (1808-1836) that sang Alfred de Musset in famous Stanzas. It is represented in the role of Desdemona in 1834 she sang in Rossini’s Othello.

François Bouchot (1800–1842), a painter and engraver, was born in Paris in 1800. He studied engraving under Richomme, and then became a pupil of Regnault, and subsequently of Lethière, and obtained the ‘grand prix de Rome’ in 1823. He exhibited at the Salon from 1824 till his death, which occurred in Paris in 1842. A ‘Drunken Silenus’ by him is in the Lille Gallery, and the ‘Burial of General Marceau ‘ in the Mairie at Chartres. He was also celebrated for his portraits. More on François Bouchot

Édouard Vuillard, 1868 – 1940


Pastel on paper

19 3/4 by 25 1/2 in., 50.1 by 64.7 cm

Executed in 1927.

Private Collection

The sitter is Gabrielle Jonas, wife of Édouard Jonas, an antique dealer. She is seated in the living room of Jos and Lucy Hessel at 33 rue de Naples, a location partially identifiable by the paintings behind her, most of them presumably obtained by Jos Hessel through his business as director of the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery owned by his cousins Gaston and Josse Bernheim.

 Vuillard portrayed Jonas in a series of works in both pastel and, oil—eleven works center on her, and she appears with other figures in at least two additional images. More on Gabrielle Jonas

Jean-Édouard Vuillard (11 November 1868 – 21 June 1940) was a French painter and printmaker associated with the Nabis. The son of a retired captain, he spent his youth at Cuiseaux (Saône-et-Loire); in 1878 his family moved to Paris in modest circumstances. After his father’s death in 1884, Vuillard received a scholarship to continue his education. In the Lycée Condorcet Vuillard met Ker Xavier Roussel (also a future painter and Vuillard’s future brother in law), Maurice Denis, musician Pierre Hermant, writer Pierre Véber, and Lugné-Poe.

Vuillard was a member of the Symbolist group known as Les Nabis (from the Hebrew and Arabic term for “prophets” and, by extension, the artist as the “seer” who reveals the invisible). However, he was less drawn to the mystical aspects of the group and more drawn to fashionable private venues where philosophical discussions about poetry, music, theatre, and the occult occurred. Because of his preference for the painting of interior and domestic scenes, he is often referred to as an “intimist,” along with his friend Pierre Bonnard. He executed some of these “intimist” works in small scale, while others were conceived on a much larger scale made for the interiors of the people who commissioned the work. More Jean-Édouard Vuillard


Lilla Cabot Perry, (1848–1933)

The Green Hat, c. 1913

Oil on canvas

Terra Foundation for American Art, Daniel J. Terra Collection, 1987.25

Lilla Cabot Perry (January 13, 1848 – February 28, 1933) was an American artist who worked in the American Impressionist style, rendering portraits and landscapes in the free form manner of her mentor, Claude Monet. Perry was an early advocate of the French Impressionist style and contributed to its reception in the United States. Perry’s early work was shaped by her exposure to the Boston School of artists and her travels in Europe and Japan. She was also greatly influenced by Ralph Waldo Emerson’s philosophies and her friendship with Camille Pissarro. Although it was not until the age of thirty-six that Perry received formal training, her work with artists of the Impressionist, Realist, Symbolist, and German Social Realist movements greatly affected the style of her oeuvre. More Lilla Cabot Perry

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10 Carvings & Sculpture from the Bible! 15 – 19th Century. With Footnote, # 14

Netherlandish, Malines, circa 1600


Partially gilt alabaster relief

20 x 15 cm, 7 3/4  by 6 in

Private collection

Mechelen (French: Malines) is one of Flanders’ prominent cities of historical art, with Antwerp, Bruges, Brussels, Ghent, and Leuven. It was notably a centre for artistic production during the Northern Renaissance, when painters, printmakers, illuminators and composers of polyphony were attracted by patrons such as Margaret of York, Margaret of Austria and Hieronymus van Busleyden. More on Mechelen

Descent into Hell (Hades). Between his crucifixion and resurrection Christ descended into the abode of the dead, as confessed in the Apostles’ Creed. Since the New Testament declares that Christ really died, it is to be assumed that he went to hell, the abode of the dead. This is affirmed by the many declarations in the New Testament that Christ was raised from the dead. 

The descent into Hades is a common motif in ancient religions. The heroes or the gods descend into Hades to perform a rescue, to triumph over death, or as part of the recurring seasons of the agricultural year. More on Descent into Hell 

Netherlandish, Malines, circa 1600


Alabaster relief

12 x 9,5 cm, 4 3/4  by 3 3/4  in.

Private collection

Saint Anthony or Antony (c. 251–356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is known as the Father of All Monks. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church.

The biography of Anthony’s life helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness (about ad 270), a geographical move that seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature.

Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many such afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas, and shingles, were historically referred to as St. Anthony’s fire. More on Saint Anthony


SAINT ROCH France, seventeenth century

Polychrome wood 

H. 120 cm, L. 40 cm, P. 36 cm

Private collection

Saint Roch or Rocco (lived c. 1348 – 15/16 August 1376/79 (traditionally c. 1295 – 16 August 1327)) was a Catholic saint, a confessor whose death is commemorated on 16 August; he is specially invoked against the plague. He may also be called Rock in English, and has the designation of St Rollox in Glasgow, Scotland. He is a patron saint of dogs, falsely accused people, bachelors, and several other things.

Sources say he was born at Montpellier, France, son of the governor. He went on pilgrimage to Rome and devoted himself to caring for the victims of a plague that was ravaging Italy. He became a victim himself at Piacenza but recovered and was reputed to have performed many miracles of healing.

On his return to Montpellier, he was imprisoned for five years as a spy in pilgrim’s disguise when his uncle, who was governor, ordered him imprisoned (His uncle failed to recognize him, and Roch failed to identify himself.) Roch died in prison and was only then identified as the former governor’s son by a birthmark in the form of a cross on his chest. Another biographer says that he was arrested as a spy at Angers, Lombardi, and died in prison there.

When miracles were reported at his intercession after his death, a popular cult developed and he is invoked against pestilence and plague. He is also the patron of invalids. More on Saint Roch

Mary Immaculate

Polychromed, gilded and stewed terracotta sculpture.  Portugal.  17th century. 

Height: 42,5 cm

Private collection

Delicate terracotta work, in which the mastery of the sculptor is outstanding, as the group has been given great movement.  The virgin gathers up the edge of her cloak to her chest. Her clothing is decorated meticulously with bunches of polychromed flowers on a gilded and starry base.  At her feet are five cherubs with incredibly delicate features, as well as the snake and the apple. More on this work

Mary Immaculate commonly refers to the Virgin Mary and her Immaculate Conception in the teachings of the Catholic Church.

Mary Immaculate

Polychromed, gilded and stewed terracotta sculpture.  Portugal.  17th century. 


The Immaculate Conception, according to the teaching of the Catholic Church, was the conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the womb of her mother, Saint Anne, free from original sin by virtue of the foreseen merits of her son Jesus Christ. The Catholic Church teaches that Mary was conceived by normal biological means, but God acted upon her soul (keeping her “immaculate”) at the time of her conception.

The Immaculate Conception is commonly and mistakenly taken to mean the conception of Mary’s son Jesus Christ in her own womb, and the Virgin Birth of Jesus. These are covered by the Doctrine of Incarnation, while the Immaculate Conception deals with the conception of Mary herself, not that of her son. More on The Immaculate Conception

Southern Germany, circa 1900

Saint Hubert, 

Wood carved, colored and partly gilded

H 85 cm.

Saint Hubertus or Hubert (c. 656–727 AD) Bishop of Maastricht, Netherlands, and disciple of St. Lambert. Hubert was a married court­ier serving Pepin of Heristal, France. He reportedly had a vision of a crucifix between the horns of a stag while hunting. Widowed, he is believed to have entered Stavelot Monastery, Belgium, and was ordained by St. Lambert at Maastricht. He succeeded St. Lambert about 705 as bishop. Hubert erected a shrine for St. Lambert’s relics at Liege, France. He was noted for his miracles and for converting hundreds. Hubert died at Tervueren, near Brussels, Belgium, on May 30. He is a patron saint of hunters. More on Saint Hubertus

Anna Selbdritt, 16th cent

Solid oak, carved and colored

H 41 cm

Private collection

Anna Selbdritt (Ger. Anna third part), is a description of the image which shows St. Anne, carrying on in her arms the Mother of God as well as the Christ child; a subject in Christian art depiction, popular in Germany and neighboring countries since the 14th century.

Saint Michael Archangel

Carved, polychromed and gilded wooden sculpture.  Mexico.  17th century. 

66 x 32 x 24 cm.

Private collection


This sculpture depicts one of the archangels, Saint Michael, who conquered the devil and is prince of the holy army.  Depicted in accordance with his most typical iconography, wearing a breastplate and armed with a sword, of which only the hilt remains, and a shield.  At his feet is the devil who he beats, represented by a diabolical figure.  The saint rests on just one foot, which is standing on the devil, it is elegant and has movement and life.  The movement of the clothing and the cloak which flies towards his back gives the group even more realism.  Original polychrome and gilding.  The sculpture rests on its own wooden plinth with original polychrome and gilding. More on this work

ARCHANGEL MICHAEL, is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran traditions, he is called “Saint Michael the Archangel” and “Saint Michael”. In the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox traditions, he is called “Taxiarch Archangel Michael” or simply “Archangel Michael”.

Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel, once as a “great prince who stands up for the children of your people”. The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that, in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy.

In the New Testament Michael leads God’s armies against Satan’s forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is specifically referred to as “the archangel Michael”. Christian sanctuaries to Michael appeared in the 4th century, when he was first seen as a healing angel, and then over time as a protector and the leader of the army of God against the forces of evil. By the 6th century, devotions to Archangel Michael were widespread both in the Eastern and Western Churches. Over time, teachings on Michael began to vary among Christian denominations. More Archangel Michael

Saint Joseph

Lacquered, polychromed and gilded wooden sculpture.  Mexico.  17th century. 

Height: 46 cm

Private collection

Sculpture depicting Saint Joseph with the baby Jesus in his arms.  He has a tender, paternal gaze.  Imposing ornamental work on the saint´s tunic in pricked gold, with flower motifs, as well as the cloak, which has a lining decorated with green lacquer and golden flowers. More on this work  

Joseph is a figure in the Gospels, the husband of Mary, mother of Jesus, and is venerated as Saint Joseph. In both Catholic and Protestant traditions, Joseph is regarded as the patron saint of workers and is associated with various feast days. Pope Pius IX declared him to be both the patron and the protector of the Catholic Church, in addition to his patronages of the sick and of a happy death, due to the belief that he died in the presence of Jesus and Mary. In popular piety, Joseph is regarded as a model for fathers and has also become patron of various dioceses and places.

Several notable images of Saint Joseph have been granted a Canonical coronation by a Pope. In popular religious iconography he is associated with lilies or a spikenard. With the present-day growth of Mariology, the theological field of Josephology has also grown and since the 1950s centers for studying it have been formed.

According to the New Testament, Joseph was the father of James, Joses, Jude, Simon, and at least two daughters. More on Saint Joseph

Attributed to Jan Crocq (Netherlandish, 1486–1510).

Saint John the Baptist, c. 1500 


163 x 59 x 40 cm (64 1/4 x 23 3/8 x 15 3/4 in)

The Cleveland Museum of Art

Saint John the Baptist, much beloved and widely venerated during the Middle Ages, is depicted in this sculpture in a formal manner typical of Netherlandish art of the 1400s and early 1500s. The sculpture is impressive for the deeply undercut folds of drapery as well as the saint’s curling hair and beard that achieve an almost photographic realism characteristic of Burgundian and Netherlandish art of this period. More on this sculpture

John the Baptist (sometimes called John in the Wilderness; also referred to as the Angel of the Desert) was the subject of at least eight paintings by the Italian Baroque artist Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571–1610).

The story of John the Baptist is told in the Gospels. John was the cousin of Jesus, and his calling was to prepare the way for the coming of the Messiah. He lived in the wilderness of Judea between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea, “his raiment of camel’s hair, and a leather girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey.” He baptised Jesus in the Jordan.

According to the Bible, King Herod’s daughter Salome requested Saint John the Baptist’s beheading. She was prompted by her mother, Herodias, who sought revenge, because the prophet had condemned her incestuous marriage to HerodMore John the Baptist


19th century

Hildegard of Bingen

Wood carved, embossed, colored and partially gilded, original three-sided glazed shrine with turned columns 

H 35 cm

Private collection

Hildegard of Bingen, O.S.B. (1098 – 17 September 1179), also known as Saint Hildegard and Sibyl of the Rhine, was a German Benedictine abbess, writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, visionary, and polymath. She is considered to be the founder of scientific natural history in Germany.

19th century

Hildegard of Bingen


Hildegard was elected magistra by her fellow nuns in 1136; she founded the monasteries of Rupertsberg in 1150 and Eibingen in 1165. One of her works as a composer, the Ordo Virtutum, is an early example of liturgical drama and arguably the oldest surviving morality play. She wrote theological, botanical, and medicinal texts, as well as letters, liturgical songs, and poems, while supervising miniature illuminations in the Rupertsberg manuscript of her first work, Scivias. She is also noted for the invention of a constructed language known as Lingua Ignota.

Although the history of her formal consideration is complicated, she has been recognized as a saint by branches of the Roman Catholic Church for centuries. On 7 October 2012, Pope Benedict XVI named her a Doctor of the Church. More on Hildegard of Bingen

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